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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12164 matches for " Boon Huan Tan "
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Infectious Diseases and Their Outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: Biodiversity and Its Regulation Loss Matter
Serge Morand, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Yupin Suputtamongkol, Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah, Tan Boon Huan
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090032
Abstract: Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks.
Activation of Type I and III Interferon Signalling Pathways Occurs in Lung Epithelial Cells Infected with Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses
Richard Sutejo, Dawn S. Yeo, Myint Zu Myaing, Chen Hui, Jiajia Xia, Debbie Ko, Peter C. F. Cheung, Boon-Huan Tan, Richard J. Sugrue
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033732
Abstract: The host response to the low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N2, H5N3 and H9N2 viruses were examined in A549, MDCK, and CEF cells using a systems-based approach. The H5N2 and H5N3 viruses replicated efficiently in A549 and MDCK cells, while the H9N2 virus replicated least efficiently in these cell types. However, all LPAI viruses exhibited similar and higher replication efficiencies in CEF cells. A comparison of the host responses of these viruses and the H1N1/WSN virus and low passage pH1N1 clinical isolates was performed in A549 cells. The H9N2 and H5N2 virus subtypes exhibited a robust induction of Type I and Type III interferon (IFN) expression, sustained STAT1 activation from between 3 and 6 hpi, which correlated with large increases in IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression by 10 hpi. In contrast, cells infected with the pH1N1 or H1N1/WSN virus showed only small increases in Type III IFN signalling, low levels of ISG expression, and down-regulated expression of the IFN type I receptor. JNK activation and increased expression of the pro-apoptotic XAF1 protein was observed in A549 cells infected with all viruses except the H1N1/WSN virus, while MAPK p38 activation was only observed in cells infected with the pH1N1 and the H5 virus subtypes. No IFN expression and low ISG expression levels were generally observed in CEF cells infected with either AIV, while increased IFN and ISG expression was observed in response to the H1N1/WSN infection. These data suggest differences in the replication characteristics and antivirus signalling responses both among the different LPAI viruses, and between these viruses and the H1N1 viruses examined. These virus-specific differences in host cell signalling highlight the importance of examining the host response to avian influenza viruses that have not been extensively adapted to mammalian tissue culture.
Prospective Surveillance and Molecular Characterization of Seasonal Influenza in a University Cohort in Singapore
Ramandeep Kaur Virk, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah, Masafumi Inoue, Elizabeth Ai-Sim Lim, Ka-Wei Chan, Catherine Chua, Boon-Huan Tan
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088345
Abstract: Background Southeast Asia is believed to be a potential locus for the emergence of novel influenza strains, and therefore accurate sentinel surveillance in the region is critical. Limited information exists on sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in young adults in Singapore in a University campus setting. The objective of the present study was to determine the proportion of ILI caused by influenza A and B viruses in a university cohort in Singapore. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a prospective surveillance study from May through October 2007, at the National University of Singapore (NUS). Basic demographic information and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from students and staff with ILI. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and viral isolation were employed to detect influenza viruses. Sequencing of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of some representative isolates was also performed. Overall proportions of influenza A and B virus infections were 47/266 (18%) and 9/266 (3%) respectively. The predominant subtype was A/H3N2 (55%) and the rest were A/H1N1 (45%). The overall sensitivity difference for detection of influenza A viruses using RT-PCR and viral isolation was 53%. Phylogenetic analyses of HA and NA gene sequences of Singapore strains showed identities higher than 98% within both the genes. The strains were more similar to strains included in the WHO vaccine recommendation for the following year (2008). Genetic markers of oseltamivir resistance were not detected in any of the sequenced Singapore isolates. Conclusions/Significance HA and NA gene sequences of Singapore strains were similar to vaccine strains for the upcoming influenza season. No drug resistance was found. Sentinel surveillance on university campuses should make use of molecular methods to better detect emerging and re-emerging influenza viral threats.
Chronic Hepatitis E Infection Resulting in Graft Failure in a Liver Transplant Tourist
Hui-Hui Tan,Hoe-Nam Leong,Boon-Huan Tan,Lynette Lin-Ean Oon,Kiat-Hon Lim,Jason Pik-Eu Chang,Chee-Kiat Tan
Case Reports in Transplantation , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/654792
Abstract: Hepatitis E, usually an acute hepatitis in the immunocompetent, has a chronic form described in immunocompromised hosts. We report the clinical course and outcome of an adult liver transplant recipient whose posttransplant period was complicated by chronic hepatitis E, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and cellular rejection of the graft.
Effectiveness of Pandemic H1N1-2009 Vaccination in Reducing Laboratory Confirmed Influenza Infections among Military Recruits in Tropical Singapore
Vernon J. Lee, Chi Hsien Tan, Jonathan Yap, Alex R. Cook, Pei-Jun Ting, Jin-Phang Loh, Qiuhan Gao, Mark I. Chen, Wee Lee Kang, Boon Huan Tan, Paul A. Tambyah
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026572
Abstract: Background Limited information is available about pandemic H1N1-2009 influenza vaccine effectiveness in tropical communities. We studied the effectiveness of a pandemic H1N1 vaccination program in reducing influenza cases in Singapore. Methods A surveillance study was conducted among military personnel presenting with febrile respiratory illness from mid-2009 to mid-2010. Consenting individuals underwent nasal washes, which were tested with RT-PCR and subtyped. A vaccination program (inactivated monovalent Panvax H1N1-2009 vaccine) was carried out among recruits. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to quantify relative risks in the pre- and post-vaccination periods. An autoregressive generalised linear model (GLM) was developed to minimise confounding. Results Of 2858 participants, 437(15.3%), 60(2.1%), and 273(9.6%) had pandemic H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B. The ratio of relative risks for pandemic H1N1 infection before and after vaccination for the recruit camp relative to other camps was 0.14(0.016,0.49); for H3N2, 0.44(0.035,1.8); and for influenza B, 18(0.77,89). Using the GLM for the recruit camp, post-vaccination weekly cases decreased by 54%(37%,67%, p<0.001) from that expected without vaccination; influenza B increased by 66 times(9–479 times, p<0.001); with no statistical difference for H3N2 (p = 0.54). Conclusions Pandemic vaccination reduced H1N1-2009 disease burden among military recruits. Routine seasonal influenza vaccination should be considered.
A Clinical Diagnostic Model for Predicting Influenza among Young Adult Military Personnel with Febrile Respiratory Illness in Singapore
Vernon J. Lee,Jonathan Yap,Alex R. Cook,Chi Hsien Tan,Jin-Phang Loh,Wee-Hong Koh,Elizabeth A. S. Lim,Jasper C. W. Liaw,Janet S. W. Chew,Iqbal Hossain,Ka Wei Chan,Pei-Jun Ting,Sock-Hoon Ng,Qiuhan Gao,Paul M. Kelly,Mark I. Chen,Paul A. Tambyah,Boon Huan Tan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017468
Abstract: Influenza infections present with wide-ranging clinical features. We aim to compare the differences in presentation between influenza and non-influenza cases among those with febrile respiratory illness (FRI) to determine predictors of influenza infection.
Pressures on Green Supply Chain Management: A Study on Manufacturing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in China
Xiangmeng HUANG,Boon Leing TAN,Dong LI
International Business and Management , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.ibm.1923842820120401.1185
Abstract: This study aims to empirically investigate the pressures for adopting green supply chain management (GSCM) among Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Data is collected through the use of mail distributed questionnaires administered to participants at a national trade fair held in Suzhou and two rounds of data collection were carried out to make a more reliable result for the research. ANOVA and Factor analysis are used to analyze the data. Some key findings are found from this study. Firstly, there is indifference among the four industrial sectors in terms of facing pressures in adopting GSCM practices. Secondly, all of the pressures from environmental laws and regulations, the pressures in the process of selling the products and the pressures in the supply chain in the relation with the suppliers and customers have impacted on the decisions of SMEs to employ GSCM practices. The main limitation to this paper is the relatively small manufacturing sample of SMEs. The paper explores the GSCM pressures faced by Chinese SMEs which may be different from the findings through the studies on large enterprises in China. Key words: Supply chain management; Pressures on green supply chain management small and medium-sized enterprises; Chinese manufacturing industry
Serological Response in RT-PCR Confirmed H1N1-2009 Influenza A by Hemagglutination Inhibition and Virus Neutralization Assays: An Observational Study
Mark I. Chen,Ian G. Barr,Gerald C. H. Koh,Vernon J. Lee,Caroline P. S. Lee,Robert Shaw,Cui Lin,Jonathan Yap,Alex R. Cook,Boon Huan Tan,Jin Phang Loh,Timothy Barkham,Vincent T. K. Chow,Raymond T. P. Lin,Yee-Sin Leo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012474
Abstract: We describe the serological response following H1N1-2009 influenza A infections confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Recent Development in Thrombin Receptor Antagonist as Novel Antithrombotic Agent  [PDF]
Huan Cui, Weiqiang Tan, Jianshuo Shi, Yan Xia
Open Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (OJMC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmc.2012.24014
Abstract: Significant progress was achieved in the search of a thrombin receptor antagonist as a novel antithrombotic treatment since the thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor-1, PAR-1) was cloned 20 years ago. Previous works have shown that it is possible to develop potent thrombin receptor antagonists to compete effectively with the receptor’s internal “tethered” ligand to block platelet activation. Vorapaxar (SCH 530348) from Schering-Plough (now Merck) and atopaxar (E5555) from Eisai have been advanced to human clinical trials. Recently, the pivotal phase III clinical trial results for vorapaxar were published. In this article we review these results plus the phase II results from atopaxar. Several newly described thrombin receptor antagonists from the literature will also be discussed. The phase III results from vorapaxar demonstrated that a thrombin receptor antagonist can achieve efficacy in addition to current standard- of-care in treating atherothrombotic patients, especially those with previous myocardial infarction (MI). However, the increased moderate and severe bleeding, especially intracranial bleeding, point to the limitations of current thrombin receptor antagonists. Future thrombin receptor antagonists that can improve on the efficacy and bleeding profile of current ones should have a promising place in meeting the unmet medical need in treating atherothrombotic patients using current standard therapy.
Motives, Expectations, Perceptions and Satisfaction of International Students Pursuing Private Higher Education in Singapore
Sein Min,Chey Chor Khoon,Boon Leing Tan
International Journal of Marketing Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijms.v4n6p122
Abstract: As education is an important sector in every national economy, it is arguable that higher education is a key area of interest of both public and private institutions. With globalization, the higher education sector is internationalized through the mobility of the institutions and students alike. International students are increasingly moving to other countries in pursuit of education and other interests such as career opportunities, cultural and social experiences, and even migration. The present study investigates international students’ motives in studying abroad and the impacts of these different motives on their evaluation of service quality of the institutions where they study. This study attempts to incorporate the motives of their study with the well recognized service quality model, namely SERVQUAL. This study was empirically conducted in a private higher education institution in Singapore, gathering data from 263 international students who are studying in the business programmes. The survey method was used to gather the required data about the motives, expectations and perceptions as well as the level of satisfaction with the education service provided by the institution under study. The study found that the students held four kinds of motives: academic & education, career & migration, pleasure & experience and work. The study suggests that educational marketers should consider the role and influence of the motives in evaluating service quality by international students and to develop their education programmes accordingly so that their level of service quality will be enhanced from the perspective of international students.
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