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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3339 matches for " Biomass "
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Assessing Biomass Expansion Factor of Birch Tree Betula utilis D. DON  [PDF]
Khurshid Alam, Syed Moazzam Nizami
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2014.43024

Biomass is the component of living organism and mostly obtained from plants, animals, insects and the residue of all the mentioned organisms. Biomass is the key source of energy present in the form of organic matter. The study aimed to find out biomass and its variation in each component of Betula utilis D. Don (Birch Tree) with varying diameter at Kalam forest division Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, Pakistan. The biomass of different components was determined by non-destructive methods. Overall, 30 trees were selected from different diameter classes viz a viz up to 10, 11 - 20 and greater than 20 cm. Ten trees were selected from each class. The diameter of stem and large branches and their length were measured in the field. Later, the volumes of stem and branches were calculated and converted into biomass. The study revealed that stem contributes 42.65% biomass followed by large and sub branches as 39.22% and 13.54% respectively. Leaves contribute 4.59% only. The above tree biomass contribution by different components was arranged as stem was greater than large branches; these were greater than sub branches and the lowest was in leaves. The total above ground biomass of single tree was 20.59, 58.041 and 197.214 kg·tree-1 respectively for diameter up to 10, 11 - 20 and greater than 20 cm. The averaged biomass in all diameter classes was 91.95 ± 93.064 kg·tree-1. The total biomass of single tree of diameter class up to 10, 11 - 20 and greater than 20 cm was 24.71, 69.649 and 236 kg respectively. The below ground biomass of single tree of diameter class

Comparative Study on Microorganisms Used for the Bioethanol Production  [PDF]
Corina Amalia Macarie, Adina-Elena Segneanu, Ionel Balcu, Raluca Pop, Georgeta Burtica, Vasile-Daniel Gherman
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2011.24028
Abstract: Two different methods, namely simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and two-stage hydrolysis and fermen- tation have been used for the conversion of the cellulose into bioethanol. Both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were employed in order to obtain two types of microorganisms―Trichoderma reesei and Zymomonas mobilis―that are used for the production of cellulases. The aim of the paper is to investigate also the efficiency of a microorganism’s consortium in the fermentation stage of the two processes and the action of this microorganism’s consortium on different concentrations of the cellulosic substrate, in order to determine the optimum parameters of the process. Good yields (45% - 70%) of the cellulose degradation into fermentable sugars have been obtained.
An Inventory of the Above Ground Biomass in the Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya  [PDF]
Mwangi James Kinyanjui, Petri Latva-K?yr?, Prasad Sah Bhuwneshwar, Patrick Kariuki, Alfred Gichu, Kepha Wamichwe
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2014.410052

Biomass assessment of the Mau Forest Ecosystem (MFE) was done as part of Kenya’s greenhouse gas inventory. Trans Mara and Mount Londiani forest blocks representing extremes of vegetation types in the MFE were selected for ground data. Based on canopy closure, four forest strata were identified as very dense, moderately dense, open and bamboo. In each stratum, 5 clusters each with 4 plots measuring 30 m × 30 m were located. Big trees (D1.3 ≥ 10 cm) were measured per species for diameter at breast height (D1.3) in the whole plot while height was measured for every 5th tree. Poles (10 cm > D1.3 ≤ 5) were measured for D1.3 in a 10 × 10 m concentric sub plot. Saplings (5 cm > D1.3; ht ≥ 1.5 m) and seedlings (ht < 1.5 m) were enumerated per species within 5 × 5 m and 2 × 2 m concentric sub plots, respectively. Data were recorded in a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) and quality checked with Open Foris Collect software. Allometric equations that have been used for similar vegetation in Kenya were used to relate D1.3 and height with biomass. The tree data were uploaded to

Literature Review on Biorefinery Processes Integrated to the Pulp Industry  [PDF]
Fernando J. B. Gomes, Fernando A. Santos, Jorge L. Colodette, Iara F. Demuner, Larisse A. R. Batalha
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.59039
Biorefinery is a new term to designate two main subjects, bioproducts and bioenergy, which play important roles towards a more bio-based society. This paper reviews the current biorefineries model as well as its future importance focusing on pulp mill opportunities. There are currently several different levels of integration in biorefineries which add to their sustainability, both economically and environmentally. Enzymatic pretreatment for biomass deconstruction aiming to release the polysaccharides is a key technology in the future biorefineries and it is currently the subject of intensive research.
Effects of Winter Harvesting and Salinity on the Structure of Regrowing Reed Stands  [PDF]
Mingyao Huang, Qiang Sheng, Jihua Wu, Xiaoyun Pan
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.521339
Abstract: Harvest and salinity are two important factors of the growth of common reed (Phragmites australis). We here examined the different impact of winter harvest treatment on the Phragmites australis between high and low salinity (mean soil electrical conductivity is 7.87 ms/cm and 0.91 ms/cm) areas in Dongtan wetland of Yangtze River estuary, China. We measured phenology, Shoot density, stem diameter and height, biomass (total, aboveground and belowground biomass) and spike weight. At high salinity areas, harvest significantly inhibited the individual growth of stem height yet enhanced ramet density, and consequently led to an insignificant change in aboveground biomass. The belowground parts of reed were significantly inhibited. The root shoot ratio and the proportion of asexual reproduction decreased significantly. At low salinity areas, however, winter harvest generally has no significant influence on reed growth. Our results suggest that the winter harvest management may cause a decline of reed populations in the long term under condition of high salinity; however winter harvesting can be suggested as a proper management for sustainable utilization of reed communities at low salinity areas.
Grassland Height Assessment by Satellite Images  [PDF]
Alessandro Cimbelli, Valerio Vitale
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2017.61003
Images collected by optical and radar satellite sensors represent a most viable solution for the extraction of biophysical parameters of the earth surface. The mid-resolution dataset acquired by Landsat and Sentinel satellites have recently become available free of charge for all users. At the same time, some software for image processing and GIS, like QGIS, R, and ImageJ, have reached a high level of maturity and a large community of users, thanks to their open source license. In this project, free satellite images and open source software have been used for the assessment of the grassland biomass. The overall goal is the enhancement of the statistics of grassland production and dried fodder for the animal breeding. Currently, the National Institute of Statistics collects this kind of dataset at the province level. The project consists in some “in situ” surveys in a specific site in central Italy and in the building of a regression model between the grassland heights and the corresponding radiometric values of the most relevant image bands.
A new form of Miscanthus (Chinese silver grass, Miscanthus sinensis—Andersson) as a promising source of cellulosic biomass  [PDF]
Vladimir K. Shumny, Sergey G. Veprev, Nikolay N. Nechiporenko, Tatiana N. Goryachkovskaya, Nikolay M. Slynko, Nikolay A. Kolchanov, Sergey E. Peltek
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2010.13023
Abstract: The Far East population of Miscanthus sinensis (Andersson) was introduced into the West Siberia conditions. There was distinguished a form with a modified structure of the rootage which forms long shoots with leader buds and rapidly colonizes soil, thus forming a continuous and flat (without tussocks) plantation of miscanthus. It is shown that using usual agrotechnologies, it is possible to obtain 10-15 tons of dry biomass of high quality cellulose (about 40%) per ha/year.
Assessment of Health Effects Related to the Use of Biomass Fuel and Indoor Air Pollution in Kapkokwon Sub-Location, Bomet Country, Kenya  [PDF]
Taratisio Ndwiga, Robert M. Kei, Hellen Jepngetich, Kenneth Korrir
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2014.33007
Abstract: Biomass Fuel (BMF) refers to burned plant or animal material; wood, charcoal, dung and crop residues which account for more than half of domestic energy in most developing countries and for as much as 95% in low income countries. It is estimated that about 3 billion people in the world rely on biomass fuel for cooking, heating and lighting. The biomass fuel chain includes gathering, transportation, processing and combustion. These processes are predominantly managed by women where they work as gatherers, processors, carriers or transporters and also as end-users or cooks. Thus, they suffer health hazards at all stages of the biomass fuel chain. The main objective was to assess health effects related to the use of Biomass fuel and indoor air pollution in Kapkokwon Sub-location, Kericho County, Kenya from March to May, 2013. The study area was Kapkokwon sub location, Bomet County, Kenya. The study population was 202 households. Primary females of the household were the target group as they managed the biomass chain. A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study design was adopted to assess the health effects associated to the use of biomass fuel and indoor air pollution. The research revealed that women suffer different type of physical ailments due to the biomass fuel chain. Physical exhaustion (86%), neck aches (78%), headaches (34%), knee aches (30%) and back aches (16%) were reported as the principal health effects associated with the third stage of the biomass fuel chain. Irritation of the mucus membrane of the eyes, nose and throat (100%), coughing (100%), burns (42%), shortness of breath (38%) and exacerbation of asthma (2%) were identified as principal health effects associated with the fourth stage of the biomass fuel chain (cooking). As a result of the detrimental impact of indoor air pollution (IAP) on health and mortality, many governments, non-governmental organization and international organizations should develop strategies aimed at reducing indoor air pollution. The strategies to include subsidization of cleaner fuel technologies, development, promotion and subsidization of improved cooking stoves, use of solar thermal cookers and solar hot water heaters, processing biomass fuel to make them cleaner, modifying user behavior and improved household design.
Tree Biomass Estimation in Central African Forests Using Allometric Models  [PDF]
Romeo Ekoungoulou, Donatien Nzala, Xiaodong Liu, Shukui Niu
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2018.83014
Abstract: Quantifying the tropical forests’ carbon stocks is presently an important component in the implementation of the emerging carbon credit market mechanisms. This calls for appropriate allometric equations predicting biomass which currently are scarce. In this study, we aimed to estimate above- and below-ground biomass and carbon stocks of trees, and to identify the variation in diameter-height allometry of Ipendja mixed terra firme lowland tropical forest’s trees. The study area is located at Ipendja forest management unit (UFA), close to Dongou district (Likouala Department), in Northern Republic of Congo. This study combined forest inventory data of 1340 trees recorded from eight studied plots distributed in two sites, respectively Mokelimwaekili (i.e., Old-growth forest) and Sombo (i.e., Selective logging forest). Trees measurements were done with rectangular plots, each 25 × 200 m (i.e., 0.5 ha, 5000 m2). In eight studied plots (4 plots per site), only trees with DBH 10 cm were measured and identified. 1340 trees founded were belonged 145 species and 36 botanical families (n = 733 and
Management for the White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from the Southeastern Gulf of California through Biomass Models Analysis  [PDF]
Juan Madrid-Vera, Darío Chávez Herrera, Juan Melchor Aragón, Ricardo Meraz-Sánchez, José Alberto Rodríguez-Preciado
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2012.21002
Abstract: Samples taken during the closed fishing seasons from 1992 to 2010 were analyzed at sea. These data along with the landing records for the fishing periods from 1992-1993 to 2009-2010 were used to allow the situation of Litopenaeus van-namei from the coasts of Sinaloa and Nayarit to be analyzed by means of stochastic models and by a graphic approach for the surplus biomass. Using the catch from 1993-1994 as a reference point and comparing this to the 2008-2009 catch revealed a stock decrease of about 65%. By taking into account the percentage contribution to total shrimp land-ings, these changes showed a decrease from 76% to 12%. There were changes between 2000 and 2001 when the fleet grew by 50%. Considering a 3600 t maximum sustained yield (MSY) in the series 1992-2010, 50% of the reports are lower. It is necessary to recover the stock.
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