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Measuring West-Africa Ports Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis  [PDF]
Bomboma Kalgora, Sidoine Yao Goli, Bomboma Damigou, Hamadou Tahirou Abdoulkarim, Kwame Kwadu Amponsem
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2019.93018
Abstract: The present study measured the relative efficiency of five major commercial ports in West Africa, using three different Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methods, the CCR, BCC, and Windows I-C methods over the years 2005-2016. Seven input variables and one output variable were used in the model analysis. The CCR and BCC methods were used to evaluate the technical and scale efficiency while the Windows I-C method provided a comprehensive ranking of the studied ports. The results showed that the scale efficiency score of 89.53% indicated that on average the production scale of the ports had deviated from the most productive scale size (MPSS) by 10.47%. These results revealed that the source of the overall inefficiency is due to scale rather than pure technical inefficiency. Hence, in order to improve the overall efficiency, the two scaled inefficient ports of Abidjan and Cotonou should adjust their scale of operations. Then, further investigations were conducted to detect correlations between various variables used in this study. The research found that the absence of any correlation for non-significant variables and negative correlation for the significant variables throughout time resulted from the fact that these variables were not fully utilized. Meaning that they were not efficiently used to boost the container throughput on a scale basis, the research also found that a pandemic or insecurity could easily impact seaports activities with the case of the Ebola outbreak which strucked the West African region from the year 2013 to 2016, or the terrorism threats which prevailed in the region around the year 2012. Thus, for ports to stand out in the present fiercely competitive environment, ports authorities ought to analyze their operational scale to identify whether or not the production size is fitting before further port capacity expansion.
Strategic Container Ports Competitiveness Analysis in West Africa Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Model  [PDF]
Bomboma Kalgora
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.72046
Abstract: This study presents a competitiveness analysis of five strategic container ports in West Africa using the DEA model Windows I-C method. This method takes into account the different changes in these ports efficiency and performance using a window length of 3 over the years 2005 to 2016. The model is used to provide a ranking of the efficient strategic ports in the region. Efficient ports promote trade growth by empowering a country’s imports and exports. The ranking and competitiveness of a port are evaluated based on its efficiency compared to others in its group. From the one output and the seven input variables selected, the results reveal the port of Tema to be the most competitive in the West Africa with 95% production average efficiency score, then followed respectively by Lagos, Abidjan, Lomé and Cotonou port.
Intermodal Terminal Localisation Using a Linear Programming Approach: The Case Study of Togo and West African Landlocked Countries  [PDF]
Bomboma Kalgora
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2019.92014
Abstract: In this paper, four potential cities to host an intermodal terminal for containers flowing through the Togolese transport corridor are examined. The transport cost minimization through the corridor is the main objective. Consequently, the transport modes that offer the least cost to the transport supply chain are proposed. To attain this goal the paper aims to identify the optimal location for an intermodal terminal on the Togolese corridor, by using the mathematical linear programming model. For this, three transport scenarios are analyzed, the rail, the road, and the combination of these two transport modes to each of the landlocked countries (LLCs) capital cities of Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Data of the average transport cost per mode, the cargo demand of the LLCs, and the distances from origin to destinations are input in the LINGO software. Based on the optimization results, we find that among the preselected terminals, the city of Mango located at 550 km in the northern part of the country is the optimal host location for an intermodal terminal along the Togolese corridor. The results of this study may be helpful to transport policy makers in the quest of rendering better servicing to the landlocked countries.
The Financial and Economic Crisis, Its Impacts on the Shipping Industry, Lessons to Learn: The Container-Ships Market Analysis  [PDF]
Bomboma Kalgora, Tshibuyi Mutinga Christian
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.41005
Abstract: The container shipping, the important beneficiary and the major element of globalization, has remained a way of moving goods all over the world at an ever-increasing pace since not long ago. With China becoming the world’s factory, the industry has known a sustained and rapid growth from year to year. Many among ship owners, bankers, and investors during this period of boom in the shipping industry, become very rich. The availability of cash, with the construction of more technologically advanced ships, with the expansion of ports and the introduction of new shipping services, the cargo capacity in terms of twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) of the world container fleet, had more than tripled between the years 2000-2009, reaching 12.5 million. But now, the well-known global financial and economic crisis of 2009 had almost overnight suppressed the growth of the container-ships market. In fact, for the first time in the history of the maritime industry, growth has stopped and there is even a steady decline in the rate of containers shipped around the world. In the first six months of the year of the crisis alone, the shipping industry declined by close to 16% causing huge losses.
Study on Determining Factors of Employee Retention  [PDF]
Bodjrenou Kossivi, Ming Xu, Bomboma Kalgora
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.45029
Abstract: Employees are the most valuable assets of an organization. Their significance to organizations calls for not only the need to attract the best talents but also the necessity to retain them for a long term. This paper focuses on reviewing the findings of previous studies conducted by various researchers with the aim to identify determinants factors of employee retention. This research closely looked at the following broad factors: development opportunities, compensation, work-life balance, management/leadership, work environment, social support, autonomy, training and development. The study reached the conclusion that further investigations need to be conducted regarding employee retention to better comprehend this complex field of human resource management.
The Effects of Intermodality on Transport Routes Choice from West African Ports to Landlocked Countries  [PDF]
Bomboma Kalgora, Hamadou Tahirou Abdoulkarim, Bodjrenou Kossivi
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.75001
Abstract: The paper studied 5 transport corridors in West Africa, from the ports of Abidjan, Cotonou, Lagos, Lomé, and Tema, to the landlocked countries (LLCs) of Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger. The study found 15 transport routes available from these ports to the LLCs. It used two modes of transport with their respective transport costs as variables influencing shippers in their choice of corridor route. In regards to the modes of transport, the study chose the unimodal road transport and the intermodal transport as the combination of the rail and road transport, with a projection of the cargo volume demand in 2023 from the LLCs. In addition, a survey conducted on the Togolese corridor with the aim to find from users’ perspective the adequate intermodal terminal location, identified the city of Mango as an ideal host. As for the transport cost analysis attached to each of the modes of transport, the results of this study revealed that in the case of the unimodal road transport, shippers from Burkina Faso would rather choose Tema port in Ghana as optimal route, while shippers from Mali would rather choose Abidjan port in Ivory Coast, and shippers from Niger would choose Cotonou in Benin as the optimal route. Consequently, the study also found that the added parameter of the intermodal terminal of Mango on the Togolese corridor would change the routing habit of the LLCs shippers. In fact, with this parameter in line, the Togolese corridor would be optimal in terms of transport cost minimization for the Niger and Burkina Faso shippers. Based on these findings the study highlights the benefits of the intermodality which it presents to the policymakers.
The Selection of Dry Port Location by Analytic Network Process Model: A Case Study of Dosso-Niger  [PDF]
Hamadou Tahirou Abdoulkarim, Seydou Harouna Fatouma, Bomboma Kalgora
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2019.92009
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to select the best location for the construction of a dry port in Niger which is a land locked country (LLC). Niger is located in the Sahel and has a land area of 1,267,000 square kilometers [1], with the closest port being port of Cotonou in Benin. The transport corridor from Niamey to Cotonou is approximately 1036 km long [2]. It is estimated that this corridor carries about 40 percent of Niger’s overseas trade traffic [3]. In this work, the Analytic Network Process (ANP) model is used to determine the optimal location of the dry port, among three major cities: Niamey (capital city), Dosso and Gaya. From the application of this selection model, Dosso was selected as the best location for the location of the dry port, while Gaya and Niamey were placed second and third respectively. The results obtained in this work strongly confirm the decision of the government of Niger to construct a dry port in Dosso, a project that commenced in 2010 and is still in progress.
CD4 T-Lymphocytes Count in HIV-Toxoplasma gondii Co-Infected Pregnant Women Undergoing a Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Program  [PDF]
Gnatoulma Katawa, Malewe Kolou, Liza Koboyo Nadjir, Essoham Ataba, Gatigbene Bomboma, Simplice Damintoti Karou
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.64006
Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a parasite responsible of toxoplasmosis, a disease often asymptomatic but with serious consequences in pregnant women and immunocompromised subjects. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the impact of T. gondii infection on CD4+ T lymphocytes count in HIV-infected pregnant women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of pregnant women co-infected by HIV and T. gondii. The study was conducted from January to July 2016 at the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) sites in the Health District of Lacs in Togo. Diagnosis of HIV was performed by immuno-chromatographic methods with Determine TM HIV-1/2 and immuno-filtration with Tri-Dot HIV-1 and 2 kits. Presence of anti-toxoplasmic IgG and IgM antibodies was established via enzyme immunoassay using ELISA-BIOREX® kit. Flow cytometry was used to count CD4+ T lymphocytes. Results: Our study found that of the 4599 pregnant women, 111 (2.41%) were HIV-positive. Among them, 109 (98.20%) were infected by HIV-1 and 2 (1.98%) by HIV-2. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 5.36% (IgM), 25% (IgG) and 3.57% (both IgM and IgG) of HIV 56 infected women. There was no significant difference between CD4 cell count in HIV (+)/T. gondii IgM (-)/IgG (-) infected pregnant women (378.8 ± 222.8 cell//μl) compared to HIV (+)/T. gondii/IgM (+) (457.3 ± 183.3 cell//μl), HIV (+)/T. gondii IgG (+) (419.4 ± 287.3 cell//μl) and HIV (+)/T. gondii IgM/IgG (+) (480.5 ± 252.4 cell/μl). Conclusion: This study showed that intracellular parasite T. gondii did not alter CD4+ T lymphocytes count in HIV/T. gondii co-infected pregnant women.
Antecedents of Organizational Commitment: A Review of Personal and Organizational Factors  [PDF]
Kossivi Bodjrenou, Ming Xu, Kalgora Bomboma
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.75024
Abstract: Organizational commitment has been a subject of interest to scholars and human resource practitioners over many decades. However, organizations seem to struggle to have employees who will be dedicated to their organizations. In an attempt to comprehend the concept better, this paper endeavors to analyze the antecedents of organizational commitment by categorizing them so as to foster academic research in this area and help organizations in their quest to increase the commitment of their workforce. This review focused more on affective commitment over the last five years. It was found that the antecedents of organizational commitment are broad but they have been analyzed from narrow perspectives and less attention has been given to environmental or external factors. It suggested a more classification of the antecedents of organizational commitment. Practical implications and future research directions were suggested.
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