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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 229810 matches for " Bryan C. Frank "
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Gene expression profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines from monozygotic twins discordant in severity of autism reveals differential regulation of neurologically relevant genes
Valerie W Hu, Bryan C Frank, Shannon Heine, Norman H Lee, John Quackenbush
BMC Genomics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-7-118
Abstract: Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that lymphoblastoid cell lines from monozygotic twins discordant with respect to severity of autism and/or language impairment exhibit differential gene expression patterns on DNA microarrays. Furthermore, we show that genes important to the development, structure, and/or function of the nervous system are among the most differentially expressed genes, and that many of these genes map closely in silico to chromosomal regions containing previously reported autism candidate genes or quantitative trait loci.Our results provide evidence that novel candidate genes for autism may be differentially expressed in lymphoid cell lines from individuals with autism spectrum disorders. This finding further suggests the possibility of developing a molecular screen for autism based on expressed biomarkers in peripheral blood lymphocytes, an easily accessible tissue. In addition, gene networks are identified that may play a role in the pathophysiology of autism.Autism and related autism spectrum disorders (including Asperger's Syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)) are considered to be among the most devastating psychiatric illnesses affecting children. The three core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are: 1) deficits in social interactions and understanding, 2) aberrant communication and/or language development, and 3) restricted interests and repetitive, stereotyped behaviors [1]. To date, there are no definitive molecular or genetic markers that allow unequivocal diagnosis of ASD, with the exceptions of tuberous sclerosis, Rett's Syndrome, and Fragile X Syndrome [2-12]. Together, these genetically defined mutations are present in only a minority of individuals (<10%) within the broad autism spectrum. The majority of diagnoses are dependent on behavioral characteristics, according to DSM-IV guidelines, using questionnaires such as the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) [13] or the
Re-election Concerns and the Failure of Plea Bargaining  [PDF]
Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay, Bryan C. McCannon
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.35A2007
Abstract: In this note, we provide a new explanation for the “failure” of plea bargaining. We show in a model of asymmetric information that a public prosecutor facing re-election takes cases to the courtroom to signal quality even when her welfare (absent retention motivation) is always higher from plea bargaining.
Metal-dependent gene regulation in the causative agent of Lyme disease
Bryan Troxell,X. Frank Yang
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2013.00079
Abstract: Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is the causative agent of Lyme disease transmitted to humans by ticks of the Ixodes spp. Bb is a unique bacterial pathogen because it does not require iron (Fe2+) for its metabolism. Bb encodes a ferritin-like Dps homolog called NapA (also called BicA), which can bind Fe or copper (Cu2+), and a manganese (Mn2+) transport protein, Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA); both proteins are required for colonization of the tick vector, but BmtA is also required for the murine host. This demonstrates that Bb's metal homeostasis is a critical facet of the complex enzootic life cycle between the arthropod and murine hosts. Although metals are known to influence the expression of virulence determinants during infection, it is unknown how or if metals regulate virulence in Bb. Recent evidence demonstrates that Bb modulates the intracellular Mn2+ and zinc (Zn2+) content and, in turn, these metals regulate gene expression through influencing the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) homolog Borrelia Oxidative Stress Regulator (BosR). This mini-review focuses on the burgeoning study of metal-dependent gene regulation within Bb.
Targeted Disruption of LDLR Causes Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis in Yucatan Miniature Pigs
Bryan T. Davis, Xiao-Jun Wang, Judy A. Rohret, Jason T. Struzynski, Elizabeth P. Merricks, Dwight A. Bellinger, Frank A. Rohret, Timothy C. Nichols, Christopher S. Rogers
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093457
Abstract: Recent progress in engineering the genomes of large animals has spurred increased interest in developing better animal models for diseases where current options are inadequate. Here, we report the creation of Yucatan miniature pigs with targeted disruptions of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene in an effort to provide an improved large animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Yucatan miniature pigs are well established as translational research models because of similarities to humans in physiology, anatomy, genetics, and size. Using recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene targeting and somatic cell nuclear transfer, male and female LDLR+/? pigs were generated. Subsequent breeding of heterozygotes produced LDLR?/? pigs. When fed a standard swine diet (low fat, no cholesterol), LDLR+/? pigs exhibited a moderate, but consistent increase in total and LDL cholesterol, while LDLR?/? pigs had considerably elevated levels. This severe hypercholesterolemia in homozygote animals resulted in atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries and abdominal aorta that resemble human atherosclerosis. These phenotypes were more severe and developed over a shorter time when fed a diet containing natural sources of fat and cholesterol. LDLR-targeted Yucatan miniature pigs offer several advantages over existing large animal models including size, consistency, availability, and versatility. This new model of cardiovascular disease could be an important resource for developing and testing novel detection and treatment strategies for coronary and aortic atherosclerosis and its complications.
Using Multiple Imputation for Vote Choice Data: A Comparison across Multiple Imputation Tools  [PDF]
Frank C. S. Liu
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2014.42006
Abstract:

One commonly acknowledged challenge in polls or surveys is item non-response, i.e., a significant proportion of respondents conceal their preferences about particular questions. This paper applies the multiple imputation (MI) method to reconstruct the distribution of vote choice in the sample. Vote choice is one of most important dependent variables in political science studies. This paper shows how the MI procedure in general facilitates the work of reconstructing the distribution of a targeted variable. Particularly, it shows how MI can be applied to point-estimation in descriptive statistics. The three packages of R, AmeliaII, MICE, and mi, are employed for this project. The findings, based on a Taiwan Election and Democratization Study (TEDS) samples collected after the 2012 presidential election (N = 1826) suggest the following: First, there is little adjustment done given the MI methods; Second, the three tools based on two algorithms lead to similar results, while Amelia II and MICE perform better. Although the results are not striking, the implications of these findings are worthy of discussion.

L-correspondences: the inclusion Lp( ,X) ¢ Lq( ,Y)
C. Bryan Dawson
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 1996, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171296000993
Abstract: In order to study inclusions of the type Lp( ,X) ¢ Lq( ,Y), we introduce the notion of an L-correspondence. After proving some basic theorems, we give characterizations of some types of L-correspondences and offer a conjecture that is similar to an equimeasurability theorem.
8000 years of caribou and human seasonal migration in the Canadian Barrenlands
Bryan C. Gordon
Rangifer , 2005,
Abstract: Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are the common thread running through thousands of years of cultural evolution in northern mainland Canada. From the earliest Indian traditions, through the Pre-Dorset and Dene cultural evolution, up to historic times, the vast herds of migratory Barrenland caribou provided food, clothing and shelter. They determined the human cycle -- seasonal migrations, seasonal levels of fitness, and season of procreation. Caribou even permeated Dene mythology and supernatural beliefs. Within the Beverly caribou (R. t. groenlandicus) range in the Canadian Barrenlands, investigation of 1002 archaeological sites points to long-term stability of human band and caribou herd interaction. Caribou bone and hunting tools occur in multiple levels, the earliest to 8000 years, based on 131 radiocarbon dates. Through time, specific hunting bands aligned with specific migratory barren-ground caribou herds. This relationship helps to explain observed archaeological and ethnological differences within different caribou ranges for these hunting bands. In general, biological evidence concurs with ethnographic and archaeological evidence. But short-term variations in migration routes between northern boreal forest, taiga and tundra may have followed changes in herd size and environment, e.g., unfavorable snow and ice conditions or forest fires. However, such influences were not discernible archaeologically.
On Convergence of Conditional Expectation Operators
C. Bryan Dawson
Mathematics , 1994,
Abstract: Given an operator $T:U_X(\Sigma)\to Y$ or ${T:U(\Sigma)\to Y$, one may consider the net of conditional expectation operators $(T_\pi)$ directed by refinement of the partitions $\pi$. It has been shown previously that $(T_\pi)$ does not always converge to $T$. This paper gives several conditions under which this convergence does occur, including complete characterizations when $X={\bold R}$ or when $X\sp *$ has the Radon-Nikod\'ym property.
Within the fold: assessing differential expression measures and reproducibility in microarray assays
Ivana V Yang, Emily Chen, Jeremy P Hasseman, Wei Liang, Bryan C Frank, Shuibang Wang, Vasily Sharov, Alexander I Saeed, Joseph White, Jerry Li, Norman H Lee, Timothy J Yeatman, John Quackenbush
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2002-3-11-research0062
Abstract: We carried out a series of 'self-self' hybridizations in which aliquots of the same RNA sample were labeled separately with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes and co-hybridized to the same microarray. From this, we can analyze the intensity-dependent behavior of microarray data, define a statistically significant measure of differential expression that exploits the structure of the fluorescent signals, and measure the inherent reproducibility of the technique. We also devised a simple procedure for identifying and eliminating low-quality data for replicates within and between slides. We examine the properties required of a universal reference RNA sample and show how pooling a small number of samples with a diverse representation of expressed genes can outperform more complex mixtures as a reference sample.Analysis of cell-line samples can identify systematic structure in measured gene-expression levels. A general procedure for analyzing cDNA microarray data is proposed and validated. We show that pooled reference samples should be based not only on the expression of individual genes in each cell line but also on the expression levels of genes within cell lines.DNA microarray analysis has become the most widely used technique for the study of gene-expression patterns on a genomic scale [1,2]. Differential microarray co-hybridization assays measure the relative gene expression of paired query and reference samples, and the power of microarray analysis comes from identification of informative patterns of gene expression across multiple experiments. Achieving both these objectives is facilitated by using a common reference sample that provides a baseline expression measure for each gene, enabling normalization and comparison of independent experiments.Pooled RNA derived from cell lines is a commonly used reference sample. To provide optimal coverage of genes spotted on the array, reference samples are often constructed from a large number of cell lines from a variety of tissu
Sex hormone changes during weight loss and maintenance in overweight and obese postmenopausal African-American and non-African-American women
Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Roni T Falk, Frank Stanczyk, Robert N Hoover, Lawrence J Appel, Jamy D Ard, Bryan C Batch, Janelle Coughlin, Xu Han, Lillian F Lien, Christina M Pinkston, Laura P Svetkey, Hormuzd A Katki
Breast Cancer Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/bcr3346
Abstract: We conducted a prospective study of 278 overweight/obese postmenopausal women (38% AA) not taking hormone therapy within the Weight Loss Maintenance Trial. All participants lost at least 4 kg after a 6-month weight-loss phase and attempted to maintain weight loss during the subsequent 12 months. We evaluated the percentage changes in estrone, estradiol, free estradiol, testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) using generalized estimating equations.In all study phases, AA women had higher levels of estrogen and testosterone concentrations, independent of adiposity. On average, participants lost 7.7 kg during the weight-loss phase, and concentrations of estrone (-5.7%, P = 0.006), estradiol (-9.9%, P <0.001), free estradiol (-13.4%, P <0.0001), and free testosterone (-9.9%, P <0.0001) decreased, while the SHBG concentration (16.2%, P <0.001) increased. Weight change did not significantly affect total testosterone or other androgen concentrations. Compared with non-AA women, AA women experienced less change in estrogens per kilogram of weight change (that is, per 1 kg weight loss: estrone, -0.6% vs. -1.2%, P-interaction = 0.10; estradiol, -1.1% vs. -1.9%, P-interaction = 0.04; SHBG, 0.9% vs. 1.6%, P-interaction = 0.006; free estradiol, -1.4% vs. -2.1%, P-interaction = 0.01).To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to examine and compare the effects of intentional weight loss and maintenance on a panel of sex hormones in AA women and non-AA women. Although speculative, these data suggest hormonal differences may contribute to different racial patterns of breast cancer incidence and mortality and encourage further investigations to understand the long-term effects of weight loss on sex hormones in obese postmenopausal women.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00054925Over the past several decades, the prevalence of obesity has increased in the United States [1]. Nearly 70% of postmenopausal wo
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