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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6790 matches for " Birth weight "
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The relation between birth weight and hypertension. A study among Danish nurses  [PDF]
Rie Adser Virkus, Berit Heitmann, Erik Obel, Thomas Bergholt, Ellen L?kkegaard
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.54A003

The fetal origin hypothesis suggests that birth weight is related to several adult diseases. One hypothesis is that low birth weight is associated with increased risk of hypertension. ADDIN RW.CITE{{119 Barker,D.J. 2009}}In the present study we analyzed the association between self-reported birth weight and risk of hypertension with detailed confounder control, and the modification on this association by familial obesity and own weight history during childhood and youth. Methods: In 1999 the Danish Nurse Cohort study included 31,642 females aged 44 years or more of whom 76% replied to questions on birth weight, weight history, familial obesity disposition, parents socioeconomic status and presence of hypertension. Results: In total 14% reported birth weights below 3000 g. The univariate hazard ratio of hypertension for those born with birth weight < 3000 g was 1.24 (95% CI (1.13 - 1.36)) compared to those with birth weight > 3000 g. The association remained stable after adjustment for important confounders, as lifestyle, weight history and socioeconomic status during upbringing. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that low birth weight is associated with hypertension in adult life, also after considering several confounding factors and weight history later in life. Furthermore, the previous weight history might have an influence on the association between birth weight and the risk for adult hypertension.

Predictors of Low Birth Weight in Newborn Delivered in Public Hospital of Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study  [PDF]
Andamlak Dendir Egata, Temesgen Abera Bafa
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.104032
Abstract: Worldwide, low birth weight is one of the most common causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Though factors associated with low birth weight vary from one region to another, in Gurage Zone, there is no sound analytical study done to examine the local determinants of low birth weight. Because of this, the study aimed to elucidate the predictors of low birth weight in public hospital of Gurage zone. Methods: A facility based unmatched case-control study design was employed to detect the existing exposure difference between cases and controls. The study included a total of 270 controls (normal weight) and 134 cases (low birth weight baby). Control and case participants were selected through consecutively. To collect the data, structured interviewer administered questionnaires and anthropometric measurement were used. The data were entered through Epi-data 3.1 computer program and analyzed through Statistical package for Social Sciences version 21 (SPSS v. 21). Univariate, Bivariate and Multivariate analysis were done. Result: Multiple logistic regression model analysis indicated that low birth weight was independently associated with maternal mid upper arm circumference less than 23 cm (AOR 1.79 (95% CI = 1.01 - 3.16)), gestational age less than 37 weeks (AOR 24.94 (95% CI = 12.38 - 50.27)), presence of malaria infection during period of pregnancy (AOR 3.02 (95% CI = 1.39 - 6.51)), presence of preclampsia, multiparity (AOR 2.19 (95% CI = 1.21 - 3.96)) and twining (AOR 5.42 95% CI = 2.01 - 14.59). Conclusion: Gestational age < 37 weeks, twining, malaria infection during pregnancy and maternal undernutrition were a significant predictor of LBW in the region of Gurage zone. Hence, to effectively prevent low birth weight, Gurage zone health departments should work on promotion of maternal nutrition during pregnancy, prevention of malaria during pregnancy.
Maternal and obstetric risk factors for low birth weight and preterm birth in rural Gambia: a hospital-based study of 1579 deliveries  [PDF]
Abdou Jammeh, Johanne Sundby, Siri Vangen
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2011.13017
Abstract: Introduction: Low birth weight and prematurity are risk factors for perinatal morbidity and mortality, which is high in Sub Saharan African countries. We determined the frequency of and maternal and obstetric risk factors for low birth weight and preterm birth among hospital births in rural Gambia. Method: We performed a hospital-based retrospective analysis of deliveries from July to December 2008 in two rural hospitals. Maternity records were reviewed and abstracted of the mother’s demographic and reproductive characteristics, obstetric complications and foetal outcome. The maternity records contain important information maternal health and complications during pregnancy and intrapartum period. The records also contain information about the newborn’s vital status and birth weight. To determine the association between low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB) and maternal demographic characteristics and obstetric complications we calculated odds using logistic regression. Main outcome measure(s): Low birth weight (<2500 grams) and preterm birth (<37 weeks). Results: Our final sample included 1244 singleton live births with complete information about all variables. The rate of LBW and PTB were 10.5% and 10.9% respectively. Ninety-four percent of LBW infants were estimated to be preterm births. The mean birth weight was 3013 g (541 g standard deviation-SD), while the mean gestational age was 37 weeks. The pattern of risk factors was similar for LBW and PTB and both were strongly associated with antepartum haemorrhage and hypertensive pregnancy disorders. Additionally, primi parity was a risk factor for both PTB and LBW. Conclusion: The percentage of low birth weight and preterm birth in rural hospitals in The Gambia is high. The most significant risk factors were those that may be detected during the antepartum period. Thus, vigilant monitoring during pregnancy, early detection and management of obstetric complications coupled with provision of timely obstetric care interventions are crucial for reducing
Birth outcomes among laboring mothers in selected health facilities of North Wollo Zone, Northeast Ethiopia: A facility based cross-sectional study  [PDF]
Asmamaw Eshete, Dereje Birhanu, Belaynew Wassie
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.57154

Background: Poor birth outcomes are common health problems everywhere in the world. Hence institutional delivery in Ethiopia is very low, improving birth outcomes through recent evidence remained critical. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of poor birth outcomes and associated factors among women who delivered in selected health facilities of North Wollo Zone. Methods: A facility based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 295 laboring mothers from May to June 2009. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Patient’s chart was reviewed to retrieve medical information. Anthropometry of the neonate was taken by standard measurement tools. Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS), version 15. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of poor birth outcomes. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: All the data resulted from 295 laboring mothers were made part of the analyses. A total of 266 (90.2%) laboring mothers gave live birth. A quarter, 68 (23.1%) of the laboring mothers had a poor birth outcome. The common adverse outcomes were intrauterine fetal death (IUFD, preterm, and birth defects with the proportion of 29 (42.6%), 22 (32.4%), and 3 (4.4%), respectively). Mother whose husband’s occupation was merchant (AOR = 4.4, 95% CI: 1.0-19.0), driver (AOR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.12-15.76), & women who were illiterate (AOR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.2-13.5), primary school completed (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI: 1.3-13.8), non-antenatal care visited (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.12-10.2), rural residence, (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.11-5.80), & mother’s HIV status, (AOR = 34.2, 95% CL 5.6, 207.0) were independent predictors of poor birth outcomes. Conclusions: Poor birth outcomes were very common in the study area where low birth weight accounted for much of all adverse pregnancy outcomes. Occupation, residence, antenatal care visit, income, maternal education and HIV status were determinants of poor birth outcomes. Accessing antenatal care in early trimester, mild physical work, maternal education to secondary level and above should be encouraged.

Obstetrical and Perinatal Outcomes of Adolescent Pregnancies in Cameroon: A Retrospective Cohort Study at the Yaoundé General Hospital  [PDF]
Jean Dupont Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Marie Kasia, Walter Dobgima Pisoh, Anny Ngassam, Cyrille Noa
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.52012

Background: Adolescent pregnancy is a serious health and social problem worldwide as well as in Cameroon. The aim of this study was to determine the obstetrical and perinatal outcomes of nulliparous adolescent pregnancies in a reference hospital in Cameroon. Methods: A retrospective cohort study to compare the outcomes of nulliparous adolescent pregnancies to those of nulliparous women aged 20 to 25 years was carried out at the Yaoundé General Hospital between January 1993 and December 2012. Results: Adolescent deliveries represented 2.84% (331 deliveries) of all deliveries registered during the study period. The adolescent mothers had a significantly higher incidence of preeclampsia/eclampsia, preterm delivery and low birth weight babies (<2500 g) when compared to the control group (OR, 3.46; CI 95%, 1.46 - 8.18; OR, 1.94 CI 95%, 1.34 - 2.79; OR, 1.98, CI 95%, 1.39 - 2.46, respectively). However, placenta previa, abruptio placenta, episiotomy, cesarean section, vaginal instrumental delivery, perineal tears and post partum hemorrhage were not significantly different in the two groups. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding fetal distress, low Apgar score (<7 at the 1st and 5th minutes), the rate of admission in the neonatal intensive care unit, stillbirth and neonatal death. Conclusion: Adolescent pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia/ eclampsia, preterm birth and low birth weight.

Exploring the Relationship between Obstetrical Nurses’ Work and Pregnancy Outcomes  [PDF]
Jo Watson, Monica Nicholson, Kelly Dobbin, Karen Fleming, Julia M. K. Alleyne
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2016.69080
Abstract: The Registered Nurses Association of Ontario Healthy Work Environments Best Practice Guideline recommends that employers promote safe, healthy workplaces. Healthy workplaces include addressing the unique needs of nurses who work while pregnant. The purpose of this descriptive study, summarizing information from 120 pregnancies reported by 95 nurses, was to determine if the workload of obstetrical nurses was associated with negative pregnancy outcomes, including preterm delivery and birth weight. Full-time obstetrical nursing work is a predictor of reduced birth weight, but not of preterm birth when compared to outcomes of obstetrical nurses working part time. One third of nurses reported pregnancy complications and most nurses experienced work-related and personal stress. Further research evaluating work modifications during pregnancy is indicated to improve birth outcomes.
Obstetric Outcomes in Women in Fukushima Prefecture during and after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey  [PDF]
Masako Hayashi, Keiya Fujimori, Seiji Yasumura, Aya Goto, Akihito Nakai
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2016.612088
Abstract: Objective: The Great East Japan Earthquake (magnitude, 9.0) followed by a large-scale tsunami caused a severe nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (Tokyo Electric Company). This study aimed to evaluate the obstetric outcomes in women in Fukushima prefecture during and after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Methods: We collected information for 12,300 pregnant women who conceived during the 9 months before and after the disaster in Fukushima prefecture. The data of the subjects were analyzed according to the conception date for each pregnancy. Results: Among the women who conceived within 9 months before the disaster, adverse obstetric outcomes were not observed. In contrast, in the case of women who conceived within 6 months after the disaster, an increase in the incidence of preterm birth (less than 37 weeks) and low birth weight (less than 1500 g and less than 2500 g) was observed. Moreover, these women showed an increased incidence of medical complications, such as respiratory diseases and mental disorders. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that the occurrence of adverse obstetric outcomes was higher in the women who conceived within 6 months after the disaster than in those who were pregnant at the time of the disaster. The results may be related to emotional stress such as anxiety about the disaster and emphasize the need for continued investigations and careful management of pregnant woman in disaster areas in the future.
Anthropometric measurements at birth as predictor of low birth weight  [PDF]
Negar Sajjadian, Homdeh Shajari, Farnoush Rahimi, Ramin Jahadi, Michael G. Barakat
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.312125
Abstract: In developing countries, low birth weight (BW < 2500 grams) accounts for 60% - 80% of neonatal deaths. Early identification and referral of LBW babies for extra essential newborn care is vital in preventing neonatal deaths. Studies carried out in different populations have suggested that the use of newborn anthropometric surrogates of birth weight may be a simple and reliable method to identify LBW babies. previous studies reported correlation between birth weight to several anthropometric measurements and their predictive value. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between birth length, head, chest, and mid arm circumferences to birth weight. Methods: A cross sectional study has been conducted in SHARIATI Hospital in Tehran, from September 2008 to February 2009. All Consecutive full-term. Single ton, live born babies were included and anthropometric measurements carried out within 48 hours after birth by authors. Birth weight was measured by digital scale within the first 24 hours after delivery. Birth length by somatometer and head, chest, mid arm circumferences were measured 2 times by using plastic measuring tape. Result: Out of 500 newborn studied. 52.2% were male and 47.8% were female. The mean birth weight was 3195.4 ± 399.9 gram and 3.8% of newborns were low birth weight. It was evident a positive correlation of birth weight to all such anthropometric measurements with the highest correlation coefficient for chest circumference (r: 0.74). By ROC- AUC analyses, chest circumference (AUC = 0.91, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97) and arm circumference (AUC = 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.95) were identified as the optimal surrogate indicators of LBW babies. The optimal cut-points for chest circumference and arm circumference to identify LBW newborns were ≥31.2 cm and ≥10.2 cm respectively. Conclusions: Chest and mid arm circumferences were the best anthropometric surrogates of LBW among studied Iranian population. Further studies are needed in the field to cross-validate our results. anthropometric values are simple, practicable, quick and reliable indicator for predicting LBW newborns in the community and can be easily measured by paramedical workers in developing nation.
Income diversity and neighborhood variation in low birth weight rates, Chicago, 1990-2006: Results using longitudinal and cross-sectional measures  [PDF]
Jessica Kubo, Diana S. Grigsby-Toussaint
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.37061
Abstract: Although increased risk for adverse birth outcomes has been associated with neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, most studies have used cross-sectional measures to account for neighborhood context. Consequently, dynamic neighborhood processes that may influence adverse birth outcomes are not fully understood. In this study, a longitudinal measure of socioeconomic change was used to explore variation in low birth weight (LBW) rates between 1990 and 2006 in Chicago neighborhoods. A crosss-ectional measure of neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics was then used to compare the LBW rates across Chicago neighborhoods during the same time frame to determine whether the cross-sectional measure would capture the same nuances in LBW variation as the longitudinal measure. Consistent with previous studies, both measures identified higher low birth weight rates in neighborhoods entrenched in poverty during the study period. However, the longitudinal measure showed that mothers residing in low income neighborhoods with high concentrations of immigrants had LBW rates that were lower than mothers residing in high income neighborhoods. Our results suggest that while cross-sectional measures of neighborhood socioeconomic context may capture global variations in low birth weight rates, longitudinal measures may illuminate subtleties between neighborhoods that might provide an opportunity for targeted policies to reduce adverse maternal and child health outcomes.
An Epidemiological Model Investigating the Association between Mothers Nutritional Status and Low Birth Weight in India  [PDF]
Dharmendra Kumar Dubey, Dilip C. Nath
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.83027
Abstract: Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW) is the dominating risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. LBW infants were three times more likely than normal birth weight infants to have neuro developmental complications and congenital abnormalities. The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined the term Low Birth Weight (LBW) as birth weight less than 2500 grams. Objective: To develop epidemiological model investigating the association between mother’s nutritional status and low birth weight in India. Data and Methods: Third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) data collected during 2005-2006 is used for this study. This data provides a comprehensive picture of population and health conditions in India. To check the association between variables coefficient of contingency was calculated and multivariable logistic regression model was applied to check independent effect of covariates. Univariate, bivariate and multivariable logistics regression model has been developed to investigate the association between mother’s nutritional status and low birth weight in India. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated with 95% confidence interval. Conclusion: The prevalence of low birth weight was observed high among those women who were underweight, anemic, never visited for any ANC checkup. Emphasis needs to be given to maternal nutritional factors which are more persistent across India than the impact of other factors on birth weight. This can be done by selectively targeting interventions to improve nutrition.
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