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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 85407 matches for " Brent W. Weston "
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Histo-Blood Group Gene Polymorphisms as Potential Genetic Modifiers of Infection and Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Severity
Jennifer L. Taylor-Cousar, Maimoona A. Zariwala, Lauranell H. Burch, Rhonda G. Pace, Mitchell L. Drumm, Hollin Calloway, Haiying Fan, Brent W. Weston, Fred A. Wright, Michael R. Knowles, for the Gene Modifier Study Group
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004270
Abstract: Background The pulmonary phenotype in cystic fibrosis (CF) is variable; thus, environmental and genetic factors likely contribute to clinical heterogeneity. We hypothesized that genetically determined ABO histo-blood group antigen (ABH) differences in glycosylation may lead to differences in microbial binding by airway mucus, and thus predispose to early lung infection and more severe lung disease in a subset of patients with CF. Methods and Principal Findings Clinical information and DNA was collected on >800 patients with the ΔF508/ΔF508 genotype. Patients in the most severe and mildest quartiles for lung phenotype were enrolled. Blood samples underwent lymphocyte transformation and DNA extraction using standard methods. PCR and sequencing were performed using standard techniques to identify the 9 SNPs required to determine ABO blood type, and to identify the four SNPs that account for 90–95% of Lewis status in Caucasians. Allele identification of the one nonsynonymous SNP in FUT2 that accounts for >95% of the incidence of nonsecretor phenotype in Caucasians was completed using an ABI Taqman assay. The overall prevalence of ABO types, and of FUT2 (secretor) and FUT 3 (Lewis) alleles was consistent with that found in the Caucasian population. There was no difference in distribution of ABH type in the severe versus mild patients, or the age of onset of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the severe or mild groups. Multivariate analyses of other clinical phenotypes, including gender, asthma, and meconium ileus demonstrated no differences between groups based on ABH type. Conclusions and Significance Polymorphisms in the genes encoding ABO blood type, secretor or Lewis genotypes were not shown to associate with severity of CF lung disease, or age of onset of P. aeruginosa infection, nor was there any association with other clinical phenotypes in a group of 808 patients homozygous for the ΔF508 mutation.
Penile torsion correction by diagonal corporal plication sutures
Snow, Brent W.;
International braz j urol , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382009000100009
Abstract: penile torsion is commonly encountered. it can be caused by skin and dartos adherence or buck’s fascia attachments. the authors suggest a new surgical approach to solve both problems. if buck’s fascia involvement is demonstrated by artificial erection then a new diagonal corporal plication suture is described to effectively solve this problem.
Role of Heparan Sulfate 2-O-Sulfotransferase in Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation, Invasion, and Growth Factor Signaling
Brent W. Ferguson,Sumana Datta
Prostate Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/893208
Abstract: Heparan-sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are required for maximal growth factor signaling in prostate cancer progression. The degree of sulfate modification on the covalently attached heparan sulfate (HS) chains is one of the determining factors of growth factor-HSPG interactions. Sulfate groups are transferred to HS chains via a series of O-sulfotransferases. In the present study, we demonstrate that Heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase (2OST) is essential for maximal proliferation and invasion of prostate cancer cells in the LNCaP-C4-2B model. We also show that a decrease in invasion due to 2OST siRNA is associated with an increase in actin and E-cadherin accumulation at the cell surface. 2OST expression correlates with increasing metastatic potential in this model. We demonstrate that 2OST expression is upregulated by the stress-inducible transcription factors HIF1α, ATF2, and NFκB. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis suggests that HIF1α and ATF2 act directly on the 2OST promoter, while NFκB acts indirectly. 1. Introduction Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are ubiquitous cell surface molecules that consist of a protein core with attached heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycan chains. HSPGs are extremely important in both development and cancer progression due to their regulation of cellular processes such as angiogenesis, tumor growth, proliferation, tumor invasion and metastasis. HSPGs control various processes by modulating a variety of growth factor signaling pathways such as Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), FGF, VEGF, and TGFβ [1–3]. These signaling pathways are abnormally activated in many cancers including prostate cancer [4, 5]. HSPGs such as Syndecan-1 and Perlecan (Pln) are involved in the regulation of tumor growth and proliferation of prostate cancer cells [6–9]. Our group, along with collaborators, demonstrated the association of high levels of Pln protein with 54% of advanced prostate cancer tumors and its role in tumor cell proliferation by regulating SHH signaling [8]. This led to the hypothesis that a subset of prostate cancers reach advanced stage by increasing growth factor signaling through increasing the amount of Pln coreceptor in the extracellular matrix. However, the other 46% of advanced prostate cancers showed no increase in Pln protein levels compared to more benign tissue, suggesting another mechanism is in play. Interestingly, in the LNCaP-C4-2B cell line series, a well-known model of prostate cancer progression [10–12], we have shown that SHH signaling increases with increasing metastatic potential but Pln protein levels do not
Consecutive singular cardinals and the continuum function
Arthur W. Apter,Brent Cody
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We show that from a supercompact cardinal \kappa, there is a forcing extension V[G] that has a symmetric inner model N in which ZF + not AC holds, \kappa\ and \kappa^+ are both singular, and the continuum function at \kappa\ can be precisely controlled, in the sense that the final model contains a sequence of distinct subsets of \kappa\ of length equal to any predetermined ordinal. We also show that the above situation can be collapsed to obtain a model of ZF + not AC_\omega\ in which either (1) aleph_1 and aleph_2 are both singular and the continuum function at aleph_1 can be precisely controlled, or (2) aleph_\omega\ and aleph_{\omega+1} are both singular and the continuum function at aleph_\omega\ can be precisely controlled. Additionally, we discuss a result in which we separate the lengths of sequences of distinct subsets of consecutive singular cardinals \kappa\ and \kappa^+ in a model of ZF. Some open questions concerning the continuum function in models of ZF with consecutive singular cardinals are posed.
Interventional Radiology Procedures after Pediatric Pyeloplasty and Ureteral Reimplantation in Patients with Postoperative Obstruction  [PDF]
Brent W. Snow, M. Chad Wallis, G. Peter Feola, John W. Rampton, Teisha Shiozaki
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2014.46015

Introduction: Obstructive complication after pyeloplasty or ureteral reimplant surgery is a rare though worrisome problem in pediatric urology. These are often complex patients with complicated post-operative courses that at times require interventional radiology procedures. The current literature is lacking in guiding principles to manage these complications. In this study we have reviewed these difficult to manage patients at our children’s hospital over the past 15 years. Methods: A list of patients who underwent interventional radiology procedures to place nephrostomy tubes or internal double-J ureteral stents was compared a list of patients undergoing pyeloplasty or reimplant procedures. These lists were cross-referenced to a list of patients undergoing cystoscopic removal of double-J stents. This small patient group does not represent all complications but those with radiology intervention. Results: At our institution, during the years 1998-2011 we performed 458 pyeloplasties and 3003 open ureteral reimplant procedures. 14 (0.4%) met all of the inclusion criteria. The long term outcome of these problems showed 11 of these patients went on to stability or improvement with either percutaneous drainage or JJ stent placement alone, and three of the reimplant patients ultimately required redo surgery. Of our pyeloplasty patients only three required percutaneous nephrostomy tube, and one went on to JJ stent placement (0.66% of pyeloplasties). No patients in the pyeloplasty group needed surgical revision. Of patients how had undergone ureteral reimplantation, with or without tapering, seven of them underwent interventional radiology procedures (0.23% of reimplant patients). Conclusion: Pediatric urology patients with persistent obstruction after pyeloplasties and ureteral reimplantation surgery with or without tapering who needed interventional radiology rescue procedure resolved or stabilized in 11 of 14 patients. Surgical revision was performed in only 3 of our 14 patients after months of conservative trial after interventional radiologic procedures.

Speckle Reduction in Imaging Projection Systems  [PDF]
Weston Thomas, Christopher Middlebrook
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2012.24042

Diffractive diffusers (phase gratings) are routinely used for homogenizing and beam shaping for laser beam applications. Another use for diffractive diffusers is in the reduction of speckle for pico-projection systems. While diffusers are unable to completely eliminate speckle they can be utilized to decrease the resultant contrast to provide a more visually acceptable image. Research has been conducted to quantify and measure the diffusers overall ability in speckle reduction. A theoretical Fourier optics model is used to provide the diffuser’s stationary and in-motion performance in terms of the resultant contrast level. Contrast measurements of two diffractive diffusers are calculated theoretically and compared with experimental results. Having a working theoretical model to accurately predict the performance of the diffractive diffuser allows for the verification of new diffuser designs specifically for pico-projection system applications.

Osteopathic manipulative treatment for pandemic influenza: many questions, few answers
Sanderlin Brent W,Licciardone John C
Osteopathic Medicine and Primary Care , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1750-4732-1-12
Abstract: Commentary on Avian influenza: an osteopathic component to treatment Raymond J Hruby and Keasha N Hoffman
Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Fatal Toxic Exposures: A Poison Center’s Review
Dilani Weerasuriya,Sophia Sheik,Brent W. Morgan
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine : Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: Self-exposure is a leading method for suicide both in the United States and worldwide and thus is a major preventable public health issue. Surrogate decision makers are tasked with making medical decisions for the patient while keeping the patient’s wishes in mind. Decisions related to code status become more complicated when the patient’s situation is the result of a suicidal act. The objectives were to 1) determine how frequently Do Not Resuscitate orders (DNR orders) are placed for the intentionally self-exposed (ISE) patient using the Regional Poison Control Center (RPCC) data, and 2) identify if DNR orders in intentionally self-exposed patients were placed before or afterdevelopment of poor prognostic signs.Methods: We analyzed all exposure-related deaths reported to the RPCC from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. We reviewed data for the following: exposure intent, exposure substance, outcome, age, code status, date of DNR/withdrawal of care order, previous suicide attempts, and poor prognostic signs.Results: Of the 476 total deaths, nearly half were the result of an intentional self-exposure (n= 235; 49.4%). Most deaths, when code status was reported, had advanced cardiac life support, or “fullcodes” (n=131; 55.6%). Of the total deaths with a DNR or withdrawal of care order (n=104), over half were from an ISE (n=55; 52.9%). A higher percentage of the ISEs had a DNR order/withdrawal of careorder; however, it was not a statistically significant difference OR 1.23 (95% CI 0.64, 2.37). Regardless of intent, patients treated as full codes were on average 19.5 years younger than the DNR orders group. Only 2 DNR orders were placed prior to development of poor prognostic signs. Unintentional self-exposures consumed a mean of 1.4 substances (range 1 to 4). ISEs consumed a mean of 2.3 substances (range 1 to 19).Conclusion: People are often asked to make life-and-death decisions for a loved one. The nature of the exposure can complicate the issue if the exposure has an antidote or is known to have a limited effect. Further study is needed to assess the extent of these cases and to identify optimal management guidelines or policy to aid both the medical teams caring for these patients and the surrogate decision makers. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3):294-297.]
Cellular and Circuit Mechanisms Maintain Low Spike Co-Variability and Enhance Population Coding in Somatosensory Cortex
Cheng Ly,Jason W. Middleton,Brent Doiron
Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fncom.2012.00007
Abstract: The responses of cortical neurons are highly variable across repeated presentations of a stimulus. Understanding this variability is critical for theories of both sensory and motor processing, since response variance affects the accuracy of neural codes. Despite this influence, the cellular and circuit mechanisms that shape the trial-to-trial variability of population responses remain poorly understood. We used a combination of experimental and computational techniques to uncover the mechanisms underlying response variability of populations of pyramidal (E) cells in layer 2/3 of rat whisker barrel cortex. Spike trains recorded from pairs of E-cells during either spontaneous activity or whisker deflected responses show similarly low levels of spiking co-variability, despite large differences in network activation between the two states. We developed network models that show how spike threshold non-linearities dilute E-cell spiking co-variability during spontaneous activity and low velocity whisker deflections. In contrast, during high velocity whisker deflections, cancelation mechanisms mediated by feedforward inhibition maintain low E-cell pairwise co-variability. Thus, the combination of these two mechanisms ensure low E-cell population variability over a wide range of whisker deflection velocities. Finally, we show how this active decorrelation of population variability leads to a drastic increase in the population information about whisker velocity. The prevalence of spiking non-linearities and feedforward inhibition in the nervous system suggests that the mechanisms for low network variability presented in our study may generalize throughout the brain.
Bimodality of Freeman's Law
R. Brent Tully,Marc A. W. Verheijen
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: A cluster sample of 62 galaxies complete to M(B)=-16.5 mag has been observed at B,R,I,K' bands with imaging detectors. The distribution of exponential disk central surface brightnesses is found to be bimodal. The bimodality is particularly significant at K' because obscuration is not a problem and because the high surface brightness galaxies are redder than the low surface brightness galaxies so the bifurcation is greater. The bimodality signal is especially clear when galaxies with close companions are excluded from consideration. High and low surface brightness pairs with essentially identical luminosities and maximum rotation characteristics are compared. It is suggested that the high surface brightness galaxies have self-gravitating disks while the low surface brightness galaxies are halo dominated at all radii. Evidently the intermediate surface brightness regime is unstable. If a disk has sufficiently low angular momentum and it shrinks enough that the disk potential begins to dominate the halo potential locally, then the disk must secularly evolve to the high surface brightness state characterized by a flat rotation curve.
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