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Giant Intracranial Arachnoid Cyst Causing Acute Neurologic Symptoms  [PDF]
Youssouf Sogoba, Boubacar Sogoba, Seybou Hassane Diallo, Drissa Kanikomo, Djenè Kourouma, Oumar Coulibaly, Issa Amadou, Moustapha Mangané, Hamidou Almeimoune, Madani Thierno Diop, Youssoufa Maiga, Broulaye Samaké, Djibo M. Diango
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2018.83029
Abstract: Intracranial arachnoid cysts (IAC) are benign lesions containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Most of them are clinically silent and remain static in size. However some may present with mild and slow progressive symptoms caused by the cyst. The authors present the case of 54-year-old woman who presented with acute symptoms of severe headache, vomiting, and gait disturbance of 2 day’s duration. She had no history of head trauma. On admission, neurological examination revealed that the patient had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15, and a left side hemiplegia. A CT scan revealed a hypodense fluid collection in the right frontoparietal region that mimicked an arachnoid cyst. The symptoms were improved after an emergency marsupialisation via craniotomy.
Management of Spinal Schwannomas in Gabriel Touré Hospital: Review of 11 Cases  [PDF]
Youssouf Sogoba, Boubacar Sogoba, Drissa Kanikomo, Seybou Hassane Diallo, Djenè Kourouma, Oumar Coulibaly, Issa Amadou, Moustapha Mangané, Hamidou Almeimoune, Madani Thierno Diop, Youssoufa Maiga, Broulaye Samaké, Djibo M. Diango
Surgical Science (SS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2018.98031
Abstract: Background: Spinal schwannomas are common tumors of spinal neoplasm and account for about 25% of intradural spinal cord tumors in adults. They are generally benign and slow-growing. Advanced in radiologic and surgical techniques have brought about better surgical results. The goal of surgical treatment must be total resection if possible. In this report, the authors present the incidence, clinical presentation, localization, and results of surgically treated spinal schwannomas. The results of a literature review are also presented. Methods: Eleven consecutive patients with histologically confirmed spinal schwannomas were treated from January 2013 to December 2016 in the neurosurgical department of Gabriel Touré Hospital, Bamako, Mali. Neuroradiological diagnosis was made, CT scan in 7 patients, and MRI in 4 patients. All patients were operated on via the posterior approach. All cases were surgically excised, and they were confirmed to be schwannomas by pathologists. The patients were followed for 6 to 38 months (mean 28 months). Functional outcome was assessed using the motor grade and sensory change. Results: There were 11 patients with 7 (63.6%) males and 4 (36.4%) females. The mean age was 40.3 years (range 23 - 62 years). The most common symptom at the time of diagnosis was radicular pain in 9 (81.8%) patients followed by motor weakness in 8 (72.7%) patients. The most frequent site of spinal schwannomas was the thoracic region in 5 (45.5%) patients. During surgery, Gross-total resec-tion was achieved in 8 patients (72.7%) and subtotal removal in 3 (27.3%) patients. Histological findings were benign schwannoma in all cases. Postoperative complications developed in two patients, including one with cerebrospinal fluid leakage and other one with wound infection. In the short-term follow-up period, most of the patients (90.9%) appeared to be improved in comparison with their preoperative neurological status. There was no operative mortality. Conclusion: In this study, the clinical manifestations and surgical results of 11 cases of spinal schwannoma have been reviewed. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for good outcome.
Surgical Repair of Encephaloceles in Gabriel Touré Hospital: Review of 17 Cases  [PDF]
Youssouf Sogoba, Drissa Kanikomo, Boubacar Sogoba, Djenè Kourouma, Oumar Coulibaly, Issa Amadou, Seybou Hassane Diallo, Moustapha Mangané, Hamidou Almeimoune Maiga, Madani Thierno Diop, Belco Maiga, Leonie Diakité, Fousseyni Traoré, Youssoufa Maiga, Yacaria Coulibaly, Broulaye Samaké, Djibo M. Diango
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2018.84033
Abstract: Background: Encephaloceles are congenital neural tube defects characterized by the protrusion of meninges and/or brain tissue from a defect in the skull. The incidence of the disease is about 0.8 - 5.6/10,000 live births. They are classified based on the location and type of skull defect as occipital encephalocele, encephalocele of the cranial vault, frontoethmoidal encephalocele, and basal encephaloceles. Surgical reduction being the first line treatment and resection of herniated structures may be necessary when the encephalocele is large. In the present study, the authors present their experience in treating 17 patients with encephaloceles. Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of 17 patients from January 2013 to December 2016 in Gabriel Touré Hospital, Bamako, Mali. A history was obtained from the family at presentation. Medical information before and during the pregnancy was compiled. All patients underwent CT scan as a routine preoperative imaging study, to evaluate the encephalocele and to plan the surgical procedure. The following data were recorded for analysis: age, sex, location of encephalocele, neurological status, operative method, postoperative complications and surgical results. Results: There were 10 (58.8%) female and 7 (41.2%) male patients. The patients ranged in age from 3 days to 36 months. The most common site of encephalocele sac was the occipital region in 14 (82.4%) cases followed by the frontal region in 2 (11.8%) cases and the vertex in 1 (5.9%) case. The sac size was less than 3 cm in 5 (17.6%) cases, 3 - 5 cm in 8 (47.1%) cases and more than 5 cm in 4 (23.5%) cases. Three (17.6%) children presented with CSF leakage. Hydrocephalus was present in the preoperative period in 6 (35.3%) cases; all of them required VP shunt procedure. None of the cases had a preoperative neurologic deficit. Surgical excision was performed in all cases. In the postoperative period, meningitis developed in 2 cases (11.8%), wound infection in 1 case (5.9%) and seizure in 1 case (5.9%). Three patients (17.6%) died during postoperative follow-up. Postoperative hydrocephalus occurred in 1 (5.88%) patient requiring a VP shunt. Conclusion: Encephaloceles are commonly seen in the practice of neurosurgery in the world as well as in Mali. In this study, the clinical manifestations and surgical results of 17 cases have been reviewed. We recommend early repair and excision of encephaloceles to avoid rupture or skin excoriation.
Chlorophyll Degradation in Horticultural Crops
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology , 2011, DOI: 10.2004/vol8iss1pp9-19
Abstract: One of the symptoms of senescence in harvested horticultural crops is the loss of greenness that comes with the degradation of chlorophyll. With senescence, the chlorophyll-degrading enzyme activities such as chlorophyllase, Mg-dechelatase or Mg-dechelation activity, a new chlorophyll-degrading enzyme, pheophytinase, pheophorbidase and chlorophyll-degrading peroxidase, which are involved in chlorophyll degradation, affected greatly in stored horticultural crops. The chlorophyll derivatives, especially chlorophyllide, pheophytin, pheophorbide and C132-hydroxychlorophyll are accumulated as intermediates of chlorophyll degradation. In addition, chlorophyll degradation by the chlorophyll-degrading enzymes seems to occur in the thylakoid and envelope membrane of chloroplast and/ or the vacuole. The involvement of chlorophyll-degrading enzymes in senescing horticultural crops is also discussed.
Nonsurgical treatment of infratentorial subdural empyema: A case report  [PDF]
Y. Sogoba, D. Kanikomo, O. Coulibaly, K. Singaré, Y. Maiga, D. Samaké, S. K. Timbo
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.25079
Abstract:  Infratentorial subdural empyemas are rare. It is an important neurological infection requiring immediate neurosurgical treatment. The nonsurgical treatment of subdural empyema has been reported sporadically. In this paper the authors report the nonsurgical treatment of a case of infratentorial subdural empyema. The patient with left recurrent otitis was hospitalized with symptoms of headache and fever of 3 weeks duration. Examination revealed that the patient had Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15, fever, mild cerebellar signs, no focal deficit, and abundant suppuration from the left ear. A contrast-enhanced CT scan showed an infratentorial supracerebellar hypodense fluid collection with the peripheral rim enhancement to the left of the midline that mimicked a subdural empyema. Routine hematological investigation revealed polymorphic leukocytosis and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. After the left mastoidectomy and antibiotic treatment, the patient recovered with complete resolution of the subdural empyema on CT scan.
Effects of Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone on Serum Levels of Thyroid Hormones in Short-term Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats
Mahmoud Abu-Samak,Moayad Khataibeh,Aurelia Crevoi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The changes induced by MSH after short-term alloxan -induced diabetes mellitus on both male and female Sprague Dawley rat`s serum T4 and T3 were evaluated. Serum hormones were determined by specific radioimmunoassays and short-term diabetes mellitus induction was carried out by daily injection of 20 mg alloxan solution/100 g body weight intraperitonially for 10 days. Mean serum T4 was significantly decreased to 11.044±2.588 nmol L-1 and serum T3 to 0.132±0.0137 nmol L-1 in diabetic rats. After 10 days with daily injection of alpha-MSH at a dose of 2 μg/100 g body weight, serum T4 increased significantly up to 82.557±25.815nmol L-1 and serum T3 increased up to : 1.027±0.311nmol L-1. The results can be explained by the role of the Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone in the peripheral regulation of thyroid function and that it may act as a mediator of hyperglycemia effects on the HPT axis.
Effects of Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone on Plasma Levels of Testosterone and Estradiol Hormones in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats
Mahmoud Abu-Samak,Fahmi Mahmoud,Moayad Khataibeh,Suhail Hamdan
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Melanocyte stimulating hormone MSH on serum testosterone T and estradiol E2 hormones concentrations in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Eighty male and female Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 180-200 g, were divided into four groups of normal rats and four groups of alloxan-induced diabetic rats were given intraperitonially (i.p.) a daily injection of 20 mg alloxan solution/100 g of body weight for 10 days. Two groups, male and female from the normal and 2 diabetic groups served as controls and did not inject with MSH 2 groups, male and female from the normal rats and 2 groups from the diabetic rats injected (i.p) daily with MSH at a dose of 2-microg/100 g of body weight, for 10 days. The control group was only injected with the same volume of normal saline. Serum glucose concentrations were higher and serum insulin, testosterone and estradiol concentrations were lower in diabetic rats than those in the control groups. MSH administration decreased the elevated blood glucose concentrations of the diabetic rats to the normal levels and decreased estradiol concentration in female normal rats while increased the testosterone concentration in male normal rats. Present findings indicate that MSH plays adaptive role during early stages of alloxan induced-diabetes mellitus. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanism.
Les communautés ichtyologiques de la rivière Baoulé dans le bassin du fleuve Niger au Mali
Sanogo, Y.,Traoré, D.,Samaké, F.,Koné, A.
Tropicultura , 2012,
Abstract: Ichtyological Communities of Baoule River in Mali. For updating of the fish fauna, ichthyological investigations were carried out on the Baoulé river in the Niger river Basin in Mali. Experimental and artisanal fishing were carried out on the main sites of the river with active and passive fishing materials. The indices of diversity and equitability were calculated. The Baoule river was rich in 75 species, 44 genera and 20 families. Specific diversity and the equitability in the superior part of the river were higher than those of the other localities. Sixty-four species were identified on the upper part of river against 58 and 50 species in middle and inferior parts, with in common 39 species. Mormyridae, Cyprinidae, Mochokidae, Alesttidae, Cichlidae were the most represented families. Clarotes laticeps (Rüppell, 1829); Labeo parvus Boulenger, 1902; Gymnarchus niloticus Cuvier, 1829; Synodontis courteti Pellegrin, 1906; Brevimyrus niger (Günther, 1866), Cyphomyrus psittacus (Boulenger, 1897); Hyppopotamyrus pictus (Marcusen, 1864), Petrocephalus bane (Lacépède, 1803); Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier, 1829); Polypterus bichir lapradei Steindachner, 1869; Polypterus endlicheri endlicheri Heckel, 1849; Protopterus annectens annectens (Owen, 1839) were represented in the upper part. Pellonula leonensis Boulenger, 1916; Nannocharax occidentalis Daget, 1959; Paradistichodus dimidiatus (Pellegrin, 1904) were found only in the lower part. The results will serve as references for the fish fauna and also to guide decision for future development on the Baoule river.
Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Modulates Blood Viscosity in Short-Term Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats
Mahmoud Abu-Samak,Rula Khuzaie,Moayad Khataibeh,Fahmi Mahmoud
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The effects of MSH on whole blood viscosity (WBV)and hematocrit (Ht) levels in short-term alloxan-induced diabetic were studied. Male and Female Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats weighing 185-250 g were given intraperitonially (i.p.) a daily injection of 20 mg alloxan solution/100 g of body weight for 10 days. Normal and diabetic rats were given daily injection (i.p.) of alpha-Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) at a dose of 2 μg/100 g b.w for 10 days. Body weight, serum glucose, serum insulin, Ht and WBV were measured. The results indicated that MSH decreased serum glucose levels in diabetic rats in comparison with normal rats. Our study demonstrates that MSH administration significantly lowers blood viscosity of short-term diabetic rats. It proposed that MSH may exert a protective effect on the vascular endothelial cells.
Effect of Irrigation Method and Non-Uniformity of Irrigation on Potato Performance and Quality  [PDF]
Kamal H. Amer, Abdellateif A. Samak, Jerry L. Hatfield
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.83024
Abstract: Potato growth, yield, and quality under improved irrigation methods and non-uniformity of their irrigation applications are important to enhance water management in arid regions. A field experiment was conducted in 2014 spring and fall growing seasons using potato (Solanum tuberosum) grown in northern Egypt at Shibin El Kom, Menofia, Egypt to evaluate potato response to furrow or trickle irrigation. A Randomized Split-Plot Design with irrigation method randomly distributed and non-uniformity of irrigation applications evaluated along either irrigation furrow or trickle lateral as dependent variables measured at the 3rd, 13th, 23rd, 33rd, 43rd and 53rd m along the 55 m irrigation line. Traditional (TF) and partial (PF) furrows as well as trickle point (TP) and line (TL) sources were used as irrigation methods. Each treatment was repeated three times. For a 33rd m treatment, seasonal optimum water use by potato was 328, 234, 269 and 292 mm over 118 days in spring and 200, 164, 178 and 186 mm over 122 days in fall under TF, PF, TP and TL irrigation methods, respectively. Potato tuber yield and quality were significantly affected by growing season (S), irrigation method (I) and non-uniformity of irrigation application (U). Tuber yield, total soluble solid (TSS) and leaf area index (LAI) were significantly affected by I and U, and their interaction I * U; harvest index (HI) was not affected by I but U. Except for TSS by S * I and HI by U * I and S * I, results showed no significant differences. Moreover, tuber weight, number and marketable yield were significantly affected by S, I, U and I * U interaction, except medium tuber size and culls by S. A given 33rd treatment under partial furrow and trickle irrigation, relative to that of traditional furrow, enhanced tuber yield and improved quality in both growing seasons. In non-un- iform irrigation application over two growing seasons, potato crop response was developed under varied irrigation methods. Tuber yields were significantly affected in a linear relationship (r2 ≥ 0.75) by either water deficit or excessive water under irrigation methods.
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