Abstract:
Recently, it was found that microglia regulated synaptic remodeling of the developing brain, but their mechanisms have not been well understood. In this study, the action of microglia on neuronal synapse formation was investigated, and the primary target of microglial processes was discovered. When the developing microglia were applied to cultured hippocampal neurons without direct contact, the numbers of dendritic spines and excitatory and inhibitory synapses significantly increased. In order to find out the main factor for synaptic formation, the effects of cytokines released from microglia were examined. When recombinant proteins of cytokines were applied to neuronal culture media, interleukin 10 increased the numbers of dendritic spines in addition to excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Interestingly, without external stimuli, the amount of interleukin 10 released from the intact microglia appeared to be sufficient for the induction of synaptic formation. The neutralizing antibodies of interleukin 10 receptors attenuated the induction of the synaptic formation by microglia. The expression of interleukin 10 receptor was newly found in the hippocampal neurons of early developmental stage. When interleukin 10 receptors on the hippocampal neurons were knocked down with specific shRNA, the induction of synaptic formation by microglia and interleukin 10 disappeared. Pretreatment with lipopolysaccharide inhibited microglia from inducing synaptic formation, and interleukin 1β antagonized the induction of synaptic formation by interleukin 10. In conclusion, the developing microglia regulated synaptic functions and neuronal development through the interactions of the interleukin 10 released from the microglia with interleukin 10 receptors expressed on the hippocampal neurons.

Abstract:
It is known to be a hard problem to compute the competition number k(G) of a graph G in general. Park and Sano [13] gave the exact values of the competition numbers of Hamming graphs H(n,q) if $1 \leq n \leq 3$ or $1 \leq q \leq 2$. In this paper, we give an explicit formula of the competition numbers of ternary Hamming graphs.

Abstract:
The competition graph of a digraph D is a graph which has the same vertex set as D and has an edge between x and y if and only if there exists a vertex v in D such that (x,v) and (y,v) are arcs of D. For any graph G, G together with sufficiently many isolated vertices is the competition graph of some acyclic digraph. The competition number k(G) of a graph G is defined to be the smallest number of such isolated vertices. In general, it is hard to compute the competition number k(G) for a graph G and it has been one of important research problems in the study of competition graphs. In this paper, we compute the competition numbers of Hamming graphs with diameter at most three.

Abstract:
The competition graph of a doubly partial order is known to be an interval graph. The CCE graph and the niche graph of a doubly partial order are also known to be interval graphs if the graphs do not contain a cycle of length four and three as an induced subgraph, respectively. Phylogeny graphs are variant of competition graphs. The phylogeny graph $P(D)$ of a digraph $D$ is the (simple undirected) graph defined by $V(P(D)):=V(D)$ and $E(P(D)):=\{xy \mid N^+_D(x) \cap N^+_D(y) \neq \emptyset \} \cup \{xy \mid (x,y) \in A(D) \}$, where $N^+_D(x):=\{v \in V(D) \mid (x,v) \in A(D)\}$. In this note, we show that the phylogeny graph of a doubly partial order is an interval graph. We also show that, for any interval graph $G$, there exists an interval graph $\tilde{G}$ such that $\tilde{G}$ contains the graph $G$ as an induced subgraph and that $\tilde{G}$ is the phylogeny graph of a doubly partial order.

Abstract:
In 1982, Opsut showed that the competition number of a line graph is at most two and gave a necessary and sufficient condition for the competition number of a line graph being one. In this note, we generalize this result to the competition numbers of generalized line graphs, that is, we show that the competition number of a generalized line graph is at most two, and give necessary conditions and sufficient conditions for the competition number of a generalized line graph being one.

Abstract:
The competition hypergraph $C{\cH}(D)$ of a digraph $D$ is the hypergraph such that the vertex set is the same as $D$ and $e \subseteq V(D)$ is a hyperedge if and only if $e$ contains at least 2 vertices and $e$ coincides with the in-neighborhood of some vertex $v$ in the digraph $D$. Any hypergraph with sufficiently many isolated vertices is the competition hypergraph of an acyclic digraph. The hypercompetition number $hk(\cH)$ of a hypergraph $\cH$ is defined to be the smallest number of such isolated vertices. In this paper, we study the hypercompetition numbers of hypergraphs. First, we give two lower bounds for the hypercompetition numbers which hold for any hypergraphs. And then, by using these results, we give the exact hypercompetition numbers for some family of uniform hypergraphs. In particular, we give the exact value of the hypercompetition number of a connected graph.

Abstract:
We calculate the disconnected contribution to isoscalar nucleon charges for scalar, axial and tensor channels of light and strange quarks. The calculation has been done with the Clover valence quarks on the MILC $N_f=2+1+1$ HISQ lattices whose light quark masses corresponding to the pion masses of 305 MeV and 217 MeV at $a \approx 0.12$ fm and 312 MeV at $a \approx 0.09$ fm. All-mode-averaging technique is used for the evaluation two-point functions. Disconnected quark loops are estimated by using the truncated solver method with Gaussian random noise sources. Contamination from the excited states is removed by fitting the results of various source-sink separations and operator insertions to the formula including up to the first excited state, simultaneously.

Abstract:
We calculate the axial current decay constants of taste non-Goldstone pions and kaons in staggered chiral perturbation theory through next-to-leading order. The results are a simple generalization of the results for the taste Goldstone case. New low-energy couplings are limited to analytic corrections that vanish in the continuum limit; certain coefficients of the chiral logarithms are modified, but they contain no new couplings. We report results for quenched, fully dynamical, and partially quenched cases of interest in the chiral SU(3) and SU(2) theories.

Abstract:
We calculate the next-to-leading order axial current decay constants of taste non-Goldstone pions and kaons in staggered chiral perturbation theory. This is an extension of the taste Goldstone decay constants calculation to that of the non-Goldstone tastes. We present results for the partially quenched case in the SU(3) and SU(2) staggered chiral perturbation theories and discuss the difference between the taste Goldstone and non-Goldstone cases.

Abstract:
We present preliminary results of data analysis for the non-perturbative renormalization (NPR) on the self-energy of the quark propagators calculated using HYP improved staggered fermions on the MILC asqtad lattices. We use the momentum source to generate the quark propagators. In principle, using the vector projection operator of $(\bar{\bar{\gamma_\mu \otimes 1}})$ and the scalar projection operator $(\bar{\bar{1 \otimes 1}})$, we should be able to obtain the wave function renormalization factor $Z_q'$ and the mass renormalization factor $Z_q \cdot Z_m$. Using the MILC coarse lattice, we obtain a preliminary but reasonable estimate of $Z_q'$ and $Z_q \cdot Z_m$ from the data analysis on the self-energy.