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Polymyxin B is
widely used antibiotic in the clinic for resistant Gram-negative infections. In
addition, polymyxin B-immobilized hemoperfusion cartridge has been used for
endotoxin removal therapy in patients with septic shock. The aim of this study
was to investigate the anti-fibrotic and anti-cellular hypertrophic effects of
polymyxin B, and further to explore its possible mechanism. Polymyxin B (3, 10
μM) significantly inhibited stress fiber formation induced by angiotensin II
(Ang II) in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells. Furthermore, polymyxin B (1 - 10 μM)
showed a potent inhibitory effect on Ang II-induced cellular hypertrophy in
H9c2 cells. Under the mechanism study, the inhibitory activities of polymyxin B
against kinases involved in cellular hypertrophy such as AKT1, CAMK, GRK5, GSK3β, MLCK, PKC, PKD2, AMPK, ROCK2, p70S6K,
SGK1were evaluated. Polymyxin B possesses a potent G protein related kinase 5
(GKR5) inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 1.1 μM, and has an ATP
non-competitive inhibitory mode. Taken together, these results indicate that
polymyxin B alleviates Ang II-induced stress fiber formation and cellular
hypertrophy, and propose that one mechanism underlying these effects involves
inhibition of the GRK5 pathway.
Surface coatings provide protection to wood products against weathering and other deteriorating factors, such as moisture uptake and microbial invasion. The effectiveness of coatings depends on many factors, including how well the applied coatings adhere to the wood surface. Coating adhesion to wood involves both chemical and physical interactions between the coating and wood tissues in contact, and the particular focus of this mini-review will be on the advances being made in understanding the physical aspects of the interaction by probing wood-coating interface using novel and high resolution imaging techniques, including confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), SEM-backscattered electron imaging and correlative microscopy employing light, confocal and scanning electron microscopy.
This paper examines the effect of freezing and thawing on the coarse sand coating chosen to achieve the composition of FRP and concrete in FRP-concrete composite deck. Push-out test specimens with dimensions of 100 × 100 × 450 mm were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles under wet conditions ranging from -18℃± 2℃ to 4℃ ± 2℃. The failure strength of the interface and the deformation of FRP at failure exhibited by the specimens that experienced 300 freezing-thawing cycles showed a difference of merely 5% compared to those of the specimens that were not subjected to freeze-thaw. This indicates that coarse sand coating is not affected by freezing-thawing cycles and the FRP-concrete composite deck owns sufficient applicability in terms of durability against freezing-thawing.