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Nintendo® Wii™ and a Physical Activity Routine: Effective Therapeutic Interventions in the Older Adult Population?  [PDF]
Elizabeth A. Fain, Brenda Kennell
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.48060

Occupational therapists work with individuals across the lifespan to promote health and wellness. “Occupational therapy promotes health and wellbeing through active involvement in meaningful occupations. By helping clients eliminate barriers, enhance their self-management skills, improve their performance of daily activities and adopt healthy habits and routines, occupational therapy unlocks the door to participation across the lifespan” (AOTA, 2010). In today’s world, health and wellness-related services are in demand for those aged 65 and older. As life expectancy rates continue to rise, there is an increase in concern for the field of occupational therapy to find a successful and efficient way to meet the needs of the growing number of older adults (National Center for Health Statistics, 2006). The idea that physical activity can be a beneficial occupation in the elderly has been examined and proved effective as a means of enhancing the quality of life in this population. “Although functional impairments due to the aging process seem to be inevitable, functional limitations due to an inactive lifestyle might be reversed. Indeed, it has been suggested that physically active lifestyles may contribute to improving or maintaining health and wellness” (Fletcher, Gulanick, & Braun, 2005). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different physical activity programs on individuals aged 65 and older. The variables that were examined were functional skills (activities of daily living), balance skills, and overall upper extremity function. This study looked at two forms of physical activity to determine their individual effects on functional skills, balance, and overall upper extremity function in this population. The two physical activity interventions were the Nintendo Wii gaming system and a videotaped exercise routine.

Free, Bound, and Mobile Charge Density  [PDF]
Glyn Kennell
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2017.95007
Abstract: Questions and difficulties are presented pertaining to the quantitative characterization of the electric field in certain scenarios. Specific examples concerning electrolytes are explored. Newton’s third law is invoked and the concept of mobile charge density is presented in relation to free charge density and bound charge density. The notion of mobile charge density is utilized to develop a theory and model for the electric field coupled with electrolytic properties and transport. Validations, simulations, and implications of the model are presented and discussed, including: is it possible to extend Maxwell’s equations to a more generalized form?
Two-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Modeling with Electrolyte and Cathode Extensions  [PDF]
Glyn F. Kennell, Richard W. Evitts
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2012.24052
Abstract: A two-dimensional model for transport and the coupled electric field is applied to simulate a charging lithium-ion cell and investigate the effects of lithium concentration gradients within electrodes on cell performance. The lithium concentration gradients within electrodes are affected by the cell geometry. Two different geometries are investigated: extending the length of the electrolyte past the edges of the electrodes and extending the length of the cathode past the edge of the anode. It is found that the electrolyte extension has little impact on the behavior of the electrodes, although it does increase the effective conductivity of the electrolyte in the edge region. However, the extension of the cathode past the edge of the anode, and the possibility for electrochemical reactions on the flooded electrode edges, are both found to impact the concentration gradients of lithium in electrodes and the current distribution within the electrolyte during charging. It is found that concentration gradients of lithium within electrodes may have stronger impacts on electrolytic current distributions, depending on the level of completeness of cell charge. This is because very different gradients of electric potential are expected from similar electrode gradients of lithium concentrations at different levels of cell charge, especially for the LixC6 cathode investigated in this study. This leads to the prediction of significant electric potential gradients along the electrolyte length during early cell charging, and a reduced risk of lithium deposition on the cathode edge during later cell charging, as seen experimentally by others.
Composite Mesh Electrodes with Immobilized Bacteria for Bio-Batteries  [PDF]
Siddharth Suresh, Richard W. Evitts, Glyn F. Kennell
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2016.61006
Abstract: An anode was constructed using a novel technique and subsequently tested in a bio-battery. The anode comprised of a composite electrode coated with immobilized bacteria. The immobilized bacteria used in this study were Escherichia coli K-12. The composite electrode contained three layers: a 304 L stainless steel mesh base, an electro-polymerized layer of pyrrole, and an electro-polymerized layer of methylene blue. The bacteria were immobilized utilizing a technique incorporating a carbon nanoparticle and TeflonTM emulsion. The composite electrode combined with immobilized bacteria was examined whilst incorporated into the anodic chamber of a bio-battery. Different tests were conducted, including Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. Results from these tests were compared with data obtained from alternate configurations and values from the open literature. The maximum power density generated by the composite electrode with immobilized bacteria whilst incorporated into the anodic chamber of a bio-battery was 378 mW/m2. Results demonstrate this composite anode configuration with immobilized bacteria produced approximately 69% more power density and 53% more current density than alternate electrode configurations with bacteria suspended in solution. Also, it was found that a significant portion of the bio-battery’s resistance to charge transfer occurred at the surface of the anode and this resistance was lowered by 51% through bacteria immobilization.
Microbial fuel cell with a polypyrrole/poly(methylene blue) composite electrode
Godwin JM, Evitts RW, Kennell GF
Reports in Electrochemistry , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RIE.S33526
Abstract: robial fuel cell with a polypyrrole/poly(methylene blue) composite electrode Original Research (1225) Total Article Views Authors: Godwin JM, Evitts RW, Kennell GF Published Date September 2012 Volume 2012:2 Pages 3 - 11 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RIE.S33526 Received: 03 May 2012 Accepted: 23 July 2012 Published: 19 September 2012 Jonathan M Godwin, Richard W Evitts, Glyn F Kennell Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Abstract: Different configurations of anodic and cathodic half-cells were incorporated into a microbial fuel cell to determine the effectiveness of a composite electrode. This novel composite electrode consisted of poly(methylene blue) and polypyrrole electrodeposited onto a stainless steel electrode. The novel electrode/immobilized mediator was incorporated into a microbial cathodic half-cell that relied on the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris for photosynthesis, and was a net reducer of carbon dioxide. Similar microbial cathodic half-cells were also examined using electrodes fabricated from graphite and graphite deposited with methylene blue. Results from using these three different electrodes in the microbial cathodic half-cell were examined and compared with the results from others. The electrode using the novel immobilized mediator demonstrated the highest short circuit current density of 65 mA/m2 when compared with other C. vulgaris systems. Different anodic half-cells were also incorporated into the microbial fuel cell and tested. Anodic half-cells tested included a microbial half-cell containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one containing no microbial material and based on purely chemical constituents. In the case of the microbial anodic half-cell, different electrodes, including the novel immobilized mediator/electrode, were tested. It was found that the anodic half-cell performed better with a soluble mediator than an immobilized mediator/electrode. In the case of a fuel cell where both the anodic and cathodic half-cells are microbial, our results demonstrate better performance than previous systems by using a soluble mediator in the anodic half-cell with an immobilized mediator in the cathodic half-cell.
Detection of Antibody in Dogs with Blastomycosis Using Blastomyces dermatitidis Yeast Phase Lysate Antigens  [PDF]
Bryn C. Kennell, Gene M. Scalarone, Lilliana Hoyos-Carvajal, Moytri RoyChowdhury
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2017.79011
Abstract: The objective of our study was to compare two B. dermatitidis yeast phase lysate antigens [ERC-2, dog Wisconsin; 85, soil Georgia, ATCC 56,920] for detecting antibody in 38 serum specimens [pre-treatment, 30-day, and 60-day post treatment] from dogs with diagnosed blastomycosis. The mean absorbance values obtained with the two antigens (N = 38) were ERC-2 = 2.359 and 85 = 2.189. The mean absorbance values when the sera were divided into the three treatment groups were as follows pre-treatment: Isolate ERC-2 had an absorbance value of 2.418; Isolate 85 had an absorbance value of 2.688, 30-day post treatment: ERC-2 had an absorbance value of 2.452; 85 had an absorbance value of 2.303 and 60-day post treatment: ERC-2 had an absorbance value of 2.150; 85 had an absorbance value of 2.073 with the mean absorbance values of all treatment groups were ERC-2: 2.229 and 85: 2.141. This study indicates the potential for further evaluations of the two lysate antigens with regard to antibody detection in dog sera with the ERC-2 reagent slightly more reactive than the 85 lysate antigen.
The Impact of Cattle Grazing in High Elevation Sierra Nevada Mountain Meadows over Widely Variable Annual Climatic Conditions  [PDF]
Lindsey Myers, Brenda Whited
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.328097
Abstract: The impact of summer cattle grazing on water quality during three very different climatic years in the Sierra Nevada was investigated. Water year 2009 had near normal precipitation; 2010 had late precipitation and snowmelt; and 2011 had 150% above normal precipitation. Surface waters were tested for pathogenic bacteria indicators fecal coliform, E. coli, and total coliform before and after cattle were released onto summer grazing allotments. Water samples were collected from meadow stream sites up to 6 weeks before and up to 6 weeks after cattle grazing began. Streams passing through ungrazed meadow served as controls. Eight sample sites were between 1694 m and 2273 m in elevation; one site was lower at 1145 m in elevation. Samples were transported within 6 hours to a water analysis laboratory, where samples were analyzed following standardized laboratory methods. Results showed that individual site and total mean concentrations of E. coli in surface waters were within regulatory standards before cattle arrived during each of the 3 study years. After the beginning of grazing, mean E. coli counts increased as follows: 2009 from 8 to 240 CFU/100mL, 2010 from 7 to 561 CFU/10mL; 2011 from 7 to 657 CFU/100mL (p < 0.05 all years). Total coliform bacteria and fecal coliform concentrations showed the same pattern. This study shows that cattle grazing in the high elevation Sierra Nevada results in a significant increase in indicator bacteria. This impact on the watersheds occurs despite widely variable annual climatic conditions.
Botulinum toxin type-A (BoNTA) and dynamic wrist-hand orthoses versus orthoses alone for the treatment of spastic-paretic upper extremity in chronic stroke patients  [PDF]
Sepideh Pooyania, Brenda Semenko
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2014.21003
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential functional improvement of the spastic-paretic upper extremity of individuals with chronic hemiparesis when using a dynamic wrist-hand orthosis with and without concurrent botulinum toxin type-A (BoNTA) injections into the spastic upper extremity muscles. Methods: A three-year retrospective chart review was conducted on all stroke patients referred to out-patient occupational therapy for an upper extremity rehabilitation program, which included use of a dynamic wrist-hand orthosis (DWHO). Three charts documented concurrent treatment with a DWHO + BoNTA. Eleven charts documented DWHO use without concurrent BoNTA treatment. Pre- and post-intervention outcome measure scores were compared between the two groups. Pre- and post-interven- tion scores were also analyzed irrespective of treatment group. Results: Although improvement approached significance on three of the documented outcome measures when comparing the DWHO + BoNTA and DWHO groups, no statistically significant changes were found. A significant difference (p < 0.05) however, was found between the pre- and post-intervention scores irrespective of treatment group in 13 of 14 of the outcome measures documented. Conclusions: Further research with a larger sample size is suggested to assess the combined effect of using a dynamic wrist-hand orthosis and BoNTA injections into the spastic upper extremity muscles of individuals with chronic hemiparesis post stroke.
Reverse transcription of the pFOXC mitochondrial retroplasmids of Fusarium oxysporum is protein primed
Jeffrey T Galligan, Sarah E Marchetti, John C Kennell
Mobile DNA , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1759-8753-2-1
Abstract: The complete sequence of the distantly related pFOXC1 plasmid was determined and found to terminate in 3-5 copies of a 3 bp sequence. Unexpectedly, the majority of (-) strand cDNA molecules produced from endogenous pFOXC1 transcripts were attached to protein. In vitro experiments using partially purified pFOXC3-RT preparations having a single radiolabeled deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) generated a nucleotide-labeled protein that migrated at the size of the pFOXC-RT. The nucleotide preference of deoxynucleotidylation differed between pFOXC3 and pFOXC1 and showed complementarity to the respective 3' terminal repeats. In reactions that include exogenous RNA templates corresponding to the 3' end of pFOXC1, a protein-linked cDNA product was generated following deoxynucleotidylation, suggesting that reverse transcription initiates with a protein primer.The finding that reverse transcription is protein primed suggests the pFOXC retroplasmids may have an evolutionary relationship with hepadnaviruses, the only other retroelement family known to initiate reverse transcription via a protein primer. Moreover, the similarity to protein-primed linear DNA elements supports models in which the terminal repeats are generated and maintained by a DNA slideback mechanism. The ability of the pFOXC-RT to utilize RNA, DNA and protein primers is unique among polymerases and suggests that the pFOXC plasmids may be evolutionary precursors of a broad range of retroelements, including hepadnaviruses, non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons and telomerase.Retroplasmids are autonomously replicating genetic elements that represent a lineage of mobile elements that replicate via reverse transcription. Thus far, retroplasmids have only been found in mitochondria of filamentous fungi and, like mitochondrial DNA plasmids, they exist in both linear and circular forms (reviewed in [1]). As a group, retroplasmids are relatively small and simple. They range in size from 1.9 to approx
Alternative Nitrogenases in Anabaena variabilis: The Role of Molybdate and Vanadate in Nitrogenase Gene  [PDF]
Teresa Thiel, Brenda S. Pratte
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.36A011
Abstract: Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 has two distinct nitrogenases that function in heterocysts, a conventional Mo-nitrogenase and an alternative V-nitrogenase. Synthesis of these two enzymes was repressed in cells growing with a source of fixed nitrogen, such as ammonium; however, the V-nitrogenase was also repressed by Mo. Expression of the V-nitrogenase which was not affected by V and expression of the Mo-nitrogenase was not affected by the presence or absence of either Mo or V. In the absence of both Mo and V in an environment lacking fixed nitrogen, cells became starved for both metals; however, low levels of nitrogen fixation and slow growth persisted. A mutant lacking the V-nitrogenase was still able to grow very slowly in Mo-and V-free medium; however, loss of the Mo-nitrogenase in a nifDK1 mutant abolished the residual growth, suggesting that only the Mo-nitrogenase functioned under these conditions to support slow growth. The addition of vanadate, molybdate, or tungstate, which is transported by the molybdate transporter, to cells starved for these metals resulted in an increase in nitrogenase activity within two hours after the addition of the metal and this increase required new protein synthesis. While tungstate functioned about as well as vanadate in supporting acetylene reduction, the cells were not able to grow any better with tungstate than with no added metal. A mutant lacking the V-nitrogenase showed no increase in nitrogenase activity upon addition of tungstate, suggesting that the V-nitrogenase was able to incorporate tungstate. Tungstate was able to substitute for molybdate in repressing transcription of a Mo-transport gene, but it did not repress transcription of the vnfH gene, which was repressed by Mo. The availability of Mo and V plays an important role in controlling whether the Mo-or the V-nitrogenase is used for nitrogen fixation.
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