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In-Silico Drug Design: A revolutionary approach to change the concept of current Drug Discovery Process
Lakhyajit Boruah, Aparoop Das, Lalit Mohan Nainwal, Neha Agarwal*, Brajesh Shankar
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research , 2013,
Abstract: Computational methods play a central role in modern drug discovery process. It includes the design andmanagement of small molecule libraries, initial hit identification through virtual screening, optimization ofthe affinity as well as selectivity of hits and improving the physicochemical properties of the leadcompounds. In this review article, computational drug designing approaches have been elucidated anddiscussed. The key considerations and guidelines for virtual chemical library design and whole drugdiscovery process. Traditional approach for discovery of a new drug is a costly and time consuming affairbesides not being so productive. A number of potential reasons witness choosing the In-silico method ofdrug design to be a more wise and productive approach. There is a general perception that applied sciencehas not kept pace with the advances of basic science. Therefore, there is a need for the use of alternativetools to get answers on efficacy and safety faster, with more certainty and at lower cost. In-silico drugdesign can play a significant role in all stages of drug development from the initial lead designing to finalstage clinical development.
International Linkages of the Indian Commodity Futures Markets  [PDF]
Brajesh Kumar, Ajay Pandey
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.23027
Abstract: This paper investigates the cross market linkages of Indian commodity futures for nine commodities with futures markets outside India. These commodities range from highly tradable commodities to less tradable agricultural commodities. We analyze the cross market linkages in terms of return and volatility spillovers. The nine commodities consist of two agricultural commodities: Soybean, and Corn, three metals: Aluminum, Copper and Zinc, two precious metals: Gold and Silver, and two energy commodities: Crude oil and Natural gas. Return spillover is investigated through Johansen’s cointegration test, error correction model, Granger causality test and variance decomposition techniques. We apply Bivariate GARCH model (BEKK) to investtigate volatility spillover between India and other World markets. We find that futures prices of agricultural commodities traded at National Commodity Derivatives Exchange, India (NCDEX) and Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), prices of precious metals traded at Multi Commodity Exchange, India (MCX) and NYMEX, prices of industrial metals traded at MCX and the London Metal Exchange (LME) and prices of energy commodities traded at MCX and NYMEX are cointegrated. In case of commodities, it is found that world markets have bigger (unidirectional) impact on Indian markets. In bivariate model, we found bi-directional return spillover between MCX and LME markets. However, effect of LME on MCX is stronger than the effect of MCX on LME. Results of return and volatility spillovers indicate that the Indian commodity futures markets function as a satellite market and assimilate information from the world market.
Effectiveness of Banks after M & A  [PDF]
Brajesh Kumar Tiwari
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.41001
Abstract:

The goal of a bank merger is to increase the banks value in one way or another. The days of liberalization and globalization are in and there is a spate of mergers and acquisition which is sweeping the corporate world. Consolidation in the banking sector should largely be synergy-driven to acquire a quantum jump in the performance of the combined entity (2 + 2 ≥ 5). It can be achieved by combining complementary strengths, giving a better geographical spread, serving a larger number of customers in a better way with more diversified products and skills, realizing the opportunities for cross-selling, containing the cost of the merged entity, reduced competition, better utilization of available resources and deriving economies of scale. Over the last one and a half decade, the banking sector in India has not only grown in terms of size but also matured, diversified and consolidated to contribute towards building a robust financial system. In this paper, five cases of bank merger have been taken and Null Hypothesis, i.e. there is no difference in mean value of selected variables before merger and after the merger, is set and found rejected (in most of the variables). On the basis of the overall analysis, merger of Bank of Karad Ltd. (BOK) with Bank of India (BOI) was more effective in most of the variables as compared to merger of the New Bank of India (NBI) with Punjab National Bank (PNB), Benaras State Bank Ltd. (BSB) with Bank of Baroda (BOB), Nedungadi Bank Ltd. (NBL) with Punjab

Structure and Dielectric Relaxation Behaviour of [Pb0.94Sr0.06][(Mn1/3Sb2/3)0.05 (Zr0.49Ti0.51)0.95]O3 Ceramics  [PDF]
Kumar Brajesh, Kiran Kumari
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.53022
Abstract: The field dependences of the dielectric response and conductivity are measured in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz and in a temperature range from 300 K to about 775 K. The dielectric measurements (real and imaginary parts) of this composition with temperature (300 K - 775 K) at different frequencies (100 Hz - 1 MHz) unambiguously point towards relaxor behaviour of the material. The real part of the dielectric constant is found to decrease with increasing frequency at different temperatures while the position of dielectric loss peak shifts to higher frequencies with increasing temperature indicating a strong dispersion beyond the transition temperature, a feature known for relaxational systems such as dipole glasses. The frequency dependence of the loss peak obeys an Arrhenius law with activation energy of 0.15 eV. The distribution of relaxation times is confirmed by Cole-Cole plots as well as the scaling behavior of the imaginary part of the electric modulus. The frequency-dependent electrical data are also analyzed in the framework of the conductivity and modulus formalisms. Both these formalisms yield qualitative similarities in the relaxation times. The Rietveld analysis conforms that the materials exhibits tetragonal structure. The SEM photographs of the sintered specimens present the homogenous structures and well-grown grains with a sharp grain boundary.
Isolation of enriched-yielders and fed-batch production of alkaline protease from the newly isolated Bacillus sp. BHA  [PDF]
Bhawana Agarwal, Brajesh S. Katiyar
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.56A001
Abstract:

An alkalophilc and thermophilic Bacillus sp. BHA that produced a thermostable alkaline protease was isolated from decaying protein substrates. The isolate was found to grow in pH range 7 - 11 with an optimum pH 9.0 and temperature up to 55. The activity of alkaline protease of Bacillus sp. BHA (68.98 APU/ml) was found higher than the standard strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MTCC 610 (8.98 APU/ml) and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 8349 (12.14 APU/ml, used in this study, and was comparable (68.98 APU/ml, equivalent to 30.38 APU/mg) to the activity of the commercially produced standard protease procured from Novo Nordisk, Denmark (30.35 APU/mg). Hence, the proteolytic activity produced by this isolate was further investigated in batch and fed-batch process. Sucrose was the best carbon source for the production of protease activity by that isolate. Different organic nitrogen sources (casein, peptone and beef extract) at 1% (w/v) with varying levels of sucrose (1% - 4% w/v) initially repress enzyme synthesis. The duration and extent of repression decreased with increased concentration of sucrose. Maximum protease activity was found in basal medium with 4% (w/v) sucrose and 1% (w/v) yeast extract. Yeast-extract was thought to be an inducer of enzyme synthesis. Further, the basal medium was unique with respect to the enzyme production, as protease production was growth associated with the peak enzyme production being detected at the time of maximum growth. Interestingly, a rise in 34.2% (104.86 APU/ml) of protease activity was detected at incubation temperature of 50 and when culture filtrate was assayed at 60, signifying a high temperature stability of the produced protease by this isolate. Additional studies on the enzyme characterization were resulted in recognition of highly significant properties of the activity towards casein at pH 9.0 and stability at high temperature with retention of 96% the enzyme activity at 60. The parametric study under feed intervals had enabled improvement in the

Prominent occurrence of iron oxides at KTB mass extinction: a review
Brajesh Pandey
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Out of the five major mass extinction, which have taken place in the history of life, Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary (KTB) mass extinction was the 2nd most disastrous, the most severe being that at Permian–Triassic boundary (PTB). On the basis of iridium anomaly at a number of KTB sites it has been established that the cause of extinction was impact with an extraterrestrial bollide. The iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and iron minerals such as illite, phyllosilicate, jarosite etc. present in the rock samples from KTB form a major part. One can study different phases of iron oxide/oxyhydroxide present in the KTB samples with the help of M ssbauer spectroscopy. The M ssbauer studies showed that at KTB sites nanophase goethite and/or hematite are present without coexistence of their counterpart bulk size iron oxide/oxyhydroxide minerals. The amount of nanophase iron oxides well correlate with iridium concentration showing that the nanophase iron minerals are genetically related to the events at KTB. Thus these nanophase iron compounds were formed in the geochemical conditions created by the impact, and not by slow weathering. The iron mineralogy at some other extinction sites is found to be very similar to that at KTB although there is no iridium anomaly. This raises an interesting suggestion that iron mineralogy i.e. presence of nano-sized oxide and oxhydroxide particles alone without the existence of bulk iron-oxide in sedimentary layers can be used as impact markers. Studies carried out on some off-KTB rock samples also showed iron mineral composition similar to that at KTB without having iridium anomaly. This opens up the new questions whether these layers are also result of some large meteoritic impact?
M ssbauer and magnetization studies of nanosize chromium ferrite
Brajesh Pandey
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Nanosize chromium ferrite (CrF) powder samples were synthesized by citrate precursor route in the size range of 6 to 35 nm. The structural and magnetic behaviour of these samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and M ssbauer spectroscopic techniques. Synthesized chromium ferrite powders were in good phase and showed spinel structure in the XRD pattern. Nanocrystalline CrF powder samples interact with the laboratory magnet strongly and show large magnetization in the VSM measurement. In these CrF samples, maximum magnetization sensitively depends on the particle size of synthesized powders. We observed about 12 A-m2/kg of magnetization in 35 nm chromium ferrite samples. In spite of this much magnetization in the chromium ferrite nanoparticles, no hyperfine splitting was observed even down to a temperature 16 K.
Assessment of slow blighting (Alternaria brassicae) resistance and yield in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss.)
BRAJESH KUMAR*
Indian Phytopathology , 2011,
Abstract: Field resistance/partial resistance to Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae) was assessed in nine genotypes of Indian mustard under field conditions. Three genotypes Viz. PR 8988, PR 9024 and Kranti exhibited partial resistance and had lowest per cent blight cover, apparent infection rate and AUDPC values. Size of spots was more robust parameter in identifying blighting resistance. Size of spots was positively & significantly correlated with maximum severity (r=0.985), leaf defoliation (r=0.934) and sporulation (r=0.985). The magnitude of correlation coefficients being greater than other parameters. The yield potential of the genotypes was negatively correlated with all blighting assessment parameters.
Performance improvement of TCP over wireless network
Raja singh,Brajesh patel
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: TCP’s congestion control suffers from a coarse granularity when applied to the multihop ad hoc environment.To overcome this problem, we propose a rate based wireless congestion control protocol (WCCP). There are two components in WCCP. One is at the transport layer. It replaces the window adjusting algorithm of TCP with a rate control algorithm to regulate the sending rate. The other is between the networking layer and the MAC layer. It monitors and possibly modifies the feedback field in TCP data packets when it passes the outgoingpackets from the networking layer to the MAC layer and the incoming packets in the reverse direction.
COMMUNICATION BY 31 BIT HAMMING CODE TRANSCEIVER WITH EVEN PARITY OR ODD PARITY CHECK METHOD USING VHDL
brajesh kumar gupta
International Journal of Electronics, Computer and Communications Technologies , 2012,
Abstract: In communication system communication is possible in three modes. They are simplex, half duplex and full duplex mode. Here, we are working on full duplex mode by using the property of transceiver. Transceiver can transmits and receives data simultaneously. Here we generate 31 bit code to transmit 25 bit information data. And also find 25 bit actual information data from 31 bit received code. To generate 31 bit data string form 25 bit actual information data for transmission at transmitting end we use Hamming code method. Here we also use Hamming code methodology for finding 25 bit actual information data from received 31 bit data string at receiving end. To transmit 25 bit actual information data by using Hamming code even parity and odd parity check method we have to add 5 redundancy bits and 1 bit for deciding the type of parity used (even parity and odd parity ) in actual data string . After adding these 6 bits in 25 bit information data we get 31 bit data string for transmission at transmitting end. At receiver section, we find 25 bit actual information data string from 31 bit received data string. To find 25 bit information data from 31 bit received data sting we need 5 bit for finding error bit location (if any single bit or double bit error is occurred) and 1 bit is needed for selecting the same parity check method, which we have used at transmitting end. Here we have written VHDL code for generating 31 bit data string code form 25 bit information data by Hamming code even parity and odd parity check methodology for transmission at transmitting end. Here we also written VHDL code at receiving end for finding 25 bit actual information data from received 31 bit data string code by Hamming code even parity and odd parity check method. Here we
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