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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 151 matches for " Boniface Mutua Muthoka "
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Controlled Texturing of Aluminum Sheet for Solar Energy Applications  [PDF]
Charles Opiyo Ayieko, Robinson Juma Musembi, Alex Awuor Ogacho, Benard Odhiambo Aduda, Boniface Mutua Muthoka, Pushpendra K. Jain
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2015.511046
Abstract: Aluminum sheets were polished to reduce ruggedness and then textured in varying acid-ethanol concentration etchant to form pores. The textured surface was characterized structurally by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) which revealed aluminum crystallographic planes (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1). Its morphology was studied by using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) that confirmed purity of aluminum sheet to be 99.66% at. Reflectance of textured and plain aluminum sheet was analyzed by spectrophotometric measurements which showed that texturing reduced the reflectance of the polished surface by 26% in the UV-VIS-NIR spectrum of solar radiation. With reduced reflectance of the textured aluminum sheet, it was applicable for solar radiation absorption.
Role of Bismuth and Substrate Temperature on the Optical Properties of Some Flash Evaporated Se100-X BiX Glassy System  [PDF]
Austine A. Mulama, Julius M. Mwabora, Andrew O. Oduor, Cosmas M. Muiva, Boniface Muthoka, Betty N. Amukayia, Drinold A. Mbete
New Journal of Glass and Ceramics (NJGC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/njgc.2015.52003
Abstract: Chalcogenide glasses are very important in the modern technology especially selenium-based. These glasses are sensitive to electromagnetic radiation useful in the infrared optics. The study investigated the effect of substrate temperature on the as-deposited selenium-bismuth thin films in addition to bismuth content. The films were deposited by flash evaporation method. Thickness of the films was measured on a surface profiler and confirmed through calculation based on the Swanepoel method. The spectral range of study was between 200 - 3000 nm. It is found that the effect of increasing bismuth content on the as-deposited films led to increased absorption coefficient, reflectance, refractive index and extinction coefficient while transmittance and optical band gap energy decreased. On the other hand, reflectance, absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant increased with increase in substrate temperature but transmittance and optical band gap energy decreased.
Access to Child Health Care, Medical Treatment of Sick Children and Childhood Mortality Relationships in Kenya  [PDF]
Boniface Omuga K’Oyugi
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.611142
Abstract: Child health care factors such as medical treatment of sick children have direct and indirect effect on childhood mortality. Through international cooperation, a number of countries including Kenya have gathered information on provision of child health services at facility level from periodic Service Provision Assessment (SPA) surveys. Kenya has also gathered information on medical treatment of sick children at household level from periodic Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). However, establishing how health care information in the SPA surveys relates to childhood mortality and also how these factors relate to medical treatment of sick children in the DHS has been constrained by differences in sample designs of the surveys. This study deployed a fstrategy of constructing community level variables derived from the SPA survey data and incorporated them into DHS data which served as the main data source. The SPA and DHS sampling designs for Kenya allow computation of stable estimates of regional demographic and health service indicators at provincial level. This study analyzed information gathered from 690 health facilities in 2010 SPA and 6079 births born less than 60 months from 2008/09 DHS. The study found that access to child health services, waiting time before service in facility and time to the nearest referral facility were significant facilitating factors for medical treatment of sick children. The study also established that waiting time before service in facility was the only access to health care factor which had a significant effect on childhood mortality when HIV prevalence was excluded in the analysis. However, the significance of waiting time before service diminished with inclusion of HIV prevalence. Further research is required to refine definition and measurement for child health care variable on female autonomy.
Pain Management and Factors Associated with Its Severity among Post Surgical Patients Admitted in the Intensive Care Unit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania  [PDF]
Rebecca Samwel, Respicious Boniface
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2019.92003
Abstract: Background: Pain is the common experience among post operative patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Inadequate management can lead to undesired complications which can increase risk for morbidity and mortality. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess pain management and factors associated with its severity among post surgical patients admitted in intensive care unit at MNH. Method: A prospective study was conducted from October 2017 to February 2018 involving a total of 123 post operative patients aged 18 years and above admitted to the surgical and obstetric intensive care units. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain the required perioperative information. Severity of pain was assessed by using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). Data was analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. Frequency, percentages, tables and charts were used to summarize the study findings. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were done. P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The prevalence of severe post operative pain within 24 and 72 hours was 32.1% and 41.5% respectively. Pre operative use of analgesia (OR: 2.66, CI: 1.15 - 6.12, P value = 0.02), abdominal surgery (OR: 4.12 CI: 1.12 - 15.88, P value = 0.03) and thoracic surgeries (OR; 7.42, CI: 1.54 - 35.88, P value = 0.01) was significantly associated with severe pain. Age, sex, ASA class, duration of surgery, and level of education did not show significant association with pain severity. Opioids prescribed postoperatively were pethidine (70.7%), morphine (11.4%) and fentanyl (11.4%). Other analgesics used were paracetamol (60.2%) and diclofenac (22%). Conclusion: The magnitude of post operative pain was high. Pre operative uses of analgesia, abdominal and thoracic surgery were the factors associated with severe pain. Pethidine and paracetamol were the most prescribed drugs, however the prescription pattern used was inadequate to control pain.
Structural analysis, metamorphism, and geochemistry of the Archean granitoids-greenstones of the Sukumaland Greenstone Belt around Geita Hills, Northern Tanzania  [PDF]
Nelson Boniface, Abdul H. Mruma
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.48070
Abstract: Greenstone rocks, which include Banded Iron Formations (BIFs), tuffs, volcanic flows (basalt, andesite and rhyolite), and clastic sedimentary rocks (shale-mudstone, greywacke-sandstone and conglomerate), crop out around Geita Hills and are flanked by granites and granodiorites. BIFs and tuffs occupy larger area than other lithological units, which crop out as patches. Structural analysis indicates that layers of green-stone rocks are folded and display a regional fold axis with an attitude of 320o/40o. Low-grade metamorphic mineral assemblages (actinolite-epidote-chlorite in basalts and muscovite-epidote-chlorite in granitoids) are common in these rocks; this indicates a regional metamorphism at greenschist facies. However, BIFs and basalts are locally metamorphosed to epidote-amphibolite and amphibolite facies. Basalts belong to the tholeiite series whereas granites, diorites and rhyolites belong to the calcalkaline series. Chondrite normalized rare earth element pattern of basalt is flat and plot slightly below the average N-MORB values suggesting the enrichment of the light rare earth elements, which means that mantle magma source was an E-MORB. Granitoids and rhyolites have strong affinities to the continental arc source magma displaying strong enrichments in the LREEs with (La/Sm)N values ranging between 2.53 and 3.95 in rhyolites and between 4.08 and 5.40 in granitoids. The granitoids are classified as the I-type synorogenic metaluminous granites and granodiorites. Geochemical signatures suggest that the Geita Hills basalts erupted at the enriched mid ocean ridge setting of the back arc setting, and the granites, granodiorite and rhyolite formed in a volcanic arc setting particularly the continental arc.
Contact Metamorphism in the Supracrustal Rocks of the Sukumaland Greenstone Belt in the North West Tanzania
N Boniface
Tanzania Journal of Science , 2011,
Abstract: Biotite-granite intrusions in meta-ironstones at Geita Hills and the Bukoli alkali-granite intrusion in metabasites at Mawemeru area produced heat that baked the respective country rocks through epidote-amphibolite- to amphibolite-facies. Critical and informative mineral assemblages in the metairostones of Geita Hills are garnet-grunerite-epidote-quartz and garnetferrogedrite- biotite-quartz and in the metabasites of Mawemeru is ferrotschermakite-(Naplagioclase)- quartz. Peak temperatures ranging between 438°C and 544°C were calculated from the above mineral assemblages and a pressure not exceeding 3 kbar was inferred to from the composition of magnesium-iron amphiboles (grunerite with XFe ratio of 0.83, i.e. Gru83). Hornfels textures in the metaironstones are suggested by euhedral poikiloblastic garnet and quartz with grain boundaries intersecting at approximately 120° (granoblastic polygonal texture) and biotite aggregates forming an interlocking network of elongate grains aligned in all directions and bounded by rational crystal faces (decussate texture).
African-Style Mediation and Western-Style Divorce and Family Mediation: Reflections for the South African Context
AE Boniface
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2012,
Abstract: Both Western-styled mediation and African-styled mediation are practised in South Africa. Each of these models is applied in specific social contexts. In this article a brief explanation of what is meant by the term divorce and family mediation is provided. Thereafter the principles and processes of both Western-styled divorce and family mediation and African-styled group mediation are explored. Attention is given to the roles of mediators in both of these models as well as the ubuntu-styled values found in African group mediation. In Africa, there is a tradition of family neighbourhood negotiation facilitated by elders and an attitude of togetherness in the spirit of humanhood. Both of these show a commitment to the community concerned and a comprehensive view of life. In Africa conflicts are viewed as non-isolated events and are viewed in their social contexts. Not only are consequences for the disputing parties taken into account but also consequences for others in their families. These methods can be found in present-day methods, which are either used independently of imported Western structures or used alternatively to such structures. In this article the concept of mediation circles, as currently found in Western-styled mediation are also covered. Additionally, the provisions of the Children’s Act 38 of 2005 referring to mediation as well as the provisions of the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 and family group conferencing in the realm of restorative justice in South Africa are critiqued. It is suggested that divorce and family mediation can learn from the principles of restorative justice applied during family group conferencing as well as from Africanstyled group mediation. KEYWORDS: Dispute resolution; family mediation; divorce mediation; African-styled mediation; Western-styled mediation law
Growing older with a disability in Asia – bridging policies and practices
Boniface Mendes
International Journal of Integrated Care , 2012,
Abstract:
AFRICAN-STYLE MEDIATION AND WESTERN-STYLE DIVORCE AND FAMILY MEDIATION: REFLECTIONS FOR THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONTEXT
AE Boniface
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2012,
Abstract: Both Western-styled mediation and African-styled mediation are practised in South Africa. Each of these models is applied in specific social contexts. In this article a brief explanation of what is meant by the term divorce and family mediation is provided. Thereafter the principles and processes of both Western-styled divorce and family mediation and African-styled group mediation are explored. Attention is given to the roles of mediators in both of these models as well as the ubuntu-styled values found in African group mediation. In Africa, there is a tradition of family neighbourhood negotiation facilitated by elders and an attitude of togetherness in the spirit of humanhood. Both of these show a commitment to the community concerned and a comprehensive view of life. In Africa conflicts are viewed as non-isolated events and are viewed in their social contexts. Not only are consequences for the disputing parties taken into account but also consequences for others in their families. These methods can be found in present-day methods, which are either used independently of imported Western structures or used alternatively to such structures. In this article the concept of mediation circles, as currently found in Western-styled mediation are also covered. Additionally, the provisions of the Children’s Act 38 of 2005 referring to mediation as well as the provisions of the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 and family group conferencing in the realm of restorative justice in South Africa are critiqued. It is suggested that divorce and family mediation can learn from the principles of restorative justice applied during family group conferencing as well as from African-styled group mediation.
Surface Modification of Hollow Glass Microspheres  [PDF]
Fredrick N. Mutua, Peijie Lin, Jacob K. Koech, Yimin Wang
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2012.312125
Abstract: Hollow Glass Microspheres are high-strength, low-density additives made from water resistant and chemically-stable soda-lime-borosilicate glass. These hollow glass microspheres offer a variety of advantages over conventional irregularly-shaped mineral fillers or glass fiber. Their spherical shape helps reduce resin content in a variety of applications. They also create a ball bearing effect that can result in higher filler loading and improved flow. In this research, amine terminated hollow glass microspheres were prepared by adopting three different routes. The results were investigated using FT-IR and SEM to establish the formation of amine groups and observe the morphological structure of the modified HGMs. The results obtained were used to select a suitable less toxic and environmental friendly modification method based on the chemicals used.
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