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rare tumors, gangliogliomas account for 0.4% - 0.9% of intracranial neoplasms.
The peak of its incidence occurs between 10 and 20 years of age. These tumors
are composed of glial and ganglion cells and they are relatively low-grade
neoplasms associated with good prognoses. We report a case of an atypical
calcified ganglioglioma in an 18-year-old woman with history of four months of
stabbing right-sided parietal headache, paroxysmal. On image studies were noted
the presence of thick wall calcification in gangliogliomas. Although rare, this
atypical ganglioglioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of
lesions occurring in this area of the brain.
Small cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) is an extremely rare pathology with an aggressive behavior, characterized by early brain metastases. We describe three cases of SCPC where brain metastases occurred despite response to chemotherapy. The benefit of prophylactic brain irradiation (PBI), as part of the management of SCPC, is discussed and compared to its indications in small cell lung cancer.
The brain is protected from the entry of foreign substances by blood-brain barrier (BBB), but becomes a barrier while chemotherapy
is needed for the brain diseases. Ultrasound with microbubbles (MBs) has been
shown to noninvasively increase the permeability of the BBB in the normal
tissue and brain tumor. The real mechanism for disruption is still unknown.
Hemorrhage was usually found in the sonicated region of the brain. Thus,
treatment safety is the primary concern when considering clinical application
of BBB disruption induced by ultrasound in the presence of MBs. Here we
investigate the effects of ultrasound on the permeability of BBB whether the
MBs were administered. The data reveals that Evans blue (EB)
accumulation was highest in the brain after sonication with MBs. However, the
permeability of BBB also can be significantly increased by ultrasound alone.
These results demonstrated that noninvasive disruption of BBB by ultrasound
alone with no damage is possible.
Objectives: Iodine deficiency (ID) is a common cause of preventable brain damage and mental retardation worldwide, according to the World Health Organisation. It may adversely affect brain maturation processes that potentially result in structural and metabolic brain abnormalities, visible on Magnetic Resonance (MR) techniques. Currently, however, there has been no review of the appearance of these brain changes on MR methods. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using 3 online search databases (Medline, Embase and Web of Knowledge) using multiple combinations of the following search terms: iodine, iodine deficiency, magnetic resonance, MRI, MRS, brain, imaging and iodine deficiency disorders (i.e. hypothyroxinaemia, congenital hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism and cretinism). Results: Up to May 2013, 1673 related papers were found. Of these, 29 studies confirmed their findings directly using MR Imaging and/or MR Spectroscopy. Of them, 28 were in humans and involved 157 subjects, 46 of whom had primary hypothyroidism, 97 had congenital hypothyroidism, 3 had endemic cretinism and 11 had subclinical hypothyroidism. The studies were small, with a mean relevant sample size of 6, median 2, range 1 - 35, while 14 studies were individual case reports. T1-weighted was the most commonly used MRI sequence (20/29 studies) and 1.5 Tesla was the most commonly used magnet strength (6/10 studies that provided this information). Pituitary abnormalities (18/29 studies) and cerebellar atrophy (3/29 studies) were the most prevalent brain abnormalities found. Only fMRI studies (3/29) reported cognition-related abnormalities but the brain changes found were limited to a visual description in all studies. Conclusions: More studies that use MR methods to identify changes on brain volume or other global structural abnormalities and explain the mechanism of ID causing thyroid dysfunction and hence cognitive damage are required. Given the role of MR techniques in cognitive studies, this review provides a starting point for researching the macroscopic structural brain changes caused by ID.