Abstract:
The present study examined the clinical utility of eye movement tracking in the differential diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Reading Disorder (RD). It was anticipated that eye movement tracking would provide a better understanding of the underlying deficits that potentially contribute to reading difficulties among children with ADHD and RD. Participants included 27 children diagnosed with ADHD, 20 that met criteria for a reading disorder and 30 Control children with no clinical diagnosis. All participants were between the ages of 6 to 12. Consistent with previous research, children in the RD group displayed slower reading time, longer fixation duration and more atypical eye movements as compared to Control children. Children with ADHD also displayed more atypical eye movement as compared to Control children. The only significant difference between the ADHD and RD groups was in total reading time. Results of a discriminant analysis revealed that less than 60% of participants were given the correct diagnostic classification based on total reading time and proportion of left to right saccades indicating limited support for this measure in diagnosis of ADHD versus RD.

Abstract:
A novel theoretical model is presented maintaining that consciousness evolved on the basis of time distinctions. Various models of time pertain to the existence of future, present and past. It is proposed that the future represents potentialities, the present the actualization of certain potentialities, and the past a record of actualized potentialities. Actualization of potentialities derives from micro quantum wave function collapses with specific constellations corresponding to macro level form. Consciousness provides for an awareness of potentialities being actualized in the present, the time frame of consciousness closely aligning with the time frame of potentialities being actualized in the moment. Evolution of such awareness is highly probable, given the ensuing motivation enabling behavior to be altered in the moment to minimize the actualization of maladaptive potentialities, and maximize the actualization of adaptive potentialities. The model also provides a logical proof for the occurrence of time distinctions.

Abstract:
The mass of the top quark M_top is interesting both as a fundamental parameter of the standard model and as an important input to precision electroweak tests. The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) has a robust program of top quark mass analyses, including the most precise single measurement, M_top = 173.4 +/- 2.8 GeV/c^2, using 680 pb^-1 of ppbar collision data. A combination of current results from CDF gives M_top = 172.0 +/- 2.7 GeV/c^2, surpassing the stated goal of 3 GeV/c^2 precision using 2 fb^-1 of data. Finally, a combination with current D0 results gives a world average top quark mass of 172.5 +/- 2.3 GeV/c^2.

Abstract:
This paper reports a series of measurements that characterize the directional dependence of the scintillation response of crystalline anthracene to incident DT neutrons, DD neutrons, Cs-137 gamma rays, and, for the first time, cosmic ray muons. The neutron measurements give the amplitude and pulse shape dependence on the proton recoil direction over one hemisphere of the crystal, confirming and extending previous results in the literature. In similar measurements using incident gamma rays, no directional effect is evident, and any anisotropy with respect to the electron recoil direction is constrained to have a magnitude of less than a tenth of that present in the proton recoil events. Cosmic muons are measured at two directions, and no anisotropy is observed. This set of observations indicates that high dE/dx is necessary for an anisotropy to be present for a given type of scintillation event, which in turn could be used to discriminate among different hypotheses for the underlying causes of the anisotropy, which are not well understood.

Abstract:
We study Whittaker coefficients for maximal parabolic Eisenstein series on metaplectic covers of split reductive groups. By the theory of Eisenstein series these coefficients have meromorphic continuation and functional equation. However they are not Eulerian and the standard methods to compute them in the reductive case do not apply to covers. For "cominuscule" maximal parabolics, we give an explicit description of the coefficients as Dirichlet series whose arithmetic content is expressed in an exponential sum. The exponential sum is then shown to satisfy a twisted multiplicativity, reducing its determination to prime power contributions. These, in turn, are connected to Lusztig data for canonical bases on the dual group using a result of Kamnitzer. The exponential sum at prime powers is then evaluated for generic Lusztig data. To handle the remaining degenerate cases, the evaluation of the exponential sum appears best expressed in terms of string data for canonical bases, as shown in a detailed example in $GL_4$. Thus we demonstrate that the arithmetic part of metaplectic Whittaker coefficients is intimately connected to the relations between these two expressions for canonical bases.

Abstract:
We use statistical mechanics -- variants of the six-vertex model in the plane studied by means of the Yang-Baxter equation -- to give new deformations of Weyl's character formula for classical groups of Cartan type B, C, and D, and a character formula of Proctor for type BC. In each case, the corresponding Boltzmann weights are associated to the free fermion point of the six-vertex model. These deformations add to the earlier known examples in types A and C by Tokuyama and Hamel-King, respectively. A special case for classical types recovers deformations of the Weyl denominator formula due to Okada.

Abstract:
Deficit irrigation is widely used in wine grape production (Vitis vinifera L.) to meet wine quality goals yet its influence on tissue nutrient indices has not been well studied. The objective of this research was to determine whether response to water deficit compromised the prescriptive usefulness of tissue nutrient analyses. Tissue macro and micronutrient composition at bloom and veraison were evaluated over multiple seasons in nine wine grape cultivars grown under well-watered or deficit-irrigated conditions. Deficit-irrigated vines sampled at veraison had 2 to 12-fold higher petiole nitrate-nitrogen concentration, 6% lower blade nitrogen concentration and 13% lower blade copper concentration compared to well-watered vines. Water deficit influenced blade potassium concentration at veraison differently according to cultivar and was lower (cv. Malbec, Petite syrah, Viognier, Lemberger and Sangiovese), higher (cv. Merlot, Cabernet franc and Cabernet Sauvignon) or similar (cv. Grenache) to well-watered vines. Results from this study indicate that nutrient analysis of petiole or blade tissue sampled at veraison has limited diagnostic and prescriptive usefulness when vines are grown under a water deficit.

Abstract:
Determining the 3D structures of biological molecules is a key problem for both biology and medicine. Electron Cryomicroscopy (Cryo-EM) is a promising technique for structure estimation which relies heavily on computational methods to reconstruct 3D structures from 2D images. This paper introduces the challenging Cryo-EM density estimation problem as a novel application for stochastic optimization techniques. Structure discovery is formulated as MAP estimation in a probabilistic latent-variable model, resulting in an optimization problem to which an array of seven stochastic optimization methods are applied. The methods are tested on both real and synthetic data, with some methods recovering reasonable structures in less than one epoch from a random initialization. Complex quasi-Newton methods are found to converge more slowly than simple gradient-based methods, but all stochastic methods are found to converge to similar optima. This method represents a major improvement over existing methods as it is significantly faster and is able to converge from a random initialization.

Abstract:
The r-parity tensor of a graph is a generalization of the adjacency matrix, where the tensor's entries denote the parity of the number of edges in subgraphs induced by r distinct vertices. For r=2, it is the adjacency matrix with 1's for edges and -1's for nonedges. It is well-known that the 2-norm of the adjacency matrix of a random graph is O(\sqrt{n}). Here we show that the 2-norm of the r-parity tensor is at most f(r)\sqrt{n}\log^{O(r)}n, answering a question of Frieze and Kannan who proved this for r=3. As a consequence, we get a tight connection between the planted clique problem and the problem of finding a vector that approximates the 2-norm of the r-parity tensor of a random graph. Our proof method is based on an inductive application of concentration of measure.

Abstract:
Standard oxidation-reduction reactions such as those of ferrocyanide and ferrocene have long been employed in evaluating and comparing new electrode structures with more traditional configurations. A variety of nanostructured carbon electrodes developed in recent years have been reported to exhibit faster electron transfer kinetics than more traditional carbon structures when studied with these redox reactions. This type of comparison has not been widely explored for nanostructured platinum electrodes that have become increasingly common. In this work, a platinum nanotubule array electrode was fabricated via a simple template-based process and evaluated using the standard ferrocyanide redox reaction. The nanotubule array electrodes were observed to more closely approach ideal reversible behavior than a typical Pt black/Nafion fuel cell electrode or a standard polished Pt disc electrode. The apparent heterogeneous electron transfer coefficient was determined using the Nicholson method and found to be one to two orders of magnitude greater for the nanotubule array electrodes, depending on the diameter of the nanotubules, in comparison with these same two more traditional electrode structures. 1. Introduction Metal nanowires, rods, tubes, and other so-called “one-dimensional nanostructures” [1–3] have drawn increasing attention due to their unique properties. Among the wide variety of methods reported for fabrication of such nanostructures are template-based methods [2, 4–8]), electrospinning [9], deposition onto nanowire or nanofiber supports [10–12], and others [13–15]. One-dimensional carbon and metallic nanostructures have shown promise in electrocatalytic applications, such as in small fuel cells and electrochemical sensors. Beyond their high surface-to-volume ratio, these nanostructures present many potential advantages in electrocatalytic applications, including fewer diffusion impeding interfaces with polymeric binders, more facile pathways for electron transfer, and more effective exposure of active surface sites. Standard redox reactions such as those of ferrocyanide or ferrocene have long been employed as benchmarks in evaluating various carbon [16] and platinum [17–20] electrode structures, preparation techniques, and surface treatments. While carbon nanotube-based electrodes have been widely evaluated in this manner [21–25], electrochemical studies of platinum nanostructures have focused on organic molecules important to fuel cells (e.g., methanol and formic acid) [3, 8, 26] or various biosensor applications [1, 27]. Comparison of results for