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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1125 matches for " Brandon Branch "
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Are Gender Differences in Empathy Due to Differences in Emotional Reactivity?  [PDF]
Linda Rueckert, Brandon Branch, Tiffany Doan
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.26088
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether gender differences in empathy reflect differences in self- rated emotion, and whether they are influenced by the nature of the target of the empathy (friend or enemy). 24 men and 36 women were asked to rate how much happiness, sadness, and anger they would feel if each of ten scenarios happened to themselves, and how they would feel if it happened to a friend or enemy. Overall, women rated themselves as feeling more happiness and sadness than men, whether the event happened to themselves, or to a friend or enemy. This suggests gender differences in self-reported empathy may be due to differences in general emotional responsiveness. An empathy score was computed by subtracting, for each scenario, the rating for the other person from the rating for self. Women showed a greater difference between friend and enemy than men.
Lawful Interception of the Internet
Branch, Philip
Australian Journal of Emerging Technologies and Society , 2003,
Abstract: This paper describes the state of Lawful Interception of the Internet and compares it with Lawful Interception of access networks. Lawful Interception is the process of secretly intercepting communications between parties of interest to Law Enforcement agencies. Internet interception is both more difficult and much more immature than access network interception. Refusal by the main standards body of the Internet (the IETF) to be involved in Lawful Interception has left a vacuum in the area which has been filled by complex hardware solutions with potential security and privacy risks. Interception of the Internet is likely to become more common in future than it is now. Without engagement of network researchers and Internet standards setting bodies, Lawful Interception will either be a potential threat to the security and privacy of Internet users, or governments may insist on draconian controls that will significantly affect the development of new Internet based services.
Searching for Hydrogen in Type Ib Supernovae, and for Helium and Hydrogen in Type Ic
David Branch
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: Identifying the progenitors of Type Ib and Type Ic supernovae requires knowing, among other things, whether SNe Ib eject hydrogen, and whether SNe Ic eject helium, and perhaps even hydrogen. Recently it has become clear that some SNe Ib do eject hydrogen, and it may be that all SNe Ib do. Two arguments that have been made in the past that SNe Ic eject helium are difficult to confirm, but I discuss other possible evidence that SNe Ic eject helium, as well as hydrogen. If so, these elements extend to lower ejection velocities than in SNe Ib. The spectroscopic differences between SNe Ib and SNe Ic may depend on the radial distributions of the helium and hydrogen as well as on the ejected masses of helium and hydrogen. We should consider the possibility that SNe Ic are more mixed up.
Direct Analysis of Spectra of Type Ib Supernovae
David Branch
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/338127
Abstract: Synthetic spectra generated with the parameterized supernova synthetic-spectrum code SYNOW are compared to photospheric-phase spectra of Type Ib supernovae (SNe Ib). Although the synthetic spectra are based on many simplifying approximations, including spherical symmetry, they account well for the observed spectra. Our sample of SNe Ib obeys a tight relation between the velocity at the photosphere, as determined from the Fe II features, and the time relative to that of maximum light. From this we infer that the masses and the kinetic energies of the events in this sample were similar. After maximum light the minimum velocity at which the He I features form usually is higher than the velocity at the photosphere, but the minimum velocity of the ejected helium is at least as low as 7000 kms. Previously unpublished spectra of SN 2000H reveal the presence of hydrogen absorption features, and we conclude that hydrogen lines also were present in SNe 1999di and 1954A. Hydrogen appears to be present in SNe Ib in general, although in most events it becomes too weak to identify soon after maximum light. The hydrogen-line optical depths that we use to fit the spectra of SNe 2000H, 1999di, and 1954A are not high, so only a mild reduction in the hydrogen optical depths would be required to make these events look like typical SNe Ib. Similarly, the He I line optical depths are not very high, so a moderate reduction would make SNe Ib look like SNe Ic.
Spectroscopically Peculiar Type Ia Supernovae and Implications for Progenitors
D. Branch
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/318614
Abstract: In a recent paper Li et al. (2000) reported that 36 percent of 45 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered since 1997 in two volume-limited supernova searches were spectroscopically peculiar, and they suggested that because this peculiarity rate is higher than that reported for an earlier observational sample by Branch et al. (1993), it is now more likely that SNe Ia are produced by more than one kind of progenitor. In this paper I discuss and clarify the differences between the results of Li et al. and Branch et al. and I suggest that multiple progenitor systems are now less likely than they were before.
Type Ia Supernovae and the Hubble Constant
D. Branch
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.astro.36.1.17
Abstract: The focus of this review is the work that has been done during the 1990s on using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to measure the Hubble constant ($H_0$). SNe Ia are well suited for measuring $H_0$. A straightforward maximum-light color criterion can weed out the minority of observed events that are either intrinsically subluminous or substantially extinguished by dust, leaving a majority subsample that has observational absolute-magnitude dispersions of less than $\sigma_{obs}(M_B) \simeq \sigma_{obs}(M_V) \simeq 0.3$ mag. Correlations between absolute magnitude and one or more distance-independent SN Ia or parent-galaxy observables can be used to further standardize the absolute magnitudes to better than 0.2 mag. The absolute magnitudes can be calibrated in two independent ways --- empirically, using Cepheid-based distances to parent galaxies of SNe Ia, and physically, by light curve and spectrum fitting. At present the empirical and physical calibrations are in agreement at $M_B \simeq M_V \simeq -19.4$ or -19.5. Various ways that have been used to match Cepheid-calibrated SNe Ia or physical models to SNe Ia that have been observed out in the Hubble flow have given values of $H_0$ distributed throughout the range 54 to 67 km/s Mpc$^{-1}$. Astronomers who want a consensus value of $H_0$ from SNe Ia with conservative errors could, for now, use $60 \pm 10$ km/s Mpc^{-1}$.
Direct Analysis of Spectra of Type Ic Supernovae
D. Branch
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: Synthetic spectra generated with the parameterized supernova synthetic-spectrum code SYNOW are compared with observed photospheric-phase optical spectra of the normal Type Ic SN 1994I and the peculiar Type Ic SNe 1997ef and 1998bw. The observed spectra can be matched fairly well with synthetic spectra that are based on spherical symmetry and that include lines of just a few ions that are expected to appear on the basis of LTE calculations. Spectroscopic estimates of the mass and kinetic energy of the line-forming layers of the ejected matter give conventional values for SN 1994I but high kinetic energy ($\sim 30 \times 10^{51}$ erg) for SN 1997ef and even higher ($\sim 60 \times 10^{51}$ erg) for SN 1998bw. It is likely that even if SNe 1997ef and 1998bw were non-spherical, they also were hyper-energetic.
Type Ia Supernovae: Toward the Standard Model?
David Branch
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1063/1.1377070
Abstract: In this short review I suggest that recent developments support the conjecture that Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the complete disruptions of Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarfs in single-degenerate binary systems. The causes of the observational diversity of SNe Ia within the context of this standard model, and the implications of the model for young remnants of SNe Ia, are briefly discussed.
A Study of Social Engineering in Online Frauds  [PDF]
Brandon Atkins, Wilson Huang
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2013.13004
Abstract:
Social engineering is a psychological exploitation which scammers use to skillfully manipulate human weaknesses and carry out emotional attacks on innocent people. This study examined the contents of 100 phishing e-mails and 100 advance-fee-scam e-mails, and evaluated the persuasion techniques exploited by social engineers for their illegal gains. The analyses showed that alert and account verification were the two primary triggers used to raise the attention of phishing e-mail recipients. These phishing e-mails were typically followed by a threatening tone via urgency. In advance-fee e-mails, timing is a lesser concern; potential monetary gain is the main trigger. Business proposals and large unclaimed funds were the two most common incentives used to lure victims. The study revealed that social engineers use statements in positive and negative manners in combination with authoritative and urgent persuasions to influence innocent people on their decisions to respond. Since it is highly unlikely that online fraud will ever be completely eliminated, the most important strategy that can be directed to combat social engineering attacks is to educate the public on potential threats from perpetrators.
Surgical Flap and Graft Reconstruction Workshop for Dermatology Residents  [PDF]
Brandon Goodwin, Richard Wagner
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2015.52011
Abstract: Background: Traditional models for teaching surgical principles focus primarily on the apprenticeship theory; however there has been a trend in surgical education to certifying competency in a simulation environment prior to working with patients. Many surgical models emphasize learning the technical and manual dexterity skills necessary to be a surgeon, yet few focus on obtaining the theoretical and abstract skills needed for planning complex cutaneous surgical repairs with flaps and grafts. We developed and evaluated a novel surgical flaps and grafts workshop for residents through the Department of Dermatology. Methods: Participants received a 60 minute PowerPoint lecture focusing on the basic principles of cutaneous repair with flaps and grafts, with examples and explanation of each of the four main types of flaps and grafts. The participants then received nine photocopies of Mohs micrographic surgery defects with instructions to design three repairs, focusing on functional and aesthetic outcome. Hypothetical and actual repair designs were then discussed in an open forum format. Anonymous surveys administered to 11 dermatology residents assessed their knowledge level, confidence level, and likelihood of using flaps and grafts pre- and post-workshop using Likert scales. Overall experience was also assessed. A paired sample Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was used for analysis, since the data was non-parametrically distributed. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in confidence performing flaps post workshop (p = 0.0469). There was also an increase in knowledge of flaps and grafts, confidence in planning flaps and grafts, and confidence in performing grafts post workshop, but these findings did not reach statistical significance. The workshop had no effect on expected future use of flaps and grafts. Conclusions: The surgical workshop is a novel simulation teaching tool for learning basic principles and design of flaps and grafts in cutaneous surgery.
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