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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4250 matches for " Bruce Appleyard "
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Fear Factor: Level of Traffic Stress and GPS Assessed Cycling Routes  [PDF]
Katie Crist, Jasper Schipperijn, Sherry Ryan, Bruce Appleyard, Suneeta Godbole, Jacqueline Kerr
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2019.91002
Abstract: Background: Cycling currently comprises only 1% of transport trips in the U.S. despite benefits for air pollution, traffic congestion, and improved public health. Methods: Building upon the Level of Traffic Stress (LTS) methodology, we assessed GPS trip data from utilitarian cyclists to understand route preferences and the level of low stress cycling connection between origins and destinations. GPS data were obtained from adult transport cyclists over multiple days. All bikeable road segments in the network were assigned an LTS score. The shortest paths between each origin and destination along bikeable roadways and along low stress (LTS 1 or 2) routes were calculated. Route trajectories were mapped to the LTS network, and the LTS and distances of observed, the shortest and low stress routes were compared. LTS maps and animations were developed to highlight where low stress connections were lacking. Results: There were 1038 unique cycling trips from 87 participants included in the analysis. An exclusively low stress route did not exist for 51% of trips. Low stress routes that were possible were, on average, 74% longer than the shortest possible path and 56% longer than the observed route. Observed routes were longer and lower stress than the shortest possible route. Conclusions: Results indicate that transport cyclists traveled beyond low stress residential areas and that low stress routes with acceptable detour distances were lacking. Cyclists appeared to weigh both route distance and quality and were willing to trade maximum directness for lower stress. GPS data provide additional information to support planning decisions to increase the impact of infrastructure investments on cycling mode share.
ASSESSING THE USE OF HAND-POWERED ELECTRICAL GENERATORS FOR DRINKING WATER CHLORINATION BY COMMUNITIES WITH LIMITED RESOURCES
STEVE APPLEYARD
Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation , 2010,
Abstract: Testing using modified dynamo torches indicated that it was possible to produce free chlorine by the electrolysis of a 10 mL volume of a 1% salt solution. After a period of hand-winding of 5 to 10 minutes, concentrations of free chlorine up to 8 mg/L were obtained when the salt solution was added to 90 mL of untreated drinking water. The rate of production of chlorine was dependent on the output voltage of the dynamo, and increased from a negligible rate below a threshold of 3 to 4 V to a rate of 0.04 to 0.1 mg per minute of hand-winding winding when the dynamo had an output voltage of 10 V. The rate of production of chlorine was highly dependent on water temperature and a 10 minute period of dynamo winding was needed at 32oC to produce the same chlorine concentration (5 mg L-1) produced after 5 minutes of winding at 21oC. A linear alternator constructed with recycled materials produced chlorine at about half the rate obtained from a modified dynamo torch with a comparable voltage. The investigations have demonstrated that it is feasible to chlorinate small amounts of drinking water using simple hand-powered generators.
Autoimmune hepatitis triggered by nitrofurantoin: a case series
Sally Appleyard, Ruma Saraswati, David A Gorard
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-4-311
Abstract: Three Caucasian women (aged 65, 42 and 74 years old) who were receiving long-term nitrofurantoin as prophylaxis against recurrent urinary tract infections developed hepatitic liver disease. Serological auto-antibody profiles and liver histology appearances were consistent with autoimmune hepatitis. Two of the patients presented with jaundice, and one required a prolonged hospital admission for liver failure. In all three patients nitrofurantoin was withdrawn, and long-term immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine or mycophenolate was given. The patients responded well, with liver biochemistry returning to normal within a few months.Although nitrofurantoin rarely causes autoimmune hepatitis, this antimicrobial is increasingly used as long-term prophylaxis against recurrent urinary tract infection. General practitioners and urologists who prescribe long-term nitrofurantoin therapy should be aware of this adverse effect.Autoimmune liver disease is a not uncommon cause of chronic hepatitis in women. Although autoimmune destruction usually occurs without an identifiable trigger, some drugs including methyldopa [1] and minocycline [2] are associated with autoimmune liver disease. The antimicrobial nitrofurantoin has also rarely been implicated in autoimmune hepatitis. We report here three patients with hepatitis in whom nitrofurantoin was felt to be etiologically important.A 65-year-old Caucasian retired police woman developed non-specific symptoms of abdominal discomfort, nausea and lethargy. She later became jaundiced, with dark urine and pale stools. She had a past history of irritable bowel syndrome, chronic lumbar back pain and recurrent urinary tract infection. Her drug history included mebeverine 135 mg thrice daily, dosulepin 25 mg daily, lansoprazole 30 mg daily, nitrofurantoin 50 mg daily for six years, occasional paracetamol and inhaled salbutamol, and intermittent fluconazole for groin candidiasis. She took no herbal remedies or unprescribe
A Bioinformatics-Inspired Adaptation to Ukkonen’s Edit Distance Calculating Algorithm and Its Applicability Towards Distributed Data Mining  [PDF]
Johnson Bruce
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2008.11002
Abstract: Edit distance measures the similarity between two strings (as the minimum number of change, insert or delete operations that transform one string to the other). An edit sequence s is a sequence of such operations and can be used to represent the string resulting from applying s to a reference string. We present a modification to Ukkonen’s edit distance calculating algorithm based upon representing strings by edit sequences. We conclude with a demonstration of how using this representation can improve mitochondrial DNA query throughput performance in a distributed computing environment.
A Field Exploration of Informal Workplace Communication  [PDF]
Bruce Fortado
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.14027
Abstract: Two views of informal communication are developed for purposes of comparison. Multiple incidents from two US companies are described based on fieldwork. In both cases, managerial efforts were made to quell gossip. Paradoxically, the versions multiplied at the first site and a gossip spiral occurred at the second. Our inductive analysis reveals the shortcomings of the existing “best practices” and simple theories. Notably, in both cases certain aspects of informal employee organization were more functional than some of the formal practices were. Due to the complex nature of these social situations, great care must be taken in evaluating them and charting a course.
Extirpolation of the Mythology that Porotic Hyperostosis is Caused by Iron Deficiency Secondary to Dietary Shift to Maize  [PDF]
Bruce Rothschild
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2012.23018
Abstract: Diagnosing a shift to a maize-dominant diet, on the basis of recognition of high population frequencies of porotic hyperostosis, has unfortunately entered the “collective consciousness” of anthropology—because of the mythology that iron deficiency is a common cause of that phenomenon. Skull changes in patients with all forms (both primary and secondary) of iron deficiency are actually extremely rare (0.68%!). That frequency certainly does not support iron deficiency as the explanation for the high frequency of porotic hyperostosis noted (approximating 50%) in some populations. Isotopic analysis further reveals that C4 grasses (e.g., maize) actually did not become a significant part of North American human diets until the past 1000 years, long after notation of high frequency porotic hyperostosis. This further falsifies claims of earlier maize diets (predicated on frequency of porotic hyperostosis) and negates the perception that maize-induced iron deficiency is the cause of porotic hyperostosis. The latter speculation is not only con- trary to medical evidence, but that misdirection gave false impressions of ancient populations/civilizations and compromised use of a valuable observation. That mythology must be extirpated from the “collective consciousness”. Perhaps now attention can be appropriately directed to exploration of genetic hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinopathies and parasitic infestations which are known causes of porotic hyperostosis.
A Study of Dark Matter with Spiral Galaxy Rotation Curves  [PDF]
Bruce Hoeneisen
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2019.92007
Abstract: To constrain the properties of dark matter, we study spiral galaxy rotation curves measured by the THINGS collaboration. A model that describes a mixture of two self-gravitating non-relativistic ideal gases, “baryons” and “dark matter”, reproduces the measured rotation curves within observational uncertainties. The model has four parameters that are obtained by minimizing a x2 between the measured and calculated rotation curves. From these four parameters, we calculate derived galaxy parameters. We find that dark matter satisfies the Boltzmann distribution. The onset of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein degeneracy obtains disagreement with observations and we determine, with 99% confidence, that the mass of dark matter particles is mh> 16 eV if fermions, or mh> 45 eV if bosons. We measure the root-mean-square velocity of dark matter particles in the spiral galaxies. This observable is of cosmological origin and allows us to obtain the root-mean-square velocity of dark matter particles in the early universe when perturbations were still linear. Extrapolating to the past we obtain the expansion parameter at which dark matter particles become non-relativistic: ahNR=[4.17±0.34(STAT)±2.50(SYST)]×106. Knowing \"\" we then obtain the dark matter particle mass mh=69.0±4.2(stat)±31.0(syst)eV, and the ratio of dark matter-to-photon temperature Th/T=0.389±0.008(stat)±0.058(syst) after e+e annihilation while dark matter remains ultra-relativistic. We repeat these measurements with ten galaxies with masses that span three orders of magnitude, and angular momenta that span five orders of magnitude, and obtain fairly
Disadvantages of Balloon Kyphoplasty with PMMA - a Clinical and Biomechanical Statement
Becker S,Dabirrahmani D,Hogg M,Appleyard R
Journal für Mineralstoffwechsel , 2011,
Abstract: Balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) and vertebroplasty (VP) are clinically effective procedures. However, BKP has been occasionally associated with failure, although the cause has not been established thus far. We believe that, especially in patients with severe osteoporosis and osteonecrosis, BKP fails due to the so-called stress shielding effect and the stiffness of cement. In these patients, other bone-preserving kyphoplastic procedures and vertebroplasty, as well as recently introduced cements adjusted to the severity of osteoporosis, might be benefi cial. Furthermore, it is essential to achieve complete straightening intraoperatively when performing BKP, because any persistent residual kyphosis will aggravate the burden on the adjacent vertebral bodies following the creation of a cavity fi lled with cement. Therefore, it would be meaningful to consider alternative bone-preserving kyphoplastic measures instead of BKP. In cases of older fractures, one should consider the use of VP and the recently introduced cements.
Nachteile der Ballonkyphoplastie mit PMMA - Eine klinische und biomechanische Stellungnahme
Becker S,Dabirrahmani D,Hogg M,Appleyard R
Journal für Mineralstoffwechsel , 2010,
Abstract: Ballonkyphoplastie (BKP) und Vertebroplastie (VP) sind klinisch erfolgreiche Verfahren. Nichtsdestoweniger zeigen Einzelbeobachtungen bei der BKP ein Versagen der Methode, ohne dass bisher die Ursache aufgezeigt wurde. Nach unserer Meinung liegt das Versagen der BKP insbesondere bei schwerer Osteoporose und Osteonekrose am Stressshielding sowie der Zementsteifigkeit. Bei diesen Patientengruppen k nnten andere, knochenerhaltende kyphoplastische Verfahren und die Vertebroplastie sowie neuere, an den Osteoporosegrad angepasste Zemente Vorteile bringen. Weiterhin ist es wichtig, dass intraoperativ bei der BKP eine komplette Aufrichtung erzielt werden sollte, da eine Restkyphose den negativen Effekt hinsichtlich der Belastung der angrenzenden Wirbelk rper bei Erzeugung eines mit Zement gefüllten Hohlraums erh ht. Es ist somit zu überdenken, alternative knochenerhaltende kyphoplastische Massnahmen der BKP vorzuziehen, bei lteren Frakturen eher auf eine VP auszuweichen und neue Zemente einzusetzen.
Chondrocyte damage following osteochondral grafting using metal and plastic punches: comparative study in an animal model.
Nabavi-Tabrizi A,Turnbull A,Dao Q,Appleyard R
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery , 2002,
Abstract: PURPOSE: Osteochondral impaction grafting to manage isolated chondral defects in femoral condyles usually uses a metal punch to impact the grafts into predrilled cavities. Damage to the chondrocytes during impaction is a concern, however, and new methods are being sought to minimise the damage. We studied if impaction with a plastic punch instead of a metal punch reduces the extent of chondrocyte damage in an animal model. METHODS: 32 osteochondral plugs were prepared from knees of 10 freshly slaughtered sheep knees; the contralateral condyles were then prepared to receive the osteochondral grafts. 20 plugs were impacted into predrilled holes: 10 using a metal punch and 10 using a plastic punch. The 12 remaining plugs were used as controls. The plugs were recovered, incubated for 24 hours in calf serum, and stained with 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium to measure the content of viable cells. Digital photographs of the stained cartilage were then analysed on a 0-to-255 grey-scale. RESULTS: We found no significant difference in the extent of chondrocyte damage caused by impaction using metal and plastic punches. The content of viable cells in plugs impacted by metal and plastic punches, however, was significantly lower than that in the control plugs, as reflected by higher means of light intensity of 52.9 (p<0.001) and 32.4 (p=0.005), respectively. CONCLUSION: Impaction grafting clearly damages chondrocytes of the osteochondral plug. The use of a plastic punch does not reduce the extent of chondrocyte damage during the impaction grafting procedure.
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