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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 228524 matches for " Bruce R Bianchi "
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Pore dilation occurs in TRPA1 but not in TRPM8 channels
Jun Chen, Donghee Kim, Bruce R Bianchi, Eric J Cavanaugh, Connie R Faltynek, Philip R Kym, Regina M Reilly
Molecular Pain , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-5-3
Abstract: Abundantly expressed in sensory neurons, TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPM8 are involved in sensory function, pain and neurogenic inflammation [1]. The function of these ion channels has been attributed to their ability to pass certain ion species across the plasma membrane. Once activated, TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPM8 are permeable to small cations such as Ca2+, K+, Na+; hence, channel activation simultaneously depolarizes the plasma membrane and raises intracellular Ca2+, which subsequently triggers a variety of physiological processes. By analogy to voltage-gated K+ channels, it is assumed that ion selectivity of TRP channels should be an invariant signature to the respective channel. However, this notion has been challenged recently. When activated, TRPV1 exhibits time and agonist-dependent changes in ion selectivity [2]. In fact, TRPV1 undergoes pore dilation and allows permeation of large organic cations, including spermine (202.3 Da), NMDG (195.2 Da), Yo-Pro (376 Da), gentamycin (477.6 Da) and QX-314 [3-7]. Here we explored whether TRPA1 and TRPM8 undergo pore dilation by examining Yo-Pro uptake and changes in ion selectivity upon channel activation.Yo-Pro is a divalent cation impermeable to the plasma membrane. However, under certain conditions, it can enter cells, bind nucleic acids and emit fluorescence. Hence the uptake of Yo-Pro has been used previously as an indicator of pore dilation [2,8,9]. In HEK293-F cells transiently expressing rat TRPA1, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) evoked robust increases in intracellular Ca2+ (Fig. 1A). Concomitantly, AITC also induced Yo-Pro uptake in a concentration-dependent manner (Fig. 1B). At higher concentrations of AITC (100 or 300 μM), the increase in fluorescence was immediately noticeable and continued to increase for about 50 min. In addition, AITC also induced Ca2+ influx and Yo-Pro uptake in cells expressing human TRPA1 and mouse TRPA1, but not in untransfected cells (data not shown). In cells expressing human TRPM8, menthol activat
Il territorio: categoria interpretativa e risorsa strategica nei processi di sviluppo
R. Bianchi
Aestimum , 2000,
Emittance increase caused by core depletion in collisions
R. Bruce
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: A new effect is presented, which changes the emittance during colliding-beam operation in circular colliders. If the initial transverse distribution is Gaussian, the collision probability is much higher for particles in the core of the beam than in the tails. When small-amplitude particles are removed, the remaining ones therefore have a larger transverse emittance. This effect, called core depletion, may cause a decrease in luminosity. An approximate analytic model is developed to study the effect and benchmarked against a multiparticle tracking simulation. Finally, the time evolution of the intensity and emittances of a Pb bunch in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is calculated, taking into account also other processes than collisions. The results show that integrated luminosity drops by 3--4% if core depletion is taken into account. It is also found that core depletion causes the transverse emittance to be larger when more experiments are active. This observation could be checked against experimental data once the LHC is operational.
A formal procedure for finding contradictions into a set of rules
R. Bruni,G. Bianchi
Applied Mathematical Sciences , 2012,
Real-time optical micro-manipulation using optimized holograms generated on the GPU
S. Bianchi,R. Di Leonardo
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.cpc.2010.04.012
Abstract: Holographic optical tweezers allow the three dimensional, dynamic, multipoint manipulation of micron sized dielectric objects. Exploiting the massive parallel architecture of modern GPUs we can generate highly optimized holograms at video frame rate allowing the interactive micro-manipulation of 3D structures.
Nasty Viruses, Costly Plasmids, Population Dynamics, and the Conditions for Establishing and Maintaining CRISPR-Mediated Adaptive Immunity in Bacteria
Bruce R. Levin
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001171
Abstract: Clustered, Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) abound in the genomes of almost all archaebacteria and nearly half the eubacteria sequenced. Through a genetic interference mechanism, bacteria with CRISPR regions carrying copies of the DNA of previously encountered phage and plasmids abort the replication of phage and plasmids with these sequences. Thus it would seem that protection against infecting phage and plasmids is the selection pressure responsible for establishing and maintaining CRISPR in bacterial populations. But is it? To address this question and provide a framework and hypotheses for the experimental study of the ecology and evolution of CRISPR, I use mathematical models of the population dynamics of CRISPR-encoding bacteria with lytic phage and conjugative plasmids. The results of the numerical (computer simulation) analysis of the properties of these models with parameters in the ranges estimated for Escherichia coli and its phage and conjugative plasmids indicate: (1) In the presence of lytic phage there are broad conditions where bacteria with CRISPR-mediated immunity will have an advantage in competition with non-CRISPR bacteria with otherwise higher Malthusian fitness. (2) These conditions for the existence of CRISPR are narrower when there is envelope resistance to the phage. (3) While there are situations where CRISPR-mediated immunity can provide bacteria an advantage in competition with higher Malthusian fitness bacteria bearing deleterious conjugative plasmids, the conditions for this to obtain are relatively narrow and the intensity of selection favoring CRISPR weak. The parameters of these models can be independently estimated, the assumption behind their construction validated, and the hypotheses generated from the analysis of their properties tested in experimental populations of bacteria with lytic phage and conjugative plasmids. I suggest protocols for estimating these parameters and outline the design of experiments to evaluate the validity of these models and test these hypotheses.
Statins, bone, and neurofibromatosis type 1
Bruce R Korf
BMC Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-6-22
Abstract: Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are largely sustained by the hope that advances in research will result in new forms of treatment. The NF1 gene was identified in 1990 and was quickly found to encode a GTPase activating protein (GAP) whose target is the oncoprotein Ras. However, despite great progress in the dissection of cell signaling pathways involved in the disorder, there is still no definitive treatment to prevent or reverse the complications. The path from bench to bedside may be the best approach, but the challenges should not be underestimated. There are, however, recent signs that provide hope that this approach will pay off. The paper by Kolanczyk et al published this month in BMC Medicine describes a preclinical mouse model for one of the most difficult NF1 lesions to treat, tibial dysplasia, and provides evidence that an existing drug with a known safety profile in children, lovastatin, may be beneficial, opening the door to clinical trials in humans.NF1 poses a particular challenge given the complex and highly variable phenotype [1]. The condition is one member of a group of disorders collectively referred to as 'neurofibromatoses', which includes NF1, NF2, and schwannomatosis. Each is associated with a distinct spectrum of nerve sheath tumors, and each is dominantly transmitted, due to mutation in a different gene. The hallmark lesion of NF1 is the neurofibroma, a benign tumor consisting of Schwann cells, fibroblasts, perineurial cells, and mast cells. Patients with NF1 may develop innumerable tumors on the skin, internal tumors, and large disfiguring tumors along major peripheral nerves. Other features include pigmentary lesions (café-au-lait macules, skin-fold freckles), learning disabilities, malignant tumors (gliomas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors), and skeletal dysplasias.NF1 patients may suffer from both focal and generalized skeletal disorders. Among focal disorders, long bone dysplasia, most commonly involving the tib
The ESRg matrix for strong field d5 systems
McGarvey, Bruce R.;
Química Nova , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40421998000200017
Abstract: this review has tried to collect and correlate all the various equations for the g matrix of strong field d5 systems obtained from different basis sets using full electron and hole formalism calculations. it has corrected mistakes found in the literature and shown how the failure to properly take in symmetry boundary conditions has produced a variety of apparently inconsistent equations in the literature. the review has reexamined the problem of spin-orbit interaction with excited t4e states and finds that the earlier reports that it is zero in octahedral symmetry is not correct. it has shown how redefining what x, y, and z are in the principal coordinate system simplifies, compared to previous methods, the analysis of experimental g values with the equations.
Bruce R Smit
South African Journal of Industrial Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: South African companies wish to join the world class family. As the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award in the USA and the European Quality Award in Europe have been effected, the South African Quality Institute (SAQI) pioneered and developed a National Quality Award together with leading South African companies. The South African Award model is a full hybrid of the Malcolm Baldrige and European Foundation Quality models. The awards process is now managed by the South African Excellence Foundation. This model enables companies to assess their excellence levels and use benchmarks towards improved quality, service and costs. The model has been ratified by the administrators of both of the aforementioned awards. The criteria in the award lend themselves to measurement by self assessment. This paper explains the model and its application as a foundation to strategic planning. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Maatskapye in Suid Afrika moet op die wereldmark kan presteer. Amerika het die Malcolm Baldrige Kwaliteitstoekenning en Europa die Europese Kwaliteitstoekenning.vir uitmuntende prestasie in die besigheidswereld daargestel. Die Suid Afrikaanse Kwaliteitsinstituut (SAQI) het in 1997 'n Suid Afrikaanse eweknie ontwikkel. Die Suid Afrikaanse Kwaliteitstoekenning is deur die administrateurs van eersgenoemde pryse aanvaar. Die lokale Kwaliteitstoekennings word tans deur die Suid Afrikaanse Uitmuntentheidfondasie geadministreer. Die Kwaliteitstoekenning model kan gebruik word am self-meting toe te pas met die doel om besigheids prestasie te verbeter. Hierdie geskrif stel die Suid Afrikaanse model daar stel en verduidelik hoe dit vir strategiese beplanning toegepas kan word.
Natural History, Field Ecology, Conservation Biology and Wildlife Management: Time to Connect the Dots
R. Bruce Bury
Herpetological Conservation and Biology , 2006,
Abstract: .—Natural history and field ecology are essential building blocks for successful conservation and management ofherpetofauna. Thus, natural history and field ecology merit major infusions of funding and increased recognition of theirimportance in science and management. Others have stated matters well: (1) Academic training in natural history shouldreceive high priority; (2) we need to integrate our work across disciplines (from molecules to communities), and use all of ourknowledge toward common goals; (3) natural history is not dead but today is a flourishing enterprise; and (4) mutual respectand collaboration between disciplines best serve our own mental health as well as the future of natural history. We need tomerge the best natural history, field ecological data, and biological questions with the latest advances in other fields of inquiry ifwe are to advance science and solve key environmental issues. It takes a scientific community and many concerned parties tosave a species, let alone an ecosystem. We must connect these dots to see the big picture.
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