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Unilateral versus bilateral thyroarytenoid Botulinum toxin injections in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: a prospective study
Tahwinder Upile, Behrad Elmiyeh, Waseem Jerjes, Vyas Prasad, Panagiotis Kafas, Jesuloba Abiola, Bryan Youl, Ruth Epstein, Colin Hopper, Holger Sudhoff, John Rubin
Head & Face Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1746-160x-5-20
Abstract: Data were gathered prospectively on voice improvement (self-rated 6 point scale), length of response and duration of complications (breathiness, cough, dysphagia and total voice loss). Injections were performed under electromyography (EMG) guidance. NPS scale was used to describe the EMG response. Dose and unilateral/bilateral injections were determined by clinical judgment based on previous response. Time intervals between injections were patient driven.Low dose unilateral Dysport injection was associated with no significant difference in the patient's outcome in terms of duration of action, voice score (VS) and complication rate when compared to bilateral injections. Unilateral injections were not associated with any post treatment total voice loss unlike the bilateral injections.Unilateral low dose Dysport injections are recommended in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.Adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) is a focal dystonia of the laryngeal musculature, causing abrupt, intermittent and involuntary vocal folds spasms producing a strained and strangled speech pattern. It is idiopathic in nature and may reflect abnormalities in central motor processing [1].The cardinal signs of ADSD are effortful vocal straining and harshness, quaver and voice arrest due to laryngospasm in the midst of non-effortful phonatory periods. It is described as "speaking whilst being strangled". Examination of the larynx may reveal true and false vocal folds hyper-adduction with laryngeal elevation and its attendant effects on speech. ADSD, a disabling disorder of voice, is characterised by involuntary disruption of phonation with functional, social and emotional consequences [1].Botulinum toxin is the treatment of choice for ADSD and has been in use since the late 1980's [2-5]. It improves the patients' perception of dysphonia, mental health and their social function [6]. The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery recognizes treatment with Botulinum toxin as t
Suppressive Effect of Hydroquinone, a Benzene Metabolite, on In Vitro Inflammatory Responses Mediated by Macrophages, Monocytes, and Lymphocytes
Jae Youl Cho
Mediators of Inflammation , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/298010
Abstract: We investigated the inhibitory effects of hydroquinone on cytokine release, phagocytosis, NO production, ROS generation, cell-cell/cell fibronectin adhesion, and lymphocyte proliferation. We found that hydroquinone suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6], secretion of toxic molecules [nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS)], phagocytic uptake of FITC-labeled dextran, upregulation of costimulatory molecules, U937 cell-cell adhesion induced by CD18 and CD29, and the proliferation of lymphocytes from the bone marrow and spleen. Considering that (1) environmental chemical stressors reduce the immune response of chronic cigarette smokers and children against bacterial and viral infections and that (2) workers in petroleum factories are at higher risk for cancer, our data suggest that hydroquinone might pathologically inhibit inflammatory responses mediated by monocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes.
Periodicity and quark-antiquark static potential
Pong Youl Pac
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: Beyond the standard model, a static potential between quark pairs is obtained phenomenologically (QCD inspired), associated with the range of strong interaction, when the virtual exchange gluon squared momentum transfer has a periodicity for periodic boundary conditions of the quark-pair system enclosed by a constant volume, in the lowest order of the effective perturbed QCD (in which the gluon propagator is replaced by the effective gluon one). This potential includes a periodicity dependent effect, characterized by a finite face value of the periodicity $N$, in addition to the periodicity independent potential (the Coulomb type plus linear one). That periodicity dependent effect, dominant at short distance, is applied to an explanation of the top quark mass $$m_t=8\pi m_\pi N^{{1/2}},$$ whose numerically calculated results indicate approximately both upper and lower bounds of $m_t$ $$177~\mbox{{GeV}} > m_t > 173 ~\mbox{{GeV}}$$ for the range of strong interaction $L=1.40~fm~(=m_\pi^{-1})$.
Evaluation of Radiation Dose Reduction during CT Scans Using Oxide Bismuth and Nano-Barium Sulfate Shields
Youl-Hun Seoung
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate radiation dose reduction and image quality during CT scanning by using a new dose reduction fiber sheet (DRFS) with commercially available bismuth shields. These DRFS were composed of nano-barium sulfate (BaSO4), filling the gaps left by the large oxide bismuth (Bi2O3) particle sizes. The radiation dose was measured five times at directionss of 12 o'clock from the center of the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) head phantom to calculate an average value using a CT ionization chamber. The image quality measured CT transverse images of the PMMA head phantom depending on X-ray tube voltages and the type of shielding. Two regions of interest in CT transverse images were chosen from the right and left areas under the surface of the PMMA head phantom and from ion chamber holes located at directions of 12 o'clock from the center of the PMMA head phantom. The results of this study showed that the new DRFS shields could reduce dosages to 15.61%, 23.05%, and 22.71% more in 90 kVp, 120 kVp, and 140 kVp, respectively, than with a conventional bismuth shield of the same thickness, while maintaining image quality. In addition, the DRFS were produced to about 25% more thinness than conventional bismuth. We concluded, therefore, that DRFS can replace the conventional bismuth and may be utilized as a new shield.
The Effect of the Variation of the Downstream Region Distance and Butterfly Valve Angle on Flow Characteristics in a 90 Degree Bended Elbow  [PDF]
Se Youl Won, Jae Gon Lee, Jun Seok Yang
Modern Mechanical Engineering (MME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/mme.2014.43013
This study presents the numerical evaluation about the impact of flow disturbance near the intrados and extrados regions of the 90 degree bended elbow using CFX for several practical cases where the 90 degree bended upward elbow is located in a proximity to the butterfly valve and the butterfly valve open angle is changed. For the change of a butterfly valve open angle from 60% to 100% and the increase of the distance between a valve and a 90 degree bended elbow, the effect of FAC (Flow-Accelerated Corrosion) in the 90 degree bended elbow may be neglected because the value and distribution of the velocity and shear stress is rapidly decreased comparing with the present status installed in an industry, and the data of 100% valve open (Case 3) and L/D ≈ 5 (Case 4) are very good agreement comparing with the reference data, L/D ≈ 8 (Case 2). The reasons are that flow already maintains a fully developed condition and a steady state in spite of less distance than the reference case, L/D = 8. Therefore, smooth flow fields have approached at a 90 degree bended elbow. Then, the effect of shear stress and vortex is hardly investigated around the intrados area of 90 degree bended elbow.
Contribution of Natural Inhibitors to the Understanding of the PI3K/PDK1/PKB Pathway in the Insulin-mediated Intracellular Signaling Cascade
Jae Youl Cho,Jongsun Park
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/ijms9112217
Abstract: The critical initial steps in insulin action include phosphorylation of adapter proteins and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). One of important components in this process is a protein called Akt/protein kinase B (PKB). The work of numerous different researchers indicates a role of PKB in regulating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The crucial role of lipid second messengers in PKB activation has been dissected through the use of the PI3K-specific inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. Receptor-activated PI3K synthesizes the lipid second messenger PtdIns[3,4,5]-trisphosphate, leading to the recruitment of PKB to the membrane. Membrane attachment of PKB is mediated by its pleckstrin homology domain binding to PtdIns[3,4,5]-trisphosphate or PtdIns[3,4]-bisphosphate with high affinity. Activation of PKB alpha is then achieved at the plasma membrane by phosphorylation of Thr308 in the activation-loop of the kinase domain and Ser473 in the carboxy-terminal regulatory region, respectively. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is responsible for T308 phosphorylation. The usage of specific inhibitors and natural compound has significantly contributed to investigate the molecular mechanism of PI3K/PDK1/PKB signaling pathway, leading to the putative therapeutics benefits of patients. This review focuses on the contribution of natural inhibitor or compound in our understanding of the mechanism by which insulin induces, especially in PI3K/ PDK1/PKB signaling.
The Effects of Food Neophobia and Food Neophilia on Diet and Metabolic Processing  [PDF]
August Capiola, Bryan Raudenbush
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.310183
Abstract: Past research shows that food neophobics (those individuals reluctant to try novel foods) and food neophilics (those individuals overtly willing to try novel foods) differ in terms of sensory evaluations, psychophysical ratings, stimulus sampling, physiological responses, and genetic predispositions. The present study assessed whether such factors had an effect on participants’ dietary consumption and subsequent nutritional adequacy. One hundred and sixteen participants, aged 18 - 76 years, completed a food diary for three days as well as several eating-related questionnaires. Nutritional summaries and questionnaire scores were subjected to a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with participants being sorted into three groups depending on their Food Neophobia Score. These three groups consisted of food neophobics, average individuals, and food neophilics. Groups were found to differ significantly on dietary intake of 20 specific nutritional and caloric items, with food-neophobics typically having the lowest intake. Implications support the initial hypothesis of food neophobics having less nutritionally plentiful diets than food neophilics, thus leading food neophobics to have a nutritionally deficient diet. This finding is important since decrease in nutritional intake can result in health related deficiencies.
Early Initial Diagnosis of Gardner Syndrome in a 12-Year-Old Boy  [PDF]
Erich Bryan, Peter Kalina
Advances in Computed Tomography (ACT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/act.2013.21001

A 12-year-old boy presented to his primary care physician with a painful lump at the angle of the left mandible after being kicked in the jaw during a soccer game. Over the next 2 months the lesion became progressively firmer and fine needle aspiration was attempted. Results were non-diagnostic. Panorex examination revealed a calcified mass contiguous with the left angle of the mandible. Considerations were bony callus secondary to trauma versus a calcified hematoma. A maxillofacial CT showed multiple diffuse craniofacial osseous lesions including the clinically suspected region at the left angle of the mandible. Imaging findings were consistent with multiple craniofacial osteomas and workup for Gardner Syndrome was initiated. Genetic testing was subsequently positive for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis.

Structure, Hierarchy and Kin. An Ethnography of the Old Market in Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Philippines  [PDF]
Bryan W. Rich
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.56010
Abstract: Every day, thousands of customers patronize hundreds of vendors at the Old Market in Puerto Princesa, seeking the highest quality products at the most affordable price. It is a buyer’s market as the variety of available products is limited to mostly locally produced goods. Why does a customer patronize one vender rather than another? Do social relationships influence this decision? Or, is price king? Does the relationship between customer and employee affect the vendor’s success? This paper attempts to shed light on the kinship ties and social stratification between vendors, customers and employees and its effects, if any, on the market’s economic success. After more than 6 months of participant observations, my findings show that the fictive kinship ties which develop between the regular customer and vendor, and the social stratification between customer and employee provide a structured functionalism to support the overarching economic theme of the public market.
Signals for CP-Violation in Scalar Tau Pair Production at Muon Colliders
Seong-Youl Choi,Manuel Drees
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.5509
Abstract: We discuss signals for CP-violation in $\mu^+ \mu^- \to \tilde \tau_i^- \tilde \tau_j^+$, where $i,j = 1,2$ label the two scalar $\tau$ mass eigenstates. We assume that these reactions can proceed through the production and decay of the heavy neutral Higgs bosons present in supersymmetric models. CP-violation in the Higgs sector can be probed through a rate asymmetry even with unpolarized beams, while the CP-odd phase associated with the $\tilde \tau$ mass matrix can be probed only if the polarization of at least one beam can be varied. These asymmetries might be ${\cal O}(1)$.
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