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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9459 matches for " Bruno Bezerril;Barral-Netto "
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Biomarkers for susceptibility to infection and disease severity in human malaria
Andrade, Bruno Bezerril;Barral-Netto, Manoel;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762011000900009
Abstract: malaria remains a major infectious disease that affects millions of people. once infected with plasmodium parasites, a host can develop a broad range of clinical presentations, which result from complex interactions between factors derived from the host, the parasite and the environment. intense research has focused on the identification of reliable predictors for exposure, susceptibility to infection and the development of severe complications during malaria. although most promising markers are based on the current understanding of malaria immunopathogenesis, some are also focused more broadly on mechanisms of tissue damage and inflammation. taken together, these markers can help optimise therapeutic strategies and reduce disease burden. here, we review the recent advances in the identification of malarial biomarkers, focusing on those related to parasite exposure and disease susceptibility. we also discuss priorities for research in biomarkers for severe malaria.
Can Score Databanks Help Teaching?
Vitor Rosa Ramos de Mendon?a,Bruno Bezerril Andrade,Alessandro Almeida,Manoel Barral-Netto
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015695
Abstract: Basic courses in most medical schools assess students' performance by conferring scores. The objective of this work is to use a large score databank for the early identification of students with low performance and to identify course trends based on the mean of students' grades.
Research knowledge in undergraduate school in Brazil: a comparison between medical and law students
Antonio José Souza Reis Filho,Bruno Bezerril Andrade,Vitor Rosa Ramos de Mendon?a,Manoel Barral-Netto
Einstein (S?o Paulo) , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: Exposure to science education during college may affect a student’s profile, and research experience may be associated with better professional performance. We hypothesized that the impact of research experience obtained during graduate study differs among professional curricula and among graduate courses. Methods: A validated multiple-choice questionnaire concerning scientific concepts was given to students in the first and fourth years of medical and law school at a public Brazilian educational institution. Results: Medical students participated more frequently in introductory scientific programs than law students, and this trend increased from the first to the fourth years of study. In both curricula, fourth-year students displayed a higher percentage of correct answers than first-year students. A higher proportion of fourth-year students correctly defined the concepts of scientific hypothesis and scientific theory. In the areas of interpretation and writing of scientific papers, fourth-year students, in both curricula, felt more confident than first-year students. Although medical students felt less confident in planning and conducting research projects than law students, they were more involved in research activities. Conclusion: Medical graduation seems to favor the development of critical scientific maturity than law graduation. Specific policy in medical schools is a reasonable explanation for medical students’ participation in more scientific activities.
Using Recombinant Proteins from Lutzomyia longipalpis Saliva to Estimate Human Vector Exposure in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Areas
Ana Paula Souza,Bruno Bezerril Andrade,Dorlene Aquino,Petter Entringer,José Carlos Miranda,Ruan Alcantara,Daniel Ruiz,Manuel Soto,Clarissa R. Teixeira,Jesus G. Valenzuela,Camila Indiani de Oliveira,Cláudia Ida Brodskyn,Manoel Barral-Netto,Aldina Barral
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000649
Abstract: Background Leishmania is transmitted by female sand flies and deposited together with saliva, which contains a vast repertoire of pharmacologically active molecules that contribute to the establishment of the infection. The exposure to vector saliva induces an immune response against its components that can be used as a marker of exposure to the vector. Performing large-scale serological studies to detect vector exposure has been limited by the difficulty in obtaining sand fly saliva. Here, we validate the use of two sand fly salivary recombinant proteins as markers for vector exposure. Methodology/principal findings ELISA was used to screen human sera, collected in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis, against the salivary gland sonicate (SGS) or two recombinant proteins (rLJM11 and rLJM17) from Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva. Antibody levels before and after SGS seroconversion (n = 26) were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank paired test. Human sera from an area endemic for VL which recognize Lu. longipalpis saliva in ELISA also recognize a combination of rLJM17 and rLJM11. We then extended the analysis to include 40 sera from individuals who were seropositive and 40 seronegative to Lu. longipalpis SGS. Each recombinant protein was able to detect anti-saliva seroconversion, whereas the two proteins combined increased the detection significantly. Additionally, we evaluated the specificity of the anti-Lu. longipalpis response by testing 40 sera positive to Lutzomyia intermedia SGS, and very limited (2/40) cross-reactivity was observed. Receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify the effectiveness of these proteins for the prediction of anti-SGS positivity. These ROC curves evidenced the superior performance of rLJM17+rLJM11. Predicted threshold levels were confirmed for rLJM17+rLJM11 using a large panel of 1,077 serum samples. Conclusion Our results show the possibility of substituting Lu. longipalpis SGS for two recombinant proteins, LJM17 and LJM11, in order to probe for vector exposure in individuals residing in endemic areas.
Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood
Andrade, Bruno B.;Teixeira, Clarissa R.;Barral, Aldina;Barral-Netto, Manoel;
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652005000400008
Abstract: the saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. they function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. parasites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targets to the development of future vaccines. here we focus on current information on vector's saliva and the molecules responsible to modify host's hemostasis and immune response, also regarding their role in disease transmission.
Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood
Andrade Bruno B.,Teixeira Clarissa R.,Barral Aldina,Barral-Netto Manoel
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2005,
Abstract: The saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. They function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. Parasites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. Today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targets to the development of future vaccines. Here we focus on current information on vector's saliva and the molecules responsible to modify host's hemostasis and immune response, also regarding their role in disease transmission.
Plasma Superoxide Dismutase-1 as a Surrogate Marker of Vivax Malaria Severity
Bruno B. Andrade,Antonio Reis-Filho,Sebasti?o Martins Souza-Neto,Imbroinise Raffaele-Netto,Luis M. A. Camargo,Aldina Barral,Manoel Barral-Netto
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000650
Abstract: Background Severe outcomes have been described for both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections. The identification of sensitive and reliable markers of disease severity is fundamental to improving patient care. An intense pro-inflammatory response with oxidative stress and production of reactive oxygen species is present in malaria. Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and antioxidant agents such as superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) are likely candidate biomarkers for disease severity. Here we tested whether plasma levels of SOD-1 could serve as a biomarker of severe vivax malaria. Methodology/Principal Findings Plasma samples were obtained from residents of the Brazilian Amazon with a high risk for P. vivax transmission. Malaria diagnosis was made by both microscopy and nested PCR. A total of 219 individuals were enrolled: non-infected volunteers (n = 90) and individuals with vivax malaria: asymptomatic (n = 60), mild (n = 50) and severe infection (n = 19). SOD-1 was directly associated with parasitaemia, plasma creatinine and alanine amino-transaminase levels, while TNF-alpha correlated only with the later enzyme. The predictive power of SOD-1 and TNF-alpha levels was compared. SOD-1 protein levels were more effective at predicting vivax malaria severity than TNF-alpha. For discrimination of mild infection, elevated SOD-1 levels showed greater sensitivity than TNF-alpha (76% vs. 30% respectively; p<0.0001), with higher specificity (100% vs. 97%; p<0.0001). In predicting severe vivax malaria, SOD-1 levels exhibited higher sensitivity than TNF-alpha (80% vs. 56%, respectively; p<0.0001; likelihood ratio: 7.45 vs. 3.14; p<0.0001). Neither SOD-1 nor TNF-alpha could discriminate P. vivax infections from those caused by P. falciparum. Conclusion SOD-1 is a powerful predictor of disease severity in individuals with different clinical presentations of vivax malaria.
Anti-Anopheles darlingi saliva antibodies as marker of Plasmodium vivax infection and clinical immunity in the Brazilian Amazon
Bruno Andrade, Bruno Rocha, Antonio Reis-Filho, Luís Camargo, Wanderli Tadei, Luciano Moreira, Aldina Barral, Manoel Barral-Netto
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-121
Abstract: Adult volunteers from communities in the Rond?nia State, Brazil, were screened in order to assess the presence of P. vivax infection by light microscopy and nested PCR. Non-infected volunteers and individuals with symptomatic or symptomless infection were randomly selected and plasma collected. An. darlingi salivary gland sonicates (SGS) were prepared and used to measure anti-saliva antibody levels. Plasma interleukin (IL)-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were also estimated and correlated to anti-SGS levels.Individuals infected with P. vivax presented higher levels of anti-SGS than non-infected individuals and antibody levels could discriminate infection. Furthermore, anti-saliva antibody measurement was also useful to distinguish asymptomatic infection from non-infection, with a high likelihood ratio. Interestingly, individuals with asymptomatic parasitaemia presented higher titers of anti-SGS and lower IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio than symptomatic ones. In P. vivax-infected asymptomatic individuals, the IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio was inversely correlated to anti-SGS titers, although not for while in symptomatic volunteers.The estimation of anti-An. darlingi antibody levels can indicate the probable P. vivax infection status and also could serve as a marker of disease severity in this region of Brazilian Amazon.Malaria continues to be one of the most serious public health problems worldwide, exacting a huge impact on human wellbeing, mainly in tropical and subtropical countries. A better understanding of the interactions between the host, the vector and the parasite could be valuable to indicate future strategies. In endemic regions, residents are frequently bitten by both uninfected and infected mosquitoes. There is also a progressive acquisition of immunity, leading to a decreased number of malaria clinical attacks related to increasing age and time residing in the endemic area [1,2]. Within the Brazilian Amazon, and mainly in riverine communities, the prevalence of asymptomatic ma
Severe Plasmodium vivax malaria exhibits marked inflammatory imbalance
Bruno B Andrade, Antonio Reis-Filho, Sebasti?o M Souza-Neto, Jorge Clarêncio, Luis MA Camargo, Aldina Barral, Manoel Barral-Netto
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-13
Abstract: Active and passive malaria case detections were performed during 2007 in Buritis, Rond?nia, in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 219 participants enrolled the study. Study individuals were classified according to the presence of Plasmodium vivax infection within four groups: non-infected (n = 90), asymptomatic (n = 60), mild (n = 50) and severe vivax infection (n = 19). A diagnosis of malaria was made by microscopy and molecular assays. Since at present no clear criteria define severe vivax malaria, this study adapted the consensual criteria from falciparum malaria. Patients with severe P. vivax infection were younger, had lived for shorter time in the endemic area, and recalled having experienced less previous malaria episodes than individuals with no malaria infection and with mild or asymptomatic infection. Strong linear trends were identified regarding increasing plasma levels of C reactive protein (CRP), serum creatinine, bilirubins and the graduation of disease severity. Plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interferon-gamma(IFN-gamma) and also IFN-gamma/interleukin-10 ratios were increased and exhibited a linear trend with gradual augmentation of disease severity. Both laboratory parameters of organ dysfunction and inflammatory cytokines were reduced during anti-parasite therapy in those patients with severe disease.Different clinical presentations of vivax malaria infection present strong association with activation of pro-inflammatory responses and cytokine imbalance. These findings are of utmost importance to improve current knowledge about physiopathological concepts of this serious widespread disease.Plasmodium vivax infection has been considered for a long time a benign and self-limited disease, mainly when compared to the burden of Plasmodium falciparum infection in African countries [1]. Nevertheless, P. vivax is responsible for up to 400 million infections each year, representing the most widespread Plasmodium species [2]. Plasmodium vivax ac
A simple method for assessing the binding of concanavalin A to mononuclear cell surfaces: no interference of visceral leishmaniasis serum on this binding
Barral-Netto, Manoel;Barral, A.;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1986, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761986000300012
Abstract: we report a simple method for evaluating the binding of concanavalin a (cona) to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc). the binding is evidenced by an immunoenzymic assay using peroxidase-conjugated immunoglobulins of a rabbit anti-cona serum. using the method we show that sera from patients with american leishmaniasis do not interfere with binding of cona to pbmc.
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