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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 169644 matches for " Blair E Harrison "
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Variation at the Calpain 3 gene is associated with meat tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle
William Barendse, Blair E Harrison, Rowan J Bunch, Merle B Thomas
BMC Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-9-41
Abstract: We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the genomic sequence of the CAPN3 gene and tested three of these in a sample of 2189 cattle. Of the three SNP genotyped, the CAPN3:c.1538+225G>T had the largest significant additive effect, with an allele substitution effect in the Brahman of α = -0.144 kg, SE = 0.060, P = 0.016, and the polymorphism explained 1.7% of the residual phenotypic variance in that sample of the breed. Significant haplotype substitution effects were found for all three breeds, the Brahman, the Belmont Red, and the Santa Gertrudis. For the common haplotype, the haplotype substitution effect in the Brahman was α = 0.169 kg, SE = 0.056, P = 0.003. The effect of this gene was compared to Calpastatin in the same sample. The SNP show negligible frequencies in taurine breeds and low to moderate minor allele frequencies in zebu or composite animals.These associations confirm the location of a QTL for meat tenderness in this region of bovine chromosome 10. SNP in or near this gene may be responsible for part of the overall difference between taurine and zebu breeds in meat tenderness, and the greater variability in meat tenderness found in zebu and composite breeds. The evidence provided so far suggests that none of these tested SNP are causative mutations.The status of DNA tests for meat tenderness has been recently discussed [1] and so far there are only two genes identified that have consistent effects on meat tenderness reported in the literature, that for Calpastatin and Calpain 1 [2-5]. There are two polymorphisms in Calpain 1 (CAPN1), one appearing to be more useful in taurine breeds and one more useful in zebu breeds. On the other hand, although several possible causative mutations have been identified in Calpastatin (CAST), variation at this gene appears to affect all breed types.Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for meat tenderness were located to bovine chromosome 10 in a Charolais × Brahman experimental population [1]. The authors sugge
Haplotypes that include the integrin alpha 11 gene are associated with tick burden in cattle
Laercio R Porto Neto, Rowan J Bunch, Blair E Harrison, Kishore C Prayaga, William Barendse
BMC Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-11-55
Abstract: To confirm these associations, we collected genotypes of 17 SNP from BTA10, including three obtained by sequencing part of the ITGA11 (Integrin alpha 11) gene. Initially, we genotyped 1,055 dairy cattle for the 17 SNP, and then genotyped 557 Brahman and 216 Tropical Composite beef cattle for 11 of the 17 SNP. In total, 7 of the SNP were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with tick burden tested in any of the samples. One SNP, ss161109814, was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with tick burden in both the taurine and the Brahman sample, but the favourable allele was different. Haplotypes for three and for 10 SNP were more significantly (P < 0.001) associated with tick burden than SNP analysed individually. Some of the common haplotypes with the largest sample sizes explained between 1.3% and 1.5% of the residual variance in tick burden.These analyses confirm the location of a QTL affecting tick burden on BTA10 and position it close to the ITGA11 gene. The presence of a significant association in such widely divergent animals suggests that further SNP discovery in this region to detect causal mutations would be warranted.Tick infestation has a detrimental impact on animal production and ticks are one of the main vectors of pathogenic micro-organisms of veterinary and zoonotic importance [1,2]. deCastro [3] estimated global economic losses caused by tick and tick-borne diseases to the cattle industry in the range of US$18 billion per year.Tick burdens are influenced by the genetic constitution of the host. Heritability (h2) estimates of tick burdens due to the ixodid tick Boophilus (Rhipicephalus) microplus in Australia range from h2 = 0.13 - 0.64 [4-7] depending upon the season and breed of cattle analysed. In the animals used in this study, the heritability was h2 = 0.37 (s.e. = 0.02) in the taurine animals and h2 = 0.15 (s.e. = 0.10) in the Brahman animals [8,9]. Generally animals of zebu ancestry such as the Brahman carry an order of magnitude fewer ticks than a
Genome wide signatures of positive selection: The comparison of independent samples and the identification of regions associated to traits
William Barendse, Blair E Harrison, Rowan J Bunch, Merle B Thomas, Lex B Turner
BMC Genomics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-178
Abstract: In this study we compared the signals of selection, identified through population divergence in the Bovine HapMap project, to those found in an independent sample of cattle from Australia. Evidence for population differentiation across the genome, as measured by FST, was highly correlated in the two data sets. Nevertheless, 40% of the variance in FST between the two studies was attributed to the differences in breed composition. Seventy six percent of the variance in FST was attributed to differences in SNP composition and density when the same breeds were compared. The difference between FST of adjacent loci increased rapidly with the increase in distance between SNP, reaching an asymptote after 20 kb. Using 129 SNP that have highly divergent FST values in both data sets, we identified 12 regions that had additive effects on the traits residual feed intake, beef yield or intramuscular fatness measured in the Australian sample. Four of these regions had effects on more than one trait. One of these regions includes the R3HDM1 gene, which is under selection in European humans.Firstly, many different populations will be necessary for a full description of selective signatures across the genome, not just a small set of highly divergent populations. Secondly, it is necessary to use the same SNP when comparing the signatures of selection from one study to another. Thirdly, useful signatures of selection can be obtained where many of the groups have only minor genetic differences and may not be clearly separated in a principal component analysis. Fourthly, combining analyses of genome wide selection signatures and genome wide associations to traits helps to define the trait under selection or the population group in which the QTL is likely to be segregating. Finally, the FST difference between adjacent loci suggests that 150,000 evenly spaced SNP will be required to study selective signatures in all parts of the bovine genome.The goal of genome wide analyses of polymorphis
Small-Scale Spatial Patterns of Copernicia alba Morong near Bahia Negra, Paraguay  [PDF]
Michelle E. Cisz, Michael J. Falkowski, Blair Orr
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.45045
Abstract:

We assessed the spatial distribution of Copernicia alba Morong. In the study area, a lowland palm savanna floodplain, C. alba is the only overstory species. We hypothesized C. alba would be randomly distributed within natural stands. Palms were tallied in six randomly located 0.25 haplots and analyzed using a first-order, Ripley’s K function to assess the distribution of juvenile, adult, and total palm populations. While the total population had either aggregated or random distributions, when analyzing juvenile and adult population separately, we found juveniles were consistently more aggregated than the adults.

Symmetry in the Geometry of Metric Contact Pairs
G. Bande,D. E. Blair
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We prove that the universal covering of a complete locally symmetric normal metric contact pair manifold is a Calabi-Eckmann manifold. Moreover we show that a complete, simply connected, normal metric contact pair manifold such that the foliation induced by the vertical subbundle is regular and reflections in the integral submanifolds of the vertical subbundle are isometries, then the manifold is the product of globally $\phi$-symmetric spaces and fibers over a locally symmetric space endowed with a symplectic pair.
New Species of Tachinid (Diptera) From New England
Harrison E. Smith
Psyche , 1915, DOI: 10.1155/1915/10341
Abstract:
Five New Species of North AmericanTachinid
Harrison E. Smith
Psyche , 1917, DOI: 10.1155/1917/89159
Abstract:
Notes on New England Tachinid , With theDescription of One New Genus and Two NewSpecies
Harrison E. Smith
Psyche , 1917, DOI: 10.1155/1917/91575
Abstract:
Direct Detection of the L-Dwarf Donor in WZ Sagittae
Thomas E. Harrison
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Analysis of a large set of phase-resolved $K$-band spectra of the cataclysmic variable WZ Sge shows that the secondary star of this system appears to be an L-dwarf. Previous $K$-band spectra of WZ Sge found that the CO overtone bandheads were in emission. We show that absorption from the $^{\rm 12}$CO$_{\rm (2,0)}$ bandhead of the donor star creates a dip in the $^{\rm 12}$CO$_{\rm (2,0)}$ emission feature. Measuring the motion of this feature over the orbital period, we construct a radial velocity curve that gives a velocity amplitude of K$_{\rm abs}$ = 520 $\pm$ 35 km s$^{\rm -1}$, consistent with the previously published values for this parameter.
The evolutionary position of nematodes
Jaime E Blair, Kazuho Ikeo, Takashi Gojobori, S Blair Hedges
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-2-7
Abstract: We tested the Ecdysozoa hypothesis with analyses of more than 100 nuclear protein alignments, under conditions that would expose biases, and found that it was not supported. Instead, we found significant support for the traditional hypothesis, Coelomata. Our result is robust to different rates of sequence change among genes and lineages, different numbers of taxa, and different species of nematodes.We conclude that insects (arthropods) are genetically and evolutionarily closer to humans than to nematode worms.Traditionally, the animal body cavity (coelom) has played a major role in interpretations of metazoan evolution, from groups (e.g., flatworms) lacking a coelom to those (e.g., nematodes) with a false coelom and finally to the bulk of animal phyla having a true coelom (Coelomata) [1,2]. There has never been complete agreement on animal phylogeny and classification, but most researchers have divided living coelomate animals into deuterostomes (echinoderms, hemichordates, urochordates, cephalochordates, and vertebrates) and protostomes (arthropods, annelids, mollusks, and other phyla) based on differences in early embryonic development. An analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) sequences challenged this arrangement by placing acoelomate and pseudocoelomate phyla in more derived positions among the protostomes, and in further defining a clade (Ecdysozoa) of molting animals that includes arthropods and nematodes [3]. This "Ecdysozoa" hypothesis has influenced diverse fields [4] and interpretations of developmental evolution in animals [5-7]. Since its publication, evidence has appeared both for and against this hypothesis [8-15]. Knowing the branching order of the major animal lineages, especially those three with fully sequenced genomes, is of importance to diverse fields such as medical genetics, physiology, neurobiology, paleontology, and astrobiology. With a genealogy of animals, it will be easier to determine the origins and inheritance of mutations
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