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Active in Situ Biomonitoring of Pesticide Pulses Using Gammarus spp. in Small Tributaries of Lake Constance  [PDF]
Almut Gerhardt, Margie Koster, Frank Lang, Vera Leib
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.37069
Abstract: Gammarids are important members of a stream’s macrozoobenthos biocoenosis and food web. Moreover, they proved to be very sensitive towards different types of pollution. GamToxTM is a new in situ ecotoxicity test, based on survival and feeding behavior of caged gammarids for active monitoring of small streams in agricultural areas. GamToxTM has been applied in two streams with specific pollution problems in the catchment of Lake Constance. Ten organisms were exposed in 5 replicates in flow through test tubes containing one conditioned alder leaf, placed in baskets which were attached in the stream bottom and on the banks. Each week, the number of living animals was counted, the percentage of leaf skeletized estimated in semi-quantitative classes and a new elder leaf provided. Dead organisms were removed. Simultaneously, chemical analyses of pesticides and nutrients (N-compounds, P) were performed on cumulative water samples over one week. Moreover, macrozoobenthos was collected and determined according to the IBCH method, and the SPEAR index calculated. GamToxTM proved to be very sensitive to detect pesticides, copper as well as nutrients, both during acute pollution pulses and chronic exposures of up to 6 weeks. Survival turned out to be a more sensitive and less variable parameter than feeding. GamToxTM is easy to perform and directly provides a measure of ecotoxicological effects of toxicant/nutrient mixtures, which cannot be predicted by biological indices based on macrozoobenthos data such as IBCH and SPEAR-index. This study was co-financed by the InterReg IV project “?kotoxikologischer Index im Bodenseeraum”, no. 227 (2011-2013) supported by the EFRE.
Pesticide Biomonitoring in Florida Agricultural Workers  [PDF]
Giffe T. Johnson, Steve Morris, James D. McCluskey, Ping Xu, Raymond D. Harbison
Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine (ODEM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/odem.2014.22004

This descriptive study evaluates the blood serum levels of relevant pesticides in fern/ornamental and tomato agricultural workers in central and south Florida whose work activity is related to pesticide application or crop maintenance. The objectives of this study are to broadly evaluate pesticide absorption in agricultural workers, assess personal protective equipment (PPE) use and their potential relevance to pesticide absorption, and to evaluate the feasibility of using primary biomonitoring as a method of exposure assessment for long-term epidemiological investigations. Three rounds of sampling were conducted where 41 subjects provided serum samples analyzed for individual pesticides and responded to a survey regarding PPE use. Serum samples yielded quantifiable detections of DDE, Methiocarb, Malathion, Chlorpyrifos, and Endosulfan in select subjects. The personal protective equipment survey did not demonstrate association with positive serum samples. These results demonstrate that the evaluated workers are effectively protected against exposures known to result in acute toxicity. Biomonitoring for parent compounds and primary metabolites may have limited utility in long-term epidemiological studies to evaluate chronic toxicity where workers are exposed to a great diversity of workplace chemicals (fern/or- namental workers) compared to agricultural sectors where workplace chemical diversity is more limited (tomato workers).

Assessment of the Potential of Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in Biomonitoring of Air Pollution by Cadmium, Lead and Vanadium  [PDF]
Jozef J. M. Van der Steen, Joop de Kraker, Tim Grotenhuis
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.62011
Abstract: The aim of our study was to explore whether honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) could be used as a reliable alternative to the standard mechanical devices for monitoring of air quality, in particular with respect to the concentration of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and vanadium (V). We therefore tested whether the concentrations of these metals in adult honeybees and in ambient air were positively correlated, and whether differences in concentration between locations were similar for bees and air. On the basis of our measurements, conducted over a two-month period at three distinct locations in the Netherlands with each three replicate honeybee colonies placed next to mechanical monitoring devices, we concluded that a significant positive relationship between the concentrations in bees and in air could only be established for V. Also, only in the case of V, the differences between the three locations in mean concentration were similar for bees and air. Both outcomes were probably due to the relatively large range over which the concentrations of V varied, both in bees and in air, as compared to Cd and Pb. However, for V, as well as for Cd and Pb, the concentrations in ambient air were about two orders of magnitude below the established air quality standards. We therefore conclude that in the Netherlands, both variation and levels of the atmospheric concentrations of these metals are too low to establish a relationship between the concentration in bees and in air that is useful to present honeybees as an alternative to mechanical devices in monitoring of air pollution. However, in countries with larger variation and higher levels of the atmospheric concentrations of these metals, further exploration of the potential of honeybees in biomonitoring of air pollution may be worthwhile.
A critical review of biomarkers used for monitoring human exposure to lead: advantages, limitations and future needs
Barbosa Jr,Fernando; Tanus-Santos,José Eduardo; Gerlach,Raquel Fernanda; Parsons,Patrick J.;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232006000100032
Abstract: lead concentration in whole blood (blood-pb) is the primary biomarker used to monitor exposure to this metallic element. however, the difficulty in assessing the exact nature of pb exposure is dependent not so much on problems with current analytical methodologies, but rather on the complex toxicokinetics of pb within various body compartments. if we are to differentiate more effectively between pb that is stored in the body for years and pb from recent exposure, information on other biomarkers of exposure may be needed. none of the current biomarkers of internal pb dose has yet been accepted by the scientific community as a reliable substitute for a blood-pb measurement. this review focuses on the limitations of biomarkers of pb exposure, and the need to improve the accuracy of their measurement. we present here only the traditional analytical protocols in current use and we attempt to assess the influence of confounding variables on blood-pb levels. finally, we discuss the interpretation of blood-pb data with respect to both external and endogenous pb exposure, past or recent exposure, as well as the significance of lead determinations in human specimens including hair, nails, saliva, bone, blood, urine, feces, and exfoliated teeth.
Efeitos do flúor em folhas de plantas aquáticas de Salvinia auriculata
Peixoto, Paulo Henrique Pereira;Pimenta, Daniel Sales;Antunes, Flávia;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2005000800001
Abstract: the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of fluoride on leaves of aquatic salvinia auriculata aubl., to supply subsidies for the use of this species as an environmental pollution bioindicator. the plants were cultivated under controlled conditions in pots containing nutritive solutions, and were submitted to simulated rain containing kf, in concentrations of 0, 13, 26 and 39 mm, in the morning, during five consecutive days. results evidenced the occurrence of morphological and anatomical damages involving trichome and adaxial surface of the leaf necrosis. alterations in the activity of peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase enzymes indicated the occurrence of oxidative damages in response to fluoride, although lipid peroxidation tests showed negative results. alterations in pigment concentration also pointed to the occurrence of oxidative stress, caused by fluoride present in the simulated rain. the morphological, anatomical, enzymatic, and pigment composition alterations in s. auriculata can be used in atmospheric pollution biomonitoring, because they are easy to detect through simple methodologies.
Una metodología para el cálculo de valores primarios de bioindicación A methodology to calculate Bioindication primary values
Riss Wolfgang,Ospina Rodulfo,Gutiérrez Juan David
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2002,
Abstract: RESUMENEste trabajo presenta una propuesta metodológica para determinar los valores numé-ricos de indicación primaria de un taxón hipotético cualquiera con respecto a un factoro conjunto de factores ambientales hipotéticos en una región determinada. Los valoresnuméricos de indicación primaria corresponden a la Tolerancia mínima (Tm) de untaxón cualquiera a un determinado factor ambiental o un conjunto de dichos factoresexpresados en un índice de calidad ambiental. Estos valores son deter-minados paracada taxón tomando el quinto percentil de la curva de distribución normal ajustada, apartir de las abundancias de cada grupo taxonómico en muestras tomadas sobre diezintervalos o clases de la escala ambiental del factor o del índice de calidad. A methodology to calculate numeric values of primary indication values for ahypothetical taxon in relation to one or several hypothetical environmental factors in agiven regions, is proposed. Primary indication numeric values correspond to theminimum tolerance (Tm) of any taxon to one or several environmental factors expressedby an environmental quality index. These values are obtained for each taxon basis of thefifth percentile of the normal adjusted distribution curve, using the abundance of eachtaxon in samples taken at ten intervals or classes in the environmental scale of eachfactor or group of factors on the corresponding quality index.
A conceptual approach to the biomonitoring of freshwater: the Ecological Ambience System
Journal of Limnology , 2001, DOI: 10.4081/jlimnol.2001.s1.17
Abstract: The concept of ecological ambience (Ecological Ambience System, EASY) is based on the idea that biocenoses (BIO) are not only related to the input of organic and mineral substances (IN) but also to the way they are stored and processed by the ecosystem. Storage, assimilation and self-purification processes ("ecosystem defences": ED) are likely to vary among the different functional units (FUs) of the ecosystem. The functional units have been defined on the basis of a simple physical description of sites in an ecosystem, because the physical structure of these units is considered as being of prime importance in the ED processes. For example, mineral and organic substances may be preferentially stored in fine-sediment units, whereas the mineralization rate of organic matter is more likely to be highest in coarse permeable sediments. If the stream ecosystem is viewed as a mosaic, its overall ecological defences will depend upon: 1) the self-purification capacity of the different functional units; 2) their relative proportion within the ecosystem. The EASY concept is now used for ecological researches and also has several applications in the biomonitoring of running waters, illustrated by the study of the River Dore. Biological compartments, specific for each functional unit, are related to operational bio-indicators to build up a global harmonisation system for biomonitoring indices. Four main biological compartments were defined with their related bio-indicators: 1) general biological quality (IBGN biotic index), 2) biological sediment quality (IOBS oligochaete index), 3) biological water quality (diatom index IBD) and 4) biological fish quality (study of fish communities). The selected bio-indicators were adjusted to an ecological classification model (Typic concept). A weighting system of the general ecological quality at a site based on the percentage cover of fine sediments is proposed. This approach can be developed using several other compartments. Major difficulties and potential improvements are discussed.
Estimation of Reference Values for PFOS and PFOA in Human Biomonitoring and Relevance of Exposure among Family Members in China  [PDF]
Wei Liu, Guanghui Dong, Yingwei Luo, Li Liu, Ziwei Cao, Xiaona Li, Yihe Jin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.34045
Abstract: The reference values of serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations were evaluated based on the human blood samples collected from Kashi, Xinjiang. And human serum samples of family members from Liaoning were evaluated for levels of PFOS and PFOA with the purpose to compare exposure pathways for family members. Among the 110 blood specimens from Kashi, the detection frequency of PFOS and PFOA was 93% and 6%, respectively. Reference values of serum PFOS, evaluated as the 90th percentiles of the concentrations, were determined to be 6.44 μg/L. Significant positive correlations were observed for serum levels of PFOS and PFOA among family members in Liaoning. Specially, stronger correlation between mother and offspring was observed than that between father and offspring. And stronger correlation of serum PFOS and PFOA levels was observed among fam- ily members in rural areas than those in big and small-medium cities. Difference in the association of serum PFOS and PFOA level among family members suggested that exposure in the outdoor and working environment of different oc- cupations should be evaluated. Present study provides reference values for exposure assessment in China and potential pathways of human exposure to PFOS and PFOA.
The Toxic Effects of Crude Oil in Some Freshwater Cyanobacteria  [PDF]
Abdul Hameed M. Jawad Al Obaidy, Muwafaq H. M. Lami
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.55039

Toxicity effect of the Iraqi crude oil on the growth of two Cyanobacteria strains Microcystis flos-aquae (Wittr.) Kircher (unicellular) and Nostoc carneum Agardh (filamentous) was studied basing on it is biomass expressed as chlorophyll-a (μg/ml). Growth rate and doubling time of the cells were also calculated accordingly in present or absent of the crude oil. Also, Microscopical examination was observed to detect the morphological changes. Both species appeared different responses towards oil toxic influences with different concentrations and time of exposure. Growth was decreased gradually with Microcystis with addition of 10, 30, 50 and 70 mg/l of the crude oil, slightly toxic effects were observed with Nostoc in comparison to the control. Different significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) were observed between growth of the cyanobacteria and the oil concentrations. Furthermore, results demonstrated that Microcystis was considered to be more sensitive than Nostoc towards crude oil concentrations.

Inorganic Elements in Eggs of Two Cavity-Nesting Passerine Species at and around Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  [PDF]
Shannon Marie Gaukler, Charles Dean Hathcock, Jeanne Marie Fair
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.99058
Abstract: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to build nuclear weapons, and currently operates as a national research laboratory. As part of an ongoing assessment of site-related ecological risk at LANL, western bluebird (Sialia mexicana) and ash-throated flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens) eggs were collected from 1997 to 2012 and analyzed for 18 inorganic elements. Concentrations of many inorganic elements in eggs were below reporting limits. Between species comparisons revealed that western bluebird eggs had higher levels of barium while ash-throated flycatcher eggs had higher levels of mercury. No statistically significant differences were observed in concentrations of inorganic elements in western bluebird eggs collected from the study area (which consists of areas within the current and historic LANL boundary) and from a non-industrial reference site; nor were any statistically significant differences observed between two canyons of interest, known to have received effluents and storm water runoff from LANL facilities, and the non-industrial reference site. Inorganic element levels detected in western bluebirds were typically within the range measured in eggs of other passerine in the published literature. These data suggest that concentrations of inorganic elements in passerine eggs collected from the study area appear to be at levels causing negligible risks to local bird populations.
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