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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4248 matches for " Bruce Pulford "
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A Survey of Manoeuvring Target Tracking Methods
Graham W. Pulford
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.13140/2.1.4994.3846
Abstract: A comprehensive review of the literature on manoeuvring target tracking for both uncluttered and cluttered measurements is presented. Various discrete-time dynamical models including non-random input, random-input and switching or hybrid system manoeuvre models are presented. The problem of manoeuvre detection is covered. Classical and current filtering methods for manoeuvre tracking are presented including multi-level process noise, input estimation, variable dimension filtering, two-stage filter, the interacting multiple model algorithm, and generalised pseudo-Bayesian algorithms. Various extensions of these algorithms to the case of cluttered measurements are also described and these include: joint manoeuvre and measurement association, probabilistic data association and multi-hypothesis tracking. Smoothing schemes, including IMM smoothing and batch expectation-maximisation using the Viterbi algorithm, are also described. The use of amplitude information for target measurement discrimination is discussed. It is noted that although many manoeuvre tacking techniques exist, the literature contains surprisingly few performance comparisons to guide the design engineer although a performance benchmark has recently been introduced.
Liposome-siRNA-Peptide Complexes Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier and Significantly Decrease PrPC on Neuronal Cells and PrPRES in Infected Cell Cultures
Bruce Pulford,Natalia Reim,Aimee Bell,Jessica Veatch,Genevieve Forster,Heather Bender,Crystal Meyerett,Scott Hafeman,Brady Michel,Theodore Johnson,A. Christy Wyckoff,Gino Miele,Christian Julius,Jan Kranich,Alan Schenkel,Steven Dow,Mark D. Zabel
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011085
Abstract: Recent advances toward an effective therapy for prion diseases employ RNA interference to suppress PrPC expression and subsequent prion neuropathology, exploiting the phenomenon that disease severity and progression correlate with host PrPC expression levels. However, delivery of lentivirus encoding PrP shRNA has demonstrated only modest efficacy in vivo.
Amyloid-β and Proinflammatory Cytokines Utilize a Prion Protein-Dependent Pathway to Activate NADPH Oxidase and Induce Cofilin-Actin Rods in Hippocampal Neurons
Keifer P. Walsh, Laurie S. Minamide, Sarah J. Kane, Alisa E. Shaw, David R. Brown, Bruce Pulford, Mark D. Zabel, J. David Lambeth, Thomas B. Kuhn, James R. Bamburg
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095995
Abstract: Neurites of neurons under acute or chronic stress form bundles of filaments (rods) containing 1:1 cofilin:actin, which impair transport and synaptic function. Rods contain disulfide cross-linked cofilin and are induced by treatments resulting in oxidative stress. Rods form rapidly (5–30 min) in >80% of cultured hippocampal or cortical neurons treated with excitotoxic levels of glutamate or energy depleted (hypoxia/ischemia or mitochondrial inhibitors). In contrast, slow rod formation (50% of maximum response in ~6 h) occurs in a subpopulation (~20%) of hippocampal neurons upon exposure to soluble human amyloid-β dimer/trimer (Aβd/t) at subnanomolar concentrations. Here we show that proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6) also induce rods at the same rate and within the same neuronal population as Aβd/t. Neurons from prion (PrPC)-null mice form rods in response to glutamate or antimycin A, but not in response to proinflammatory cytokines or Aβd/t. Two pathways inducing rod formation were confirmed by demonstrating that NADPH-oxidase (NOX) activity is required for prion-dependent rod formation, but not for rods induced by glutamate or energy depletion. Surprisingly, overexpression of PrPC is by itself sufficient to induce rods in over 40% of hippocampal neurons through the NOX-dependent pathway. Persistence of PrPC-dependent rods requires the continuous activity of NOX. Removing inducers or inhibiting NOX activity in cells containing PrPC-dependent rods causes rod disappearance with a half-life of about 36 min. Cofilin-actin rods provide a mechanism for synapse loss bridging the amyloid and cytokine hypotheses for Alzheimer disease, and may explain how functionally diverse Aβ-binding membrane proteins induce synaptic dysfunction.
A Bioinformatics-Inspired Adaptation to Ukkonen’s Edit Distance Calculating Algorithm and Its Applicability Towards Distributed Data Mining  [PDF]
Johnson Bruce
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2008.11002
Abstract: Edit distance measures the similarity between two strings (as the minimum number of change, insert or delete operations that transform one string to the other). An edit sequence s is a sequence of such operations and can be used to represent the string resulting from applying s to a reference string. We present a modification to Ukkonen’s edit distance calculating algorithm based upon representing strings by edit sequences. We conclude with a demonstration of how using this representation can improve mitochondrial DNA query throughput performance in a distributed computing environment.
A Field Exploration of Informal Workplace Communication  [PDF]
Bruce Fortado
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.14027
Abstract: Two views of informal communication are developed for purposes of comparison. Multiple incidents from two US companies are described based on fieldwork. In both cases, managerial efforts were made to quell gossip. Paradoxically, the versions multiplied at the first site and a gossip spiral occurred at the second. Our inductive analysis reveals the shortcomings of the existing “best practices” and simple theories. Notably, in both cases certain aspects of informal employee organization were more functional than some of the formal practices were. Due to the complex nature of these social situations, great care must be taken in evaluating them and charting a course.
Extirpolation of the Mythology that Porotic Hyperostosis is Caused by Iron Deficiency Secondary to Dietary Shift to Maize  [PDF]
Bruce Rothschild
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2012.23018
Abstract: Diagnosing a shift to a maize-dominant diet, on the basis of recognition of high population frequencies of porotic hyperostosis, has unfortunately entered the “collective consciousness” of anthropology—because of the mythology that iron deficiency is a common cause of that phenomenon. Skull changes in patients with all forms (both primary and secondary) of iron deficiency are actually extremely rare (0.68%!). That frequency certainly does not support iron deficiency as the explanation for the high frequency of porotic hyperostosis noted (approximating 50%) in some populations. Isotopic analysis further reveals that C4 grasses (e.g., maize) actually did not become a significant part of North American human diets until the past 1000 years, long after notation of high frequency porotic hyperostosis. This further falsifies claims of earlier maize diets (predicated on frequency of porotic hyperostosis) and negates the perception that maize-induced iron deficiency is the cause of porotic hyperostosis. The latter speculation is not only con- trary to medical evidence, but that misdirection gave false impressions of ancient populations/civilizations and compromised use of a valuable observation. That mythology must be extirpated from the “collective consciousness”. Perhaps now attention can be appropriately directed to exploration of genetic hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinopathies and parasitic infestations which are known causes of porotic hyperostosis.
A Study of Dark Matter with Spiral Galaxy Rotation Curves  [PDF]
Bruce Hoeneisen
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2019.92007
Abstract: To constrain the properties of dark matter, we study spiral galaxy rotation curves measured by the THINGS collaboration. A model that describes a mixture of two self-gravitating non-relativistic ideal gases, “baryons” and “dark matter”, reproduces the measured rotation curves within observational uncertainties. The model has four parameters that are obtained by minimizing a x2 between the measured and calculated rotation curves. From these four parameters, we calculate derived galaxy parameters. We find that dark matter satisfies the Boltzmann distribution. The onset of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein degeneracy obtains disagreement with observations and we determine, with 99% confidence, that the mass of dark matter particles is mh> 16 eV if fermions, or mh> 45 eV if bosons. We measure the root-mean-square velocity of dark matter particles in the spiral galaxies. This observable is of cosmological origin and allows us to obtain the root-mean-square velocity of dark matter particles in the early universe when perturbations were still linear. Extrapolating to the past we obtain the expansion parameter at which dark matter particles become non-relativistic: ahNR=[4.17±0.34(STAT)±2.50(SYST)]×106. Knowing \"\" we then obtain the dark matter particle mass mh=69.0±4.2(stat)±31.0(syst)eV, and the ratio of dark matter-to-photon temperature Th/T=0.389±0.008(stat)±0.058(syst) after e+e annihilation while dark matter remains ultra-relativistic. We repeat these measurements with ten galaxies with masses that span three orders of magnitude, and angular momenta that span five orders of magnitude, and obtain fairly
Malaria case management in Papua New Guinea prior to the introduction of a revised treatment protocol
Justin Pulford, Ivo Mueller, Peter M Siba, Manuel W Hetzel
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-157
Abstract: In a national cross-sectional survey of 79 randomly selected health facilities, data were collected via non-participant observation of the clinical case management of patients presenting with fever or a recent history of fever. Data were recorded on a structured clinical observation instrument.Overall, 15% of observed fever patients (n?=?468) were tested for malaria infection by rapid diagnostic test and a further 3.6% were tested via microscopy. An anti-malarial prescription was made in 96.4% (451/468) of cases, including 100% (17/17) of test positive cases and 82% (41/50) of test negative cases. In all, 79.8% of anti-malarial prescriptions conformed to the treatment protocol current at the time of data collection. The purpose of the prescribed medication was explained to patients in 63.4% of cases, dosage/regimen instructions were provided in 75.7% of cases and the possibility of adverse effects and what they might look like were discussed in only 1.1% of cases.The revised national malaria treatment protocol will require a substantial change in current clinical practice if it is to be correctly implemented and adhered to. Areas that will require the most change include the shift from presumptive to RDT/microscopy confirmed diagnosis, prescribing (or rather non-prescribing) of anti-malarials to patients who test negative for malaria infection, and the provision of thorough treatment counselling. A comprehensive clinician support programme, possibly inclusive of ‘booster’ training opportunities and regular clinical supervision will be needed to support the change.
Feasibility and acceptability of insecticide-treated plastic sheeting (ITPS) for vector control in Papua New Guinea
Pulford Justin,Tandrapah Anthony,Atkinson Jo-An,Kaupa Brown
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-342
Abstract: Background This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing insecticide-treated plastic sheeting (ITPS) as a malaria control intervention in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Methods ZeroVector ITPS was installed in 40 homes across four study sites representing a cross section of malaria transmission risk and housing style. Structured questionnaires were completed at the time of ITPS installation (n=40) and at four weeks post installation (n=40) with the household head. Similarly, group interviews with the male and/or female household heads were completed at installation (n=5) and four-week follow-up (n=4). Results ZeroVector ITPS was successfully installed in a range of homes employing traditional and/or modern building materials in PNG. The ITPS installations remained intact over the course of the four-week trial period and were highly acceptable to both male and female household heads. No dissatisfaction with the ITPS product was reported at four-week follow-up; however, the installation process was time consuming, participants reported a reduction in mosquito net use following ITPS installation and many participants expressed concern about the longevity of ITPS over the longer term. Conclusion ZeroVector ITPS installation is feasible and highly acceptable in a diverse range of PNG contexts and is likely to be favourably received as a vector control intervention if accessible en masse. A longer-term evaluation is required before firm policy or public health decisions can be made regarding the potential application of ITPS in the national malaria control programme. The positive study findings suggest a longer-term evaluation of this promising malaria control intervention warrants consideration.
The outlandish, the realistic, and the real: contextual manipulation and agent role effects in trolley problems
Natalie Gold,Briony D. Pulford,Andrew M. Colman
Frontiers in Psychology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00035
Abstract: Hypothetical trolley problems are widely used to elicit moral intuitions, which are employed in the development of moral theory and the psychological study of moral judgments. The scenarios used are outlandish, and some philosophers and psychologists have questioned whether the judgments made in such unrealistic and unfamiliar scenarios are a reliable basis for theory-building. We present two experiments that investigate whether differences in moral judgment due to the role of the agent, previously found in a standard trolley scenario, persist when the structure of the problem is transplanted to a more familiar context. Our first experiment compares judgments in hypothetical scenarios; our second experiment operationalizes some of those scenarios in the laboratory, allowing us to observe judgments about decisions that are really being made. In the hypothetical experiment, we found that the role effect reversed in our more familiar context, both in judgments about what the actor ought to do and in judgments about the moral rightness of the action. However, in our laboratory experiment, the effects reversed back or disappeared. Among judgments of what the actor ought to do, we found the same role effect as in the standard hypothetical trolley scenario, but the effect of role on moral judgments disappeared.
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