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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8149 matches for " Bruno Kilunga Kubata "
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Late Stage Infection in Sleeping Sickness
Hartwig Wolburg, Stefan Mogk, Sven Acker, Claudia Frey, Monika Meinert, Caroline Sch?nfeld, Michael Lazarus, Yoshihiro Urade, Bruno Kilunga Kubata, Michael Duszenko
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034304
Abstract: At the turn of the 19th century, trypanosomes were identified as the causative agent of sleeping sickness and their presence within the cerebrospinal fluid of late stage sleeping sickness patients was described. However, no definitive proof of how the parasites reach the brain has been presented so far. Analyzing electron micrographs prepared from rodent brains more than 20 days after infection, we present here conclusive evidence that the parasites first enter the brain via the choroid plexus from where they penetrate the epithelial cell layer to reach the ventricular system. Adversely, no trypanosomes were observed within the parenchyma outside blood vessels. We also show that brain infection depends on the formation of long slender trypanosomes and that the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the stroma of the choroid plexus is a hostile environment for the survival of trypanosomes, which enter the pial space including the Virchow-Robin space via the subarachnoid space to escape degradation. Our data suggest that trypanosomes do not intend to colonize the brain but reside near or within the glia limitans, from where they can re-populate blood vessels and disrupt the sleep wake cycles.
Cyclical Appearance of African Trypanosomes in the Cerebrospinal Fluid: New Insights in How Trypanosomes Enter the CNS
Stefan Mogk, Andreas Meiwes, Swetlana Shtopel, Ulrich Schraermeyer, Michael Lazarus, Bruno Kubata, Hartwig Wolburg, Michael Duszenko
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091372
Abstract: It is textbook knowledge that human infective forms of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness, enter the brain across the blood-brain barrier after an initial phase of weeks (rhodesiense) or months (gambiense) in blood. Based on our results using an animal model, both statements seem questionable. As we and others have shown, the first infection relevant crossing of the blood brain border occurs via the choroid plexus, i.e. via the blood-CSF barrier. In addition, counting trypanosomes in blood-free CSF obtained by an atlanto-occipital access revealed a cyclical infection in CSF that was directly correlated to the trypanosome density in blood infection. We also obtained conclusive evidence of organ infiltration, since parasites were detected in tissues outside the blood vessels in heart, spleen, liver, eye, testis, epididymis, and especially between the cell layers of the pia mater including the Virchow-Robin space. Interestingly, in all organs except pia mater, heart and testis, trypanosomes showed either a more or less degraded appearance of cell integrity by loss of the surface coat (VSG), loss of the microtubular cytoskeleton and loss of the intracellular content, or where taken up by phagocytes and degraded intracellularly within lysosomes. This is also true for trypanosomes placed intrathecally into the brain parenchyma using a stereotactic device. We propose a different model of brain infection that is in accordance with our observations and with well-established facts about the development of sleeping sickness.
ALGORITHM OF WORK OF SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT BY AUTOMATED GEAR-BOXES CARS
O.?Smirnov,G.?Kalyanov,V.?Kubata
Аvtomob?lnyi Transport , 2009,
Abstract: The development of algorithms of management system’s work by the automated gear-boxes vehicles is considered and the results of their practical use on the example of the KamAZ truck are considered.
Experimental and Numerical Research of a Novel Combustion Chamber for Small Gas Turbine Engines
Tuma J.,Kubata J.,Betak V.,Hybl R.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20134501091
Abstract: New combustion chamber concept (based on burner JETIS-JET Induced Swirl) for small gas turbine engine (up to 200kW) is presented in this article. The combustion chamber concept is based on the flame stabilization by the generated swirl swirl generated by two opposite tangentially arranged jet tubes in the intermediate zone, this arrangement replaces air swirler, which is very complicated and expensive part in the scope of small gas turbines with annular combustion chamber. The mixing primary jets are oriented partially opposite to the main exhaust gasses flow, this enhances hot product recirculation and fuel-air mixing necessary for low NOx production and flame stability. To evaluate the designed concept a JETIS burner demonstrator (methane fuel) was manufactured and atmospheric experimental measurements of CO, NOx for various fuel nozzles and jet tubes the configuration were done. Results of these experiments and comparison with CFD simulation are presented here. Practical application of the new chamber concept in small gas turbine liquid fuel combustor was evaluated (verified) on 3 nozzles planar combustor sector test rig at atmospheric conditions results of the experiment and numerical simulation are also presented.
Interaction of Iron(III)-5,10,15,20-Tetrakis (4-Sulfonatophenyl) Porphyrin with Chloroquine, Quinine and Quinidine  [PDF]
Dikima D. Bibelayi, Pitchouna I. Kilunga, Albert S. Lundemba, Matthieu K. Bokolo, Pius T. Mpiana, Philippe V. Tsalu, Juliette Pradon, Colin C. Groom, Celine W. Kadima, Luc Van Meervelt, Zephyrin G. Yav
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications (CSTA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/csta.2017.63003
Abstract: Iron(III)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (FeTPPS) is used as non-physiological metalloporphyrin model for the natural iron (III)-protoporphyrin IX (FePPIX) resulting from hemoglobin degradation to investigate ligand binding reactions in aqueous solution. Studies were conducted on the interaction of FeTPPS with Chloroquine, Quinine, and Quinidine, which are historically the most common quinoline-based drugs used to treat malaria, an infectious disease afflicting several hundred millions every year worldwide, mainly in tropical regions. Using UV-Visible spectrophotometry, the binding reaction was studied at pH 7.40 in purely aqueous solution, and in aqueous solution containing NaNO3 at concentration of 0.1 M. Fitted titration curves obtained were in agreement with experimental data according to a formation scheme of 1:1 complex (1 FeTPPS μ-oxo-dimer: 1 Antimalarial). Values of apparent binding constant (K) obtained were between 4.3 × 103 M-1 to 7.59 × 104 M-1, demonstrating that FeTPPS and the antimalarials formed stable complexes. The stability of the complex decreased when NaNO3 was added to the solution. This ionic strength dependence was ascribed to electrostatic effects.
Harmonizing Budgeting and Accounting: The Case of Italy  [PDF]
Adriana Bruno
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2014.31005
Abstract: Many reforms have been undertaken in recent years; indeed, scholars have concentrated their attention on ac-counting techniques, financial management, and the potential for adding tools to support managerial reform agendas [1-3]. This paper extends prior research by focusing on the manner of diffusion ongoing reform process, through the adoption of the new version of Financial Management Reform process model [3]. The objective of this research is to investigate how a new accounting system has been introduced in the public sector in a processual and outcome-oriented analysis [4]. The study setting for this research is the Italian government, specifically the intermediate or regional level government, Campania Region, where a trial period is underway. The objective is to discover what obstacles and difficulties might exist when implementing a harmonized accounting and budgeting system while moving toward an accrual accounting system. The study reveals the main paradox in the implementation of the reform. This kind of study could add fresh knowledge to the literature and highlight common problems encountered when implementing accounting reforms. Additionally it could help set a standard to assist public entities in developing and implementing accounting guidelines.
A Few Reflections on the Reasons Why Cooperative Firms Have Failed to Gain a Firm Foothold  [PDF]
Bruno Jossa
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2015.33027
Abstract: After the inception of the cooperative movement in the mid-19th century, it was widely held that capitalistic businesses would soon be replaced by a system of worker-controlled firms and a wealth of policy proposals called for a major impulse to cooperation in later years also. But cooperation has not met with the hoped-for success. How do we account for this? To our day, employee management specialists have been unable to provide a satisfactory explanation for the fact that the policy proposal to introduce democratic firm control still carries little consensus despite the collapse of the Soviet model of communism. In this paper, we give some answers to the question and emphasise the idea that progress in the direction of a generalised system of cooperative firms would amount to a considerable improvement over capitalism, but will hardly be made without the effective contribution of intellectuals and political parties.
Competition in a Democratic Firm System: Failures and Constraints  [PDF]
Bruno Jossa
Modern Economy (ME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.811092
Abstract: Considering that businesses face bankruptcy when their aggregate costs exceed their revenues, the cancellation of the largest production cost item—wages and salaries—in an employee-managed firm system is an effective safeguard against bankruptcy. For this and other reasons, the author argues that risks of insolvency are unlikely to scare democratic firms into accepting the capitalistic logic of cut-throat competition.
The True Strong Point of Democratic Firm Management  [PDF]
Bruno Jossa
Modern Economy (ME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.910101
Abstract: According to the author, the benefits society would derive from the transfer of corporate decision powers to workers upon the establishment of a democratic firm system include both the disempowerment of capitalists and, most importantly, a powerful impetus in the direction of full democracy. Capitalism is a despotic system enabling capitalists to impose their laws not only on workers, but even on politics and culture has been gaining wide currency. Therefore, one major advantage of democratic firm management is the enforcement of the “one head, one vote” principle in lieu of the “one share, one vote” criterion.
Effects of omacor® on left ventricular remodelling consecutive to post myocardial infarction special issue-myocardial infarction  [PDF]
Bruno Le Grand
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.35A007
Abstract: Ventricular remodelling is the main trigger of the development of heart failure. Therefore, the reduction of structural remodelling is known to prevent the development of heart failure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of OMACOR?, a well known mixture of EPA and DHA in an experimental model of heart failure induced by occlusion of left descending coronary artery and the reperfusion within 2 months. After a long term treatment of 2 months; OMACOR? (100 mg/kg) statistically significantly reduced the expansion of infarcted zone (35% ± 4%, P < 0.05, n = 9, versus 45% ± 3% in the vehicle group). The phosphorylation of Cx43 as biomarker of the cardiac remodelling was visualised by immunofluorescence in rat’s heart at the end of the study. In the vehicle-infarcted group, a significant de-phosphorylation of Cx43 was observed (8.2 ± 1.0 u.a, n = 8 compared to 11.8 ± 1.3 u.a in the sham group, n = 9) confirming a remodelling process in the infarcted group. In the group treated with OMACOR?,the de-phosphorylation of Cx43 was no longer observed compared to the sham group (16.4 ± 2.9 u.a, n = 9, NS). The present results demonstrate that a long term treatment with OMA-COR? reduced the infarcted size in experimental models of heart failure and that these anti-remodelling effects are due at least in part by resynchronizing the gap junction activity.


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