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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1197 matches for " Blair Orr "
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The Local Migration of Plant-Based Medicines from Rural Communities to Gral. E. Aquino, Paraguay  [PDF]
Noah Goyke, Blair Orr
Natural Resources (NR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2018.912027
Abstract: Rural Paraguay presents interesting opportunities for investigating the subtle differences in the use of medicinal plants across seasons and the urban versus rural dichotomy in a local setting. This study investigates three aspects of plant-based medicinal use in rural Paraguay: 1) seasonal differences and 2) differences between urban and rural residents and 3) the source of medicinal plants used to treat thirteen common ailments. Interviews performed in January through March 2015 and repeated in June through August 2015 revealed small differences between seasons and between places of residence but a larger homogeneity in the two populations, a homogeneity that stems from the recent migration of urban residents from nearby rural communities. We also found that the important cultural and preventive medicinal use of plant-based additions to yerba mate contributes to the similarities between the urban and rural populations. The findings suggest the continued strength of medicinal plant use going into the near future.
Soil moisture, field-scale toposequential position, and slope effects on yields in irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Honduras  [PDF]
Kyle M. Earnshaw, Blair Orr
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.48A001

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important cash crop in Honduras. The availability of inexpensive irrigation in the study area (Flores, La Villa de San Antonio, Comayagua) encourages rice farmers to neglect prescribed methods of soil and water conservation, such land leveling, puddling, and soil bunds. This study looked at the effect of failure to mitigate water loss on sloping fields. Soil moisture (Volumetric Water Content) was measured using a soil moisture probe after the termination of the first irrigation within the tillering/vegetative, panicle emergence/flowering, post-flowering/pre-maturation and maturation stages. Yield data were obtained by harvesting on 1 m2 plots in each soil moisture testing site. Data analyses looked at the relationship between yield and slope, soil moisture, farmers, and toposequential position along transects. Toposequential position influenced yields more than slope and soil moisture was not a significant predictor of yields. Irrigation politics, high water inputs, and land tenure were proposed as the major reasons for this result.

Forest Management Plans in Los Planes de La Palma, El Salvador  [PDF]
Gisselle A. Mejia, Blair Orr
Natural Resources (NR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.611050
Abstract: Fourteen farmers with small woodlots were interviewed about the forest management plans promoted by the government of El Salvador. As expected, farmers managed for many utilitarian products such as firewood and timber, but the farmers also expressed a strong set of environmental concerns revolved around the ecological value of their woodlots. Farmers generally approved of forest management plans as they saw how plans contributed to sustainable forestry on their woodlots. Farmers had concerns about specific silvicultural practices and about transportation of harvested timber.
Small-Scale Spatial Patterns of Copernicia alba Morong near Bahia Negra, Paraguay  [PDF]
Michelle E. Cisz, Michael J. Falkowski, Blair Orr
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.45045

We assessed the spatial distribution of Copernicia alba Morong. In the study area, a lowland palm savanna floodplain, C. alba is the only overstory species. We hypothesized C. alba would be randomly distributed within natural stands. Palms were tallied in six randomly located 0.25 haplots and analyzed using a first-order, Ripley’s K function to assess the distribution of juvenile, adult, and total palm populations. While the total population had either aggregated or random distributions, when analyzing juvenile and adult population separately, we found juveniles were consistently more aggregated than the adults.

Ecological suitability and tree seedling survival in the Bolivian altiplano
Cohen,Matthew E; Pickens,James B; Cárdenas Castillo,Jesús; Orr,Blair;
Ecolog?-a austral , 2005,
Abstract: tree seedling survival rates are low in the dry, harsh climate of the bolivian altiplano. we tested two species, polylepsis tarapacana and cupressus macrocarpa, using four microcatchment planting methods and a control to determine if species survival could be improved. the control improved surface infiltration rates but provided no protection from wind and cold. the four sub-surface planting methods increased soil moisture and mitigated cold, desiccating winds. the native species, p. tarapacana, showed better survival than the non-native one. all planting methods showed excellent survival rates for p. tarapacana, as all methods improve rainfall infiltration in relatively poor soil. pit planting proved to be more successful for c. macrocarpa than other planting methods, probably due to the protection it provides from climatic stress during the winter months and the increased soil moisture. while modifying the local micro-ecological conditions improves seedling survival, selecting ecologically suitable species is a more successful strategy for tree planting.
Coconuts and the emergence of violence in Sulu: Beyond resource competition paradigms
Yancey Orr
Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde , 2012,
Abstract: Agricultural differentiation can lead to cultural differentiation. Among the Sulu Archipelago’s Tausug in south Philippines, increased coconut production has resulted in more violence and banditry among individuals and communities than among other Tausug populations engaged in other economic activities. Although resource competition in social theory has been used to explicate the connections between agriculture and violence (Vayda, Rappaport, Homer-Dixon, Stinchcombe, Peluso, Watts), this is not the case in Sulu. Coconut production influences violence through its low labour requirement which allows the intensification of culturally valued male violence (rites of passage, feuding); the low level of skills entailed in its cultivation and harvesting which limits the roles men can play in Tausug society; and the lack of ‘nurturing’ (as an activity) inherent in its cultivation.
One Year Later: The Impact and Aftermath of September 11: "Ready or Not, Disasters Happen
Orr, M
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2002,
Abstract: The New York State Nurses Association was – as was the entire country – plunged into disaster response mode by 9:30 am on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. Although the association had engaged in limited disaster planning prior to this event, that planning was in terms of an internal disaster such as a fire in our headquarters building. There was no plan for responding to a community catastrophe of the magnitude being experienced. The association faced unique challenges – including the fact that our New York City offices are located near ground zero - but was fortunate in having expert resource persons on staff and available to organize a response. Since September, the association has applied the lessons learned from this experience and developed a comprehensive disaster plan for the future. The purpose of this article is to share those lessons learned with the community of nursing associations in the hope that others can use the information to build effective disaster plans of their own.
Le Cosmos d'Alexandre von Humboldt et La Tentation de saint Antoine de Gustave Flaubert : deux uvres de toute une vie
Mary Orr
Flaubert : Revue Critique et Génétique , 2010,
Abstract: Dans le septième et dernier tableau de La Tentation de saint Antoine de 1874, la fin célèbre est mise en contexte par une description longue et détaillée qui n’a jamais attiré l’attention critique qu’elle mérite. Cet article analyse l’importance de ce panorama du monde naturel sous la forme d’une exploration intertextuelle des passages du Cosmos d’Alexandre de Humboldt. Que Flaubert signale ses lectures de l’ uvre de Humboldt dans sa Correspondance de 1860 suggère des liens très riches entre Le Cosmos – que Humboldt désigne comme l’ uvre de ma vie – et la Tentation de saint Antoine définitive que Flaubert retravaillait au même moment. Cette relecture de La Tentation à travers la perspective de Humboldt souligne la place importante du Cosmos parmi les découvertes et les textes scientifiques contemporains de Flaubert, et la manière dont ceux-ci informent la vision de la vie scientifique et religieuse de son protagoniste, Antoine. In the seventh and final tableau of the Tentation de Saint Antoine of 1874, the famous finale is set in the context of a long, detailed description which has not attracted the critical attention it deserves. This article focuses on the importance of this panorama of the natural world as an intertextual exploration of passages from Kosmos by Alexander von Humboldt. The fact that Flaubert’s Correspondance of 1860 mentions his reading of Humboldt’s works suggests rich lines of investigation between Kosmos – which Humboldt calls the work of all of life and the final Tentation de Saint Antoine,which Flaubert was reworking at the same moment. This re-reading of the Tentation through the optic of Humboldt underscores the pivotal position of Kosmos amid the scientific discoveries and texts contemporary to Flaubert, and how these inform the vision of life of his protagonist, Antoine, as scientific and religious.
A Double-Edged Sword: How Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes Can Contribute to Chromosomal Instability
Bernardo Orr
Frontiers in Oncology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2013.00164
Abstract: Most solid tumors are characterized by abnormal chromosome numbers (aneuploidy) and karyotypic profiling has shown that the majority of these tumors are heterogeneous and chromosomally unstable. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is defined as persistent mis-segregation of whole chromosomes and is caused by defects during mitosis. Large-scale genome sequencing has failed to reveal frequent mutations of genes encoding proteins involved in mitosis. On the contrary, sequencing has revealed that most mutated genes in cancer fall into a limited number of core oncogenic signaling pathways that regulate the cell cycle, cell growth, and apoptosis. This led to the notion that the induction of oncogenic signaling is a separate event from the loss of mitotic fidelity, but a growing body of evidence suggests that oncogenic signaling can deregulate cell cycle progression, growth, and differentiation as well as cause CIN. These new results indicate that the induction of CIN can no longer be considered separately from the cancer-associated driver mutations. Here we review the primary causes of CIN in mitosis and discuss how the oncogenic activation of key signal transduction pathways contributes to the induction of CIN.
NLS1s and Sy1s: A comparison of ionized X-ray absorber properties
Astrid Orr
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1016/S1387-6473(00)00085-3
Abstract: The first results from a systematic study of warm absorbers in NLS1s using BeppoSAX public archive data are presented here. We confirm ASCA results showing that a warm absorber, as modeled by two oxygen K-shell absorption edges, is less frequent in NLS1s than in broad line (BL) Sy1s (about 20 per cent versus about 50 per cent). However, our study suggests that the ionization state of NLS1s is not lower than that of BLS1s, as opposed to the ASCA-based results. The soft excess temperatures of our sample, when fitted with blackbody emission models, lie within a small range of values (about 0.02-0.15 keV in the rest frame) with no marked dependence on source luminosity. This is in agreement with ASCA-based findings for NLS1s and early results from IUE-ROSAT BL Sy1 observations.
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