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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462522 matches for " Boyd A. Swinburn "
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The process evaluation of It's Your Move!, an Australian adolescent community-based obesity prevention project
Louise B Mathews, Marj M Moodie, Annie M Simmons, Boyd A Swinburn
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-448
Abstract: The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation), a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring) and a Project Management Committee (project delivery). A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week) and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities.The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as physical activity practices were seen by the teachers as already meeting students' needs.While substantial health-promoting activities were conducted (especially related to healthy eating), there remain further opportunities for secondary schools to use a whole-of-school approach through the school curriculum, environment, policies and ethos to improve healthy eating, physical activity and healthy body perceptions in youth. To achieve this, significant, sustained leadership will be required within the education sector generally and within schools specifically.The prevalence of adolescent obesity continues to rise in many countries [1,2] and reversing this trend is a major public health challen
Increasing community capacity to prevent childhood obesity: challenges, lessons learned and results from the Romp & Chomp intervention
Florentine P de Groot, Narelle M Robertson, Boyd A Swinburn, Andrea M de Silva-Sanigorski
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-522
Abstract: A mixed methods evaluation with three data sources was utilised. 1) Document analysis comprised assessment of the documented formative and intervention activities against a capacity building framework (five domains: Partnerships, Leadership, Resource Allocation, Workforce Development, and Organisational Development); 2) Thematic analysis of key informant interviews (n = 16); and 3) the quantitative Community Capacity Index Survey.Document analysis showed that the majority of the capacity building activities addressed the Partnerships, Resource Allocation and Organisational Development domains of capacity building, with a lack of activity in the Leadership and Workforce Development domains. The thematic analysis revealed the establishment of sustainable partnerships, use of specialist advice, and integration of activities into ongoing formal training for early childhood workers. Complex issues also emerged from the key informant interviews regarding the challenges of limited funding, high staff turnover, changing governance structures, lack of high level leadership and unclear communication strategies. The Community Capacity Index provided further evidence that the project implementation network achieved a moderate level of capacity.Romp & Chomp increased the capacity of organisations, settings and services in the Geelong community to support healthy eating and physical activity for young children. Despite this success there are important learnings from this mixed methods evaluation that should inform current and future community-based public health and health promotion initiatives.ANZCTRN12607000374460Health promoters and public health practitioners have existing knowledge about what 'works' in health promotion, however the evidence suggests that the majority of the positive outcomes are not sustained [1]. The focus therefore needs to be on ways to make the impacts of public health and health promotion initiatives sustainable, and community capacity building has eme
Regulation to Create Environments Conducive to Physical Activity: Understanding the Barriers and Facilitators at the Australian State Government Level
Jane Shill, Helen Mavoa, Brad Crammond, Bebe Loff, Anna Peeters, Mark Lawrence, Steven Allender, Gary Sacks, Boyd A. Swinburn
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042831
Abstract: Introduction Policy and regulatory interventions aimed at creating environments more conducive to physical activity (PA) are an important component of strategies to improve population levels of PA. However, many potentially effective policies are not being broadly implemented. This study sought to identify potential policy/regulatory interventions targeting PA environments, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state/territory government level. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n = 40) to examine participants': 1) suggestions for regulatory interventions to create environments more conducive to PA; 2) support for preselected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Thematic and constant comparative analyses were conducted. Results Policy interventions most commonly suggested by participants fell into two areas: 1) urban planning and provision of infrastructure to promote active travel; 2) discouraging the use of private motorised vehicles. Of the eleven preselected interventions presented to participants, interventions relating to walkability/cycling and PA facilities received greatest support. Interventions involving subsidisation (of public transport, PA-equipment) and the provision of more public transport infrastructure received least support. These were perceived as not economically viable or unlikely to increase PA levels. Dominant barriers were: the powerful ‘road lobby’, weaknesses in the planning system and the cost of potential interventions. Facilitators were: the provision of evidence, collaboration across sectors, and synergies with climate change/environment agendas. Conclusion This study points to how difficult it will be to achieve policy change when there is a powerful ‘road lobby’ and government investment prioritises road infrastructure over PA-promoting infrastructure. It highlights the pivotal role of the planning and transport sectors in implementing PA-promoting policy, however suggests the need for clearer guidelines and responsibilities for state and local government levels in these areas. Health outcomes need to be given more direct consideration and greater priority within non-health sectors.
Process evaluation of a community-based adolescent obesity prevention project in Tonga
Kalesita F Fotu, Marj M Moodie, Helen M Mavoa, Siosifa Pomana, Jimaima T Schultz, Boyd A Swinburn
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-284
Abstract: MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models.While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns.The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider than the target group), but the dose and frequency of activities were generally insufficient and not sustained. Also the project confirmed that, while the MYP resulted in increased community awareness of healthy behaviours, Tonga is still in its infancy in terms of conducting public health research and lacks research infrastructure and capacity.The prevalence of obesity and associated diseases such as diabetes and hypertension is very high and increasing in the Pacific [1-3]. Tonga is among the top five countries worldwide in terms of obesity, [4] with 84% of Tongan males and 93% of females classified as overweight or obese [5]. During the last 30 years, Tonga has experienced an epidemiological transition characterized b
Assessing the intake of obesity-related foods and beverages in young children: comparison of a simple population survey with 24 hr-recall
Cheryl-Ann Bennett, Andrea M de Silva-Sanigorski, Melanie Nichols, Andrew C Bell, Boyd A Swinburn
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-6-71
Abstract: A convenience sample of participants (n = 90) recruited through preschools and the community in Geelong, Australia provided dietary data for their child via EPAQ and interviewer-administered 24-hour dietary recall (24 hr-recall). Comparison of mean food and beverage group servings between the EPAQ and 24 hr-recall was conducted and Spearman rank correlations were computed to examine the association between the two methods.Mean servings of food/beverage groups were comparable between methods for all groups except water, and significant correlations were found between the servings of food and beverages using the EPAQ and 24-hr recall methods (ranging from 0.57 to 0.88).The EPAQ is a simple and useful population-level tool for estimating the intake of obesity-related foods and beverages in children aged two to five years. When compared with 24-hour recall data, the EPAQ produced an acceptable level of relative validity and this short survey has application for population monitoring and the evaluation of population-based obesity prevention interventions for young children.The increasing prevalence of obesity in children has been partially attributed to the over-consumption of energy-dense, nutrient poor foods and sugar-sweetened beverages [1-6]. Fast food, packaged snacks, sweet drinks, and biscuits (cookies) have also been shown to contribute significant amounts of energy to children's diets in Australia [7,8], as in other Western countries.In general, dietary assessment tools for children assess the whole diet and are focused on individual nutritional adequacy or excess. There is, however, a demand for validated tools that specifically assess the intake of energy dense foods and sugar sweetened beverages which are easily and cheaply administered to large groups for population monitoring and the evaluation of obesity-related health promotion programs. Such tools are particularly lacking for use in populations of young children [9,10] which requires proxy reporting from
A Prospective Study of Diet Quality and Mental Health in Adolescents
Felice N. Jacka, Peter J. Kremer, Michael Berk, Andrea M. de Silva-Sanigorski, Marjorie Moodie, Eva R. Leslie, Julie A. Pasco, Boyd A. Swinburn
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024805
Abstract: Objectives A number of cross-sectional and prospective studies have now been published demonstrating inverse relationships between diet quality and the common mental disorders in adults. However, there are no existing prospective studies of this association in adolescents, the onset period of most disorders, limiting inferences regarding possible causal relationships. Methods In this study, 3040 Australian adolescents, aged 11–18 years at baseline, were measured in 2005–6 and 2007–8. Information on diet and mental health was collected by self-report and anthropometric data by trained researchers. Results There were cross-sectional, dose response relationships identified between measures of both healthy (positive) and unhealthy (inverse) diets and scores on the emotional subscale of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), where higher scores mean better mental health, before and after adjustments for age, gender, socio-economic status, dieting behaviours, body mass index and physical activity. Higher healthy diet scores at baseline also predicted higher PedsQL scores at follow-up, while higher unhealthy diet scores at baseline predicted lower PedsQL scores at follow-up. Improvements in diet quality were mirrored by improvements in mental health over the follow-up period, while deteriorating diet quality was associated with poorer psychological functioning. Finally, results did not support the reverse causality hypothesis. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of diet in adolescence and its potential role in modifying mental health over the life course. Given that the majority of common mental health problems first manifest in adolescence, intervention studies are now required to test the effectiveness of preventing the common mental disorders through dietary modification.
Healthy eating and obesity prevention for preschoolers: a randomised controlled trial
Helen Skouteris, Marita McCabe, Boyd Swinburn, Briony Hill
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-220
Abstract: This randomised controlled trial will be conducted with 200 parents and their 2-4 year old children who attend the MEND 2-4 program in metropolitan and regional Victoria. Parent-child dyads will attend ten 90-minute group workshops. These workshops focus on general nutrition, as well as physical activity and behaviours. They are typically held at community or maternal and child health centres and run by a MEND 2-4 trained program leader. Child eating habits, physical activity levels and parental behaviours and cognitions pertaining to nutrition and physical activity will be assessed at baseline, the end of the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months post the intervention. Informed consent will be obtained from all parents, who will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or wait-list control group.Our study is the first RCT of a healthy eating and childhood obesity prevention intervention targeted specifically to Australian parents and their preschool children aged 2-4 years. It responds to the call by experts in the area of childhood obesity and child health that prevention of overweight in the formative preschool years should focus on parents, given that parental beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and behaviours appear to impact significantly on the development of early overweight. This is 'solution-oriented' rather than 'problem-oriented' research, with its focus being on prevention rather than intervention. If this is a positive trial, the MEND2-4 program can be implemented as a national program.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000200088Epidemiological studies indicate that childhood overweight is a serious problem in Australia, with an estimated 1 in 4 Australian school aged children and adolescents either overweight or obese [1]. Alarmingly, obesity is seen in even younger children, with rates of overweight and obesity almost doubling in a sample of 114,669 Australian 4-year-olds over the period 1995-2002 [2]. More recently, data from
Cost-effectiveness of active transport for primary school children - Walking School Bus program
Marjory Moodie, Michelle Haby, Leah Galvin, Boyd Swinburn, Robert Carter
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-6-63
Abstract: A logic pathway was used to model the effects on body mass index [BMI] and disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] of the Victorian WSB program if applied throughout Australia. Cost offsets and DALY benefits were modelled until the eligible cohort reached 100 years of age or death. The reference year was 2001. Second stage filter criteria ('equity', 'strength of evidence', 'acceptability', feasibility', sustainability' and 'side-effects') were assessed to incorporate additional factors that impact on resource allocation decisions.The modelled intervention reached 7,840 children aged 5 to 7 years and cost $AUD22.8M ($16.6M; $30.9M). This resulted in an incremental saving of 30 DALYs (7:104) and a net cost per DALY saved of $AUD0.76M ($0.23M; $3.32M). The evidence base was judged as 'weak' as there are no data available documenting the increase in the number of children walking due to the intervention. The high costs of the current approach may limit sustainability.Under current modelling assumptions, the WSB program is not an effective or cost-effective measure to reduce childhood obesity. The attribution of some costs to non-obesity objectives (reduced traffic congestion and air pollution etc.) is justified to emphasise the other possible benefits. The program's cost-effectiveness would be improved by more comprehensive implementation within current infrastructure arrangements. The importance of active transport to school suggests that improvements in WSB or its variants need to be developed and fully evaluated.Active transport, to and from school, offers an opportunity for school aged children to increase their levels of daily physical activity. This can lead to physical, mental health, safety and environmental benefits for both the community and participating individuals [1]. While the majority of Australian primary school children in urban environments live within walking and cycling distance to school [2], there are a number of real and perceived barriers which c
The effect of fiscal policy on diet, obesity and chronic disease: a systematic review
Thow,Anne Marie; Jan,Stephen; Leeder,Stephen; Swinburn,Boyd;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862010000800013
Abstract: objective: to assess the effect of food taxes and subsidies on diet, body weight and health through a systematic review of the literature. methods: we searched the english-language published and grey literature for empirical and modelling studies on the effects of monetary subsidies or taxes levied on specific food products on consumption habits, body weight and chronic conditions. empirical studies were dealing with an actual tax, while modelling studies predicted outcomes based on a hypothetical tax or subsidy. findings: twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria: 13 were from the peer-reviewed literature and 11 were published on line. there were 8 empirical and 16 modelling studies. nine studies assessed the impact of taxes on food consumption only, 5 on consumption and body weight, 4 on consumption and disease and 6 on body weight only. in general, taxes and subsidies influenced consumption in the desired direction, with larger taxes being associated with more significant changes in consumption, body weight and disease incidence. however, studies that focused on a single target food or nutrient may have overestimated the impact of taxes by failing to take into account shifts in consumption to other foods. the quality of the evidence was generally low. almost all studies were conducted in high-income countries. conclusion: food taxes and subsidies have the potential to contribute to healthy consumption patterns at the population level. however, current evidence is generally of low quality and the empirical evaluation of existing taxes is a research priority, along with research into the effectiveness and differential impact of food taxes in developing countries.
Health-Related Quality of Life Is Low in Secondary School Children in Fiji
Solveig Petersen,Helen Mavoa,Boyd Swinburn,Gade Waqa
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/294530
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