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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 193 matches for " Birhan Begashaw and Wubshet Hailu "
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Endalkachew Admassie*, Birhan Begashaw and Wubshet Hailu
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2013,
Abstract: Background: Rational drug use is a tool through which safe, effective and economic medication is provided. Rational prescribing ensures adherence to treatment and protects drug consumers from unnecessary adverse drug reactions. Rational dispensing on the other hand, promotes the safe, effective and economic use of drugs.Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess drug use practices and completeness of information on prescriptions in Gondar University Hospital.Methodology: A combination of retrospective and cross sectional study was conducted in outpatient pharmacy in the facility. Of the total of 30,000, some 1145 prescriptions containing drugs prescribed during the month of May 1, 2010 to April 30, 2011 were reviewed for retrospective and 31 patients coming with their prescriptions to outpatient pharmacy were interviewed in the middle of the week on the day of January 25, 2012.Results: The mean number of drugs per prescriptions was 1.76, percentage of prescriptions containing < 2 drugs per prescription was 80.87%. The generic name of the medication was used in 99.16 % of the prescriptions. Antibiotics were prescribed in 29.14 % of prescriptions and injections were prescribed in 28.50% of prescriptions. The drugs prescribed in 98.89% of prescriptions were part of the hospital essential drug list indicating the acceptance of this list by health care professionals. Patients age, sex and card number were written 86.64%, 67.93% and 73.54% respectively. Address of the patient and diagnosis were omitted 97.29% and 99.99% respectively. The correct name and strength of the drug were clearly stated in 80% of the prescriptions whereas dose, frequency and durations were clearly indicated in 81.38%, 76.07% and 82.01% of the prescriptions respectively. 33.42%, 96.69%, 72.56% and 16.09% of the prescriptions contain the name, signature, date and qualification of the prescribers. 80% of patients interviewed had adequate knowledge of how to take the medication prescribed. 61.29%, 29.03% and 19.35% of patients knew the precaution, strength and name of the drugs. From all drugs received by the patients only 8.47% (only the drugs in the tablet bag) were adequately labeled which was low from the literature.Conclusion: From the results of the study, it can be concluded that not all prescriptions were complete as few of them lack the necessary information. So there is a need for managerial and educational intervention to improve prescribing and dispensing practices.
Micropropagation of Kebericho: An Endandered Ethiopian Medicinal Plant  [PDF]
Begashaw Manahlie, Tileye Feyissa
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526402
Abstract: Echinops kebericho, endemic to Ethiopia, is a critically endangered medicinal plant. It is among the most important medicinal plants of the country, valued primarily for its root parts. The commercial harvesting and sale of roots of E. kebericho have threatened local populations. This study aimed to develop micropropagation protocol for E. kebericho using shoot tip explants. The study started with seed germination test using seeds stored for different months. Shoot tips from in vitro germinated seedlings were cultured on shoot initiation MS media supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l BAP or KN alone. Explants were cultured on shoot proliferation media fortified with Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ each at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 5.0 mg/l either alone or in combination with 0.0, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/l NAA. For rooting, full, half and 1/3 strength MS media supplemented with IBA and NAA alone each at 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/l were used. Growth regulator free MS medium was used as control. Study results showed that 100% germination was recorded in fresh seeds and dropped as low as 65.18% and 22.3% for 3 and 5 months seeds respectively. 1.0 mg/l KN and 0.5 mg/l KN + 0.1 mg/l NAA showed maximum shoot proliferation on shoot induction media and shoot multiplication media respectively. Best rooting was obtained on 1/3 MS containing 1.5 mg/l NAA with 8.23 roots and 4.82 cm root length and established under greenhouse with 83% survival.
Unsteady Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer Due to a Stretching Sheet by Quasilinearization Technique  [PDF]
Wubshet Ibrahim, Bandari Shanker
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2011.16036
Abstract: In this paper, the problem of unsteady laminar boundary-layer flow and heat transfer of a viscous income-pressible fluid over stretching sheet is studied numerically. The unsteadiness in the flow and temperature is caused by the time-dependent stretching velocity and surface temperature. A similarity transformation is used to reduce the governing boundary-layer equations to couple higher order non-linear ordinary differential equations. These equations are numerically solved using quasi-linearization technique. The effect of the governing parameters unsteadiness parameter and Prandtl number on velocity and temperature profile is discussed. Besides the numerical results for the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are presented. The computed results are compared with previously reported work.
Silage Additives: Review  [PDF]
Melkamu Bezabih Yitbarek, Birhan Tamir
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2014.45026
Abstract: Silage making process can be explained very simply, it is actually very complex and dependant on many factors, such as the natural microbial population, harvesting conditions and the sugar content of the forage. Consequently, silage quality can be very variable and the only way to effectively control the fermentation process is to use an additive. Additives are natural or industrial products added in rather large quantities to the forage or grain mass. Additives control or prevent certain types of fermentation, thus reducing losses and improving silage stability. In order to assist in the fermentation process, various silage additives have been used to improve the nutrient and energy recovery in silage, often with subsequent improvements in animal performance. The purpose for applying additives to the silage is to ensure that the growth of lactic bacteria predominates during the fermentation process, producing lactic acid in quantities high enough to ensure good silage. Therefore this review is made to focus on some practical aspects of the fermentation process and the uses of some common silage additives that include microbial inoculants, enzymes, and propionic acid.
Assessment of the Economic Impact and Prevalence of Ovine Fasciolosis in Menz Lalo Midir District, Northeast Ethiopia
Mersha Chanie,Sahle Begashaw
Veterinary World , 2012,
Abstract: Survey of economic loss and the prevalence of Fasciolosis in ovine species were conducted in Menz Lalo Midir district, Amhara National Regional State, during the period of September 2010 to June 2011. The objectives of this study were assessing the financial loss, determining prevalence. The total of number of study animals were 810 sheep from eight Kebeles (Tamawenze, Seklaye, Tayate, Saga, Wegere, Kilerbo, Toll, and Angetla) of Menz Lalo Midir district selected on lottery system. Prevalence was determined by fecal sample examinations. Gross lesions were studied by postmortem examination where as economic losses were determined after interview and market assessment. From fecal examination, the overall prevalence of ovine fasciolosis was found 70.20%. The prevalence in male animals was found 50.6% and in females it was 19.6%. But there exists no statistical significance between sex groups as the P value is less than 0.05. During the study period 1,692.00 Ethiopian birr was lost due to condemnation of liver from 189 animals accounting 74.6 % with 12.00 birr price of a liver. Clinically, observed signs were emaciation, weakness, bottle jaw and rough wool. Gross pathological lesions found were cirrhosis, fibrosis, and circumscribed pus accumulation, blunt edges of liver, bile duct hyperplasia and adult fasciola parasites on section of the liver. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggested that ovine fasciolosis was found to be one of the major disease entities in sheep in Menz Lalo Midir district [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000): 261-264]
Assessment of level of knowledge and utilization of emergency contraception among female students of Hawassa University, south Ethiopia  [PDF]
Ejara Tolossa, Birhan Meshesha, Amanuel Alemu Abajobir
Advances in Reproductive Sciences (ARSci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2013.13008
Abstract: Introduction: Emergency contraception is used as an emergency procedure to prevent unintended pregnancy secondary to an unprotected se xual intercourse and method failure. Hence, this study assessed the level of knowledge and utilization of emergency contraception among undergraduate regular female students of Hawassa University, south Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among female students of Hawassa University in December 2012. Seven hundred seventy six of the students were sampled by using multistage sampling technique. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: The majority 719 (92.7%) of female university students ever had sexual intercourse and 17 (2.2%) experienced forced sex. Eight (47%) of these 17 students experienced unintended pregnancy all of which resulted in an induced abortion. Three hundred seventy nine (72.2%) of the respondents had knowledge about emergency contraceptives and only 41 (10.8%) of them had ever used emergency contraceptives; oral contraceptive pills were the most widely used form of all emergency contraceptives 41 (10.8%). Age, marital status and age at menarche were associated with knowledge of emergency contraception; moreover, residence, year of study and experience of forced sex were found to be predictors of emergency contraception utilization. Conclusion: Female university students had been experiencing high rate of unintended sexual practice and pregnancy, low knowledge level and utilization of emergency contraceptives; moreover, they had no youth-friendly access to the services. Therefore, there is a need for collaborated effort to improve service access and scale up their utilization level to prevent unwanted pregnancy.
Comparing Data Mining Techniques in HIV Testing Prediction  [PDF]
Tesfay Gidey Hailu
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2015.73014
Abstract: Introduction: The present work compared the prediction power of the different data mining techniques used to develop the HIV testing prediction model. Four popular data mining algorithms (Decision tree, Naive Bayes, Neural network, logistic regression) were used to build the model that predicts whether an individual was being tested for HIV among adults in Ethiopia using EDHS 2011. The final experimentation results indicated that the decision tree (random tree algorithm) performed the best with accuracy of 96%, the decision tree induction method (J48) came out to be the second best with a classification accuracy of 79%, followed by neural network (78%). Logistic regression has also achieved the least classification accuracy of 74%. Objectives: The objective of this study is to compare the prediction power of the different data mining techniques used to develop the HIV testing prediction model. Methods: Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) was used to predict the model for HIV testing and explore association rules between HIV testing and the selected attributes. Data preprocessing was performed and missing values for the categorical variable were replaced by the modal value of the variable. Different data mining techniques were used to build the predictive model. Results: The target dataset contained 30,625 study participants. Out of which 16,515 (54%) participants were women while the rest 14,110 (46%) were men. The age of the participants in the dataset ranged from 15 to 59 years old with modal age of 15 - 19 years old. Among the study participants, 17,719 (58%) have never been tested for HIV while the rest 12,906 (42%) had been tested. Residence, educational level, wealth index, HIV related stigma, knowledge related to HIV, region, age group, risky sexual behaviour attributes, knowledge about where to test for HIV and knowledge on family planning through mass media were found to be predictors for HIV testing. Conclusion and Recommendation: The results obtained from this research reveal that data mining is crucial in extracting relevant information for the effective utilization of HIV testing services which has clinical, community and public health importance at all levels. It is vital to apply different data mining techniques for the same settings and compare the model performances (based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity) with each other. Furthermore, this study would also invite interested researchers to explore more on the application of data mining techniques in healthcare industry or else in related and similar
Quantum Moduli Spaces of Linear and Ring Mooses
Girma Hailu
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(02)03160-X
Abstract: Quantum moduli spaces of four dimensional $SU(2)^{r}$ linear and ring moose theories with $\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetry and link chiral superfields in the fundamental representation are produced starting from simple pure gauge theories of disconnected nodes.
N=1 Supersymmetric $SU(2)^r$ Moose Theories
Girma Hailu
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.67.085023
Abstract: We study the quantum moduli spaces and dynamical superpotentials of four dimensional $SU(2)^r$ linear and ring moose theories with $\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetry and link chiral superfields in the fundamental representation. Nontrivial quantum moduli spaces and dynamical superpotentials are produced. When the moduli space is perturbed by generic tree level superpotentials, the vacuum space becomes discrete. The ring moose is in the Coulomb phase and we find two singular submanifolds with a nontrivial modulus that is a function of all the independent gauge invariants needed to parameterize the quantum moduli space. The massive theory near these singularities confines. The Seiberg-Witten elliptic curve that describes the quantum moduli space of the ring moose is produced.
Cosmology on Compact and Stable Supergravity Background
Girma Hailu
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.103530
Abstract: We propose a cosmological model of D3-brane universe on compact and stable supergravity background of wrapped D7-branes in type IIB string theory previously argued to be dual to pure N=1 SU(N) gauge theory in four dimensions. A model universe of order Planck size near the UV boundary dynamically flows toward the IR with constant total energy density and accelerating expansion followed by smooth transition to decelerating expansion and collides with the wrapped D7-branes at the IR boundary. The model addresses the horizon and flatness problems with most of the expansion produced during the decelerating expansion phase. The inflationary scenario is used to generate sources of inhomogeneities in the cosmic microwave background radiation and seeds for large scale structure formation from quantum fluctuations which exit the Hubble radius early during the accelerating expansion phase and the model addresses the inhomogeneity problem with red tilt in the power spectrum. We propose that the kinetic energy of the model universe is converted to matter and radiation by the collision followed by formation of baryons that stabilizes the model universe against gravitational force from the background at a finite distance from the IR boundary with the wrapped D7-branes serving as sources of color. Friedmann evolution then takes over with a positive cosmological constant term coming from the remaining potential energy density which is interpreted as dark energy. The magnitude of dark energy density is smaller than the total energy density during the flow by a ratio of the scale factor when the model universe appears in the UV to the scale factor at the moment of collision and stays constant while the matter-radiation density falls during Friedmann expansion.
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