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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 287 matches for " Blaise Sondo "
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Rates of coverage and determinants of complete vaccination of children in rural areas of Burkina Faso (1998-2003)
Drissa Sia, Pierre Fournier, Jean-Fran?ois Kobiané, Blaise K Sondo
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-416
Abstract: Data from the 1998 and 2003 Demographic and Health Surveys and the Ministry of Health's 1997 and 2002 Statistical Yearbooks, as well as individual interviews with central and regional decision-makers and with field workers in Burkina's healthcare system, were used to carry out a multilevel study that included 805 children in 1998 and 1,360 children in 2003, aged 12-23 months, spread over 44 and 48 rural health districts respectively.In rural areas, complete vaccination coverage went from 25.9% in 1998 to 41.2% in 2003. District resources had no significant effect on coverage and the impact of education declined over time. The factors that continued to have the greatest impact on coverage rates were poverty, with its various dimensions, and the utilization of other healthcare services. However, these factors do not explain the persistent differences in complete vaccination between districts. In 2003, despite a trend toward district homogenization, differences between health districts still accounted for a 7.4% variance in complete vaccination.Complete vaccination coverage of children is improving in a context of worsening poverty. Education no longer represents an advantage in relation to vaccination. Continuity from prenatal care to institutional delivery creates a loyalty to healthcare services and is the most significant and stable explanatory factor associated with complete vaccination of children. Healthcare service utilization is the result of a dynamic process of interaction between communities and the healthcare system; understanding this process is the key to understanding better the factors underlying the complete vaccination of children.Vaccination is recognized as one of the most effective and efficient public health interventions. Vaccination campaigns carried out worldwide after the launch in 1974 of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) contributed to the eradication of smallpox in 1979 and made possible the elimination of poliomyelitis on several
Arsenic levels in tube-wells water, food, residents' urine and the prevalence of skin lesions in Yatenga province, Burkina Faso
Issa T. Somé, Abdoul K. Sakira, Moustapha Ouédraogo, Theodore Z. Ouédraogo, Adama Traoré, Blaise Sondo, Pierre I. Guissou
Interdisciplinary Toxicology , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10102-012-0007-4
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of arsenic in tube-well water, food and residents' urines samples in Yatenga province, Burkina Faso. The prevalence of skin lesions was evaluated as well. The study was cross-sectional in design. It was conducted during April 2009. Permanent residents of 20 villages were included in the study. Water samples were collected from 31 tube-wells located in the selected villages. Tomatoes, cabbages, and potatoes produced in the selected village were randomly sampled. Arsenic content in water, food, and residents' urine was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using hydride generation method. Finally, 240 people were examined by a medical doctor for skin lesions. Arsenic concentrations from the tube-well water ranged from 1 to 124 μg/l. Arsenic concentrations of more than one-half (52%) of the water samples exceeded the WHO guideline value (10 μg/l). No trace of arsenic was found in the samples of tomatoes, cabbages, and potatoes. Variation in arsenic concentrations in the urines was correlated to arsenic concentrations in tube-well water. Clinical examinations revealed that melanosis and keratosis were respectively identified in 29.26% and 46.34% of the population. Both conditions were observed in 24.39% of the population. The frequency of skin lesions was positively associated with the arsenic concentration in tube-well water. A great majority (89.53%) of those who had skin lesions were at least 18 years old. In conclusion, chronic arsenic poisoning remains a major public health problem in the province of Yatenga (Burkina Faso).
Investigation on the Microwave Pulse Signal Compression with Ngd Circuit
Blaise Ravelo
PIER C , 2011, DOI: 10.2528/PIERC10122305
Abstract: This paper demonstrates the exhibition of pulse compression from an electronic circuit with negative group delay (NGD). This circuit consists of a field effect transistor (FET) cascaded with shunt RLC network. Theoretic and experimental investigations have proved that, at its resonance frequency, the group delay of this circuit is always negative. The present study shows that around this resonance, it presents a gain form enabling to generate pulse compression. To validate this concept, as proof-of-principle, devices with one- and two-stages FET were implemented and tested. Measurements of the one-stage test device evidenced an NGD of about -2.5 ns and simultaneously with 2 dB amplification operating at 622 MHz resonance frequency. In the frequency domain, in the case of a Gaussian input pulse with 40\,MHz frequency standard deviation, this resulted in 125% expansion of pulse width compared to the input one. In time domain, simulations showed that the compression was about 80% in the case of an input Gaussian pulse with 4 ns standard deviation. With the other prototype comprised of two-stage NGD cell, the use of a sine carrier of about 1.03 GHz allowed to achieve 87% pulse width compression.
Behavioral Model of Symmetrical Multi-Level T-Tree Interconnects
Blaise Ravelo
PIER B , 2012, DOI: 10.2528/PIERB12040205
Abstract: An accurate and behavioral modeling method of symmetrical T-tree interconnect network is successfully investigated in this paper. The T-tree network topology understudy is consisted of elementary lumped L-cells formed by series impedance and parallel admittance. It is demonstrated how the input-output signal paths of this single input multiple output (SIMO) tree network can be reduced to single input single output (SISO) network composed of L-cells in cascade. The literal expressions of the currents, the input impedances and the voltage transfer function of the T-tree electrical interconnect via elementary transfer matrix products are determined. Thus, the exact expression of the multi-level behavioral T-tree transfer function is established. The routine algorithm developed was implemented in Matlab programs. As application of the developed modeling method, the analysis of T-tree topology comprised of different and identical RLC-cells is conducted. To demonstrate the relevance of the model established, lumped RLC T-tree networks with different levels for the microelectronic interconnect application are designed and simulated. The work flow illustrating the guideline for the application of the routine algorithm summarizing the modeling method is proposed. Then, 3D-microstrip T-tree interconnects with width 0.1 μm and length 3 mm printed on FR4-substrate were considered. As results, very good agreement between the results from the reduced behavioral model proposed and SPICE-computations is found both in frequency- and time-domains by considering arbitrary binary sequence ''01001100" with 2 Gsym/s rate. The model proposed in this paper presents significant benefits in terms of flexibility and very less computation times. It can be used during the design process of the PCB and the microelectronic circuits for the signal integrity prediction. In the continuation of this work, the modeling of clock T-tree interconnects for packaging systems composed of distributed elements using an analogue process is in progress.
E-Field Extraction from H-Near-Field in Time-Domain by Using Pws Method
Blaise Ravelo
PIER B , 2010, DOI: 10.2528/PIERB10071307
Abstract: A novel technique of the electric- or E- field extraction from the magnetic- or H- near-field in timedomain is reported. This technique is based on the use of the Maxwell-Ampere relation associated to the plane wave spectrum (PWS) transform. It is useful for the E-near-field computations and measurements which are practically complicated in time-domain in particular, for the EMC applications. The considered EM-field radiation is generated by a set of electric dipoles excited by an ultra-short duration current having frequency bandwidth of about 10-GHz. The presented EM-field calculation technique is carried out by taking into account the evanescent wave effects. In the first step, the time-dependent H-field data mapped in 2-D plan placed at the height above the radiating devices are transposed in frequency-dependent data through the fast Fourier transform. In order to respect the near-field approach, the arbitrary distance between the EM-field mapping plan and radiating source plan should be below one-sixth of the excitation signal minimal wavelength. In the second step, one applies the PWS transform to the obtained frequency-data. Then, through the Maxwell-Ampere relation, one can extract the E-field from the calculated PWS of the H-field. In the last step, the inverse fast Fourier transform of the obtained E-field gives the expected time-dependent results. The relevance of the proposed technique was confirmed by considering a set of five dipole sources placed arbitrarily in the horizontal plan equated by z = 0 and excited by a pulse current having amplitude of 50 mA and half-width of about 0.6 ns. As expected, by using the , and 2-D data calculated with Matlab in the rectangular plan placed at = 3 mm and = 5 mm above the radiating source, it was demonstrated that with the proposed technique, one can determine the three components of the E-field , and .
Colóquio de Pascal com o senhor de Saci: sobre Epicteto e Montaigne
Blaise Pascal
Princípios : Revista de Filosofia , 2005,
Abstract: Tradu o do texto "L’Entretien de Pascal et Sacy", de Blaise Pascal, realizada com base na edi o das OEuvres completes de Pascal, estabelecida e anotada por Jacques Chevalier, da Bibliothèque de la Plêiade, Paris, 1954, p. 560-574. [Tradu o de Jaimir Conte. Prof. adjunto do Departamento de Filosofia da UFRN]
L'expérience délirante de la raison divine : Les Bacchantes d'Euripide.
Fabienne Blaise
Methodos : Savoirs et Textes , 2010, DOI: 10.4000/methodos.173
Abstract: Cet article est disponible en texte intégral en format PDF
L’archéologie enfermée dehors. Retour sur un malentendu fran ais
Blaise Dufal
Atelier du Centre de Recherches Historiques , 2010, DOI: 10.4000/acrh.2597
Abstract: Le projet de l’anthropologie historique fait de la notion de culture matérielle le lieu de rencontre entre l’histoire et l’archéologie. Mais cette rencontre, réelle et fructueuse dans de nombreux travaux, n’a pas réellement modifié les représentations épistémologiques de l’archéologie, et ses relations avec l’histoire. Alors qu’elle jouissait d’un fort prestige à la fin du xixe siècle, l’archéologie est plut t ignorée par les premières générations des Annales. L’archéologie reste encore considérée comme une discipline mineure, qui complète les connaissances mais n’est pas déterminante dans leur interprétation. Cette situation déplorable est liée à la position intermédiaire de l’archéologie, entre nature et culture. Mais aujourd’hui cette science sociale hybride de l’objet débordant, assume finalement pleinement la dimension du bricolage interdisciplinaire, et peut être considérée comme une attitude modèle pour la pratique concrète de l’historien dans ses rapports avec les autres sciences humaines et sociales. The project of historical anthropology makes history and archaeology meet within the notion of material culture. However real and fruitful, such an encounter has not truly modified epistemological representations of archaeology or the latter’s relation to history. While archaeology proved most prestigious at the end of the 19th century, the first generation of the Annales tended to leave it aside. Archaeology is still considered as a minor subject, only providing further knowledge without ever shaping interpretation. This is due to the intermediary position held by archaeology, halfway between nature and culture. But today, this hybrid social science of objects takes on the full dimension of interdisciplinary bricolage and may be considered as a model pattern for the concrete practice of historians’ relations to other human and social sciences. Nel progetto dell’antropologia storica, la nozione di cultura materiale ha costituito il punto d’incontro tra storia e archeologia. Pur se effettivo e fecondo in molteplici lavori, quest’incontro non ha tuttavia modificato la rappresentazione epistemologica dell’archeologia, né il suo rapporto con la storia. Di contro al grande prestigio di cui l’archeologia godeva alla fine del xix secolo, la prima generazione delle Annales l’ha ignorata globalmente. Ancor oggi, questa disciplina è considerata come minore, sussidiaria al percorso di conoscenza ma non tale da determinare l’interpretazione dei fatti. Questa situazione deplorevole è ricollecabile alla posizione intermediaria dell’archeologia tra natura e cultu
Les douceurs d’un commerce indépendant : Jean-Jacques Rousseau, ou le libéralisme retourné contre lui-même
Blaise Bachofen
Astérion , 2007,
Abstract: On associe habituellement Rousseau à la tradition républicaine, opposée schématiquement à la tradition libérale. Sans remettre en cause globalement cette thèse, il peut être intéressant de déplacer les termes de la problématique, en présentant la critique rousseauiste du libéralisme comme une critique menée de l’intérieur, plut t que de l’extérieur. On peut en effet, à l’exemple de John Pocock, identifier un tronc commun aux pensées républicaine et libérale ou, à l’exemple de Charles Larmore, voir dans le républicanisme une formulation plus lucide de la théorie libérale . Cela se traduit chez Rousseau par une stratégie consistant à se réapproprier les promesses contenues dans les prémisses du libéralisme, pour mieux en dénoncer les conséquences dogmatiques. De fait, on trouve chez Rousseau une défense des droits individuels, un souci de l’indépendance individuelle dans les relations économiques et plus généralement dans les rapports sociaux, une justification jusnaturaliste de la propriété privée, et même des emprunts à l’idée selon laquelle la mise en concurrence permettrait de définir les conditions d’un choix optimal. Cependant l’analyse de certains textes de l’émile montre que Rousseau vise en définitive à dissiper l’illusion d’une autorégulation optimale des rapports sociaux et économiques : l’opacité et les distorsions des rapports économiques ainsi que l’usage spontanément irrationnel de la liberté individuelle impliquent la nécessité de gouverner la liberté, par l’éducation et par la législation.
Séparer l'église et l'état : L'augustinisme politique selon Arquillière
Blaise Dufal
Atelier du Centre de Recherches Historiques , 2008, DOI: 10.4000/acrh.313
Abstract: Le concept d'augustinisme politique forgé par Arquillière dans les années 1930 met en jeu une vision particulière de l'histoire de l'église et de ses rapports avec les pouvoirs temporels. Il a été élaboré par des penseurs néo-thomistes qui cherchaient à présenter une vision ecclésiologique compatible avec l'affirmation d'états-nations la cs. Désignant une déformation de la pensée de saint Augustin, l'augustinisme politique permet alors de circonscrire ces conceptions théocratiques à des doctrines médiévales considérées comme une exception historiquement contextualisée. The political augustinism' concept, introduced by Arquillière in the 30's, involves a particular conception of Church history and its relations with secular powers. It was built up by neo-thomistic thinkers, who tried to develop an ecclesiological theory compatible with the assertion of lay nation-states. As a distorsion of Augustine's thought, political augustinism enables the limitation of theocratical ideas to medieval doctrines, which are considered as exceptions explained by historical context.
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