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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 762 matches for " Biomarkers "
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Biomarkers and Depressive Symptoms in a Sample of Cognitively Intact and Alzheimer’s Disease Elderly Males  [PDF]
James R. Hall, Hoa T. Vo, Leigh A. Johnson, Scott Winter, Robert C. Barber, Sid E. O’Bryant
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.24040
Abstract: Serum-based biomarkers and GDS-30 score and subscales of depressive symptoms were examined in a cross-sectional sample of 81 elderly men drawn from the TARCC cohort. Measurements included neuropsychological assessment and serum. Thirty three patients met consensus diagnosis for probable AD and forty eight were cognitively intact. Although initial regression analysis of all subjects showed significant relationships between depression and specific biomarkers, analyses based on diagnosis indicated that none of the biomarkers were significantly associated with depression among the controls. Among AD males MIF was significantly associated with total GDS scores and subscales of dysphoria, meaninglessness, and cognitive impairment. TNF-α was significantly associated with the apathy in AD males. Higher levels of MIF were associated with less depression in AD men. TNF-α was positively associated with degree of apathy. This study suggests the importance of cognitive status, gender and subtypes of depression when investigating biomarkers and depression in the elderly.
Biomarkers and atrial fibrillation: A new paradigm for assessing the progression of left atrial endocardial remodelling  [PDF]
Philippe Chevalier, Alina Scridon
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2012.22004
Abstract: Atrial fibrillation is a heterogeneous disorder that is usually characterized by paroxysmal onset, particularly in patients without structural heart disease. Defining biological markers of atrial remodelling would help identify patients at high risk who would benefit most from prophylactic treatment and careful monitoring. Biomarkers of atrial fibrillation progression would be helpful for following patients that present with asymptomatic atrial fibrillation. Notably, the roles of such markers in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation must be determined. Some markers may indicate the presence, complications or progression of the disease, while others may be involved in key pathological processes and thus represent novel therapeutic targets. Although a number of markers have been reported as potential predictors of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation progression towards persistent arrhythmia, their usefulness and clinical value need further validation. This report reviews several newly identified markers of atrial fibrillation progression.
Inflammation Biomarkers as Predictors of Pulmonary Outcomes in Cardiac Surgical Patients  [PDF]
Nadera J. Sweiss, Ray Sawaqed, Kenneth V. Leeper, Heval M. Kelli, Timothy Niewold, Omar M. Lattouf
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery (OJTS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojts.2013.34020
Abstract: Prolonged ventilator support, pulmonary infections and the need for tracheostomies after cardiac operations are associated with increased hospital mortality, length of stay, cost of hospitalization and reduced long term survival. The objective of this study is to review the literature and develop and present an understanding of the potential role of specific pre-operatively or intraoperatively collected inflammatory biomarkers and their role as predictors of pulmonary outcomes in cardiac surgery.
BOOK REVIEW | Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems
Christopher C. Parrish
Oceanography , 2012,
Abstract: In order to measure inputs, cycling, and loss of material in aquatic ecosystems, a wide range of compounds and analytical tools is now available. Biological markers are compounds, or groups of compounds, that can be used as indicators or signatures of individual organisms or groups of organisms, or of certain environmental processes. Molecular biomarkers can be DNA fragments or smaller molecules that are easily determined using standard chromatographic techniques. Anthropogenic compounds can be used as wastewater markers to locate sources and pathways of transport as well as to determine pollutant loading.
Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers in Adult and Pediatric Gliomas: Toward Personalized Treatment
Harry R. Haynes,Sandra Camelo-Piragua,Kathreena M. Kurian
Frontiers in Oncology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2014.00047
Abstract: It is increasingly clear that both adult and pediatric glial tumor entities represent collections of neoplastic lesions, each with individual pathological molecular events and treatment responses. In this review, we discuss the current prognostic biomarkers validated for clinical use or with future clinical validity for gliomas. Accurate prognostication is crucial for managing patients as treatments may be associated with high morbidity and the benefits of high risk interventions must be judged by the treating clinicians. We also review biomarkers with predictive validity, which may become clinically relevant with the development of targeted therapies for adult and pediatric gliomas.
Biomarkers and Depressive Symptoms in Older Women with and without Cognitive Impairment  [PDF]
James R. Hall, Leigh A. Johnson, Hoa T. Vo, Robert C. Barber, A. Scott Winter, Sid E. O’Bryant
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.22031
Abstract: A number of biological markers have been implicated in late life depression with inconsistent results. The present study examined the relationship between several serum based biomarkers and symptoms of depression in a sample of elderly women with AD or cognitively intact. Methods 171 females (58 with AD and 113 cognitively intact) were recruited from the Longitudinal Research Cohort of the Texas Alzheimer’s Research and Consortium (TARC). Stepwise regressions were conducted with GDS total and subscales and a panel of biomarkers (CRP, IL-10, IL-1α, TNF-α, ICAM-1, BDNF, and MIF). ApoE4 status was coded (carrier or non-carrier), and the results were analyzed by cognitive status (AD or controls). Results: None of the biomarkers significantly predicted total GDS score for AD cases, controls or sample as a whole. For the Controls, ICAM significantly predicted Dysphoria and level of Apathy. Among AD patients, MIF, ICAM, and CRP, were significantly associated with Apathy. MIF and ICAM were inversely associated with reported Apathy. CRP was positively associated with Apathy. CRP was also positively related to level of perceived Cognitive Impairment. Conclusions: The present study was one of the first to examine biomarkers related to depression symptoms in elderly women with AD and normal controls. For Controls ICAM alone predicted level of apathy. In the AD group, MIF, CRP, and ICAM were significantly associated with apathy. More research examining the relationship between biomarkers and depression is needed in older patients with and without cognitive impairment across genders.
Immunohistochemical Expression of Ki-67, PCNA, pRb, p16, p53, Bcl-2 and Bax in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Barrett’s Associated Dysplasia  [PDF]
Andrey Iskrenov Kotzev, Margarita Angelova Kamenova, Alexander Petrov Tcherveniakov
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.36143
Abstract: Background: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has an extremely poor prognosis. There is a need to characterize the molecular alterations in the carcinogenesis of EAC in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment. Materials and Methods: We used 7 markers to explore the changes in the cell cycle, proliferation and apoptosis in patients with EAC and Barrett’s esophagus (BE)-associated dysplasia. The protein expression of Ki-67, PCNA, pRb, p16, p53, Bcl-2 and Bax was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in archival tissue samples, collected from 15 patients with EAC and 5 patients with BE-associated dysplasia. We analyzed also lymph-node, omentum and liver metastases from the primary esophageal tumors. Results: Ki-67, PCNA, pRb, p16, p53, Bcl-2 and Bax expression was observed in 100%, 87%, 60%, 40%, 100%, 7% and 93% of tumor samples, and in 100%, 80%, 0%, 80%, 80%, 20% and 100% of dysplasia samples, respectively. Significant difference in the expression of the markers between EAC and BE-associated dysplasia was detected for pRb (p = 0.006). Ki-67 expression was associated with clinicopathological parameter T (p = 0.012; V = 0.585). Ninefold higher risk to develop EAC was established for the patient with strong p53 expression, than the lacking p53 patient. Patients with strong p53 expression survived 6.8 months longer than the patients with weak p53 expression and 8.6 months longer than the patients with moderate p53 expression. No correlation was found between the expression of the other markers and prognosis. Conclusion: The results suggest that Ki-67, PCNA, pRb, p16, p53 and Bax participate in the pathogenesis of EAC, whereas Bcl-2 does not play essential role in EAC and BE-associated dysplasia. The balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis is lost in EAC and BE-associated dysplasia. Abnormal p53 protein expression has predictive and prognostic value in EAC. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Synergy between molecular biology and imaging science toward mechanism-based biomarkers associated with prostate cancer  [PDF]
Belinda Seto
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.512A107

Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease with subtypes that are characterized by different molecular profiles as a result of chromosomal rearrangements, epigenetic modifications, and activation of various signaling pathways. The subtype heterogeneity contributes to the challenges with a definitive diagnosis and biomarkers for disease progression. The current diagnostic test based on the detection of prostate specific antigen lacks sensitivity and specificity. Imaging plays an important role in characterizing biomarkers and elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms. For example, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy glucose is commonly used to assess cancer cell metabolism. More recently, magnetic resonance spectroscopic observations of the in vivo dynamic conversion of hyperpolarized 13C- pyruvate to lactate demonstrate that imaging enables the visualization of molecular processes. Biomarkers have also been developed that reveal aberrant cell growth and proliferation, both hallmarks of cancer. Androgen dependent and independent signaling path- ways underpin prostate cancer pathogenesis as they lead to downstream effect in cell growth, proliferation, survival, and suppression of apoptosis. Molecular imaging with radiolabeled ligands and positron emission tomography/computed tomography has provided quantitative characterization of the interactions between receptors and testosterone or growth factors. These observations, along with data on genetic alterations of the receptor genes, shed light on signal transduction involved in prostate cancer. This review article highlights advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer and the synergy of this knowledge with imaging in characterizing potential biomarkers of the disease.

Potential Role of Biomarkers in the Management of Syncope  [PDF]
Birsen Arici, Mirjam Maeder, Philipp Schuetz, Beat Muelle, Werner C. Albrich
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.37A131

Study objective: Syncope is one of the most common presentation of patients seen in emergency departments (ED). Risk assessment of syncope is challenging. The San Francisco Syncope Rule is the most widely used risk assessment, but has moderate accuracy. The aim of our study was to investigate blood biomarkers as prognostic factors for adverse outcome. Methods: In this observational study we included consecutive adults presenting with syncope to our ED. Management decisions were left to the discretion of the treating physicians. Patients were monitored for adverse events until discharge and underwent a phone interview 30 days after enrolment. Adverse outcome was defined as recurrent syncope, rehospitalization and death within 30 days. Results: We included 132 adult patients of whom 19 (14%) had an adverse event (recurrent syncope = 3, rehospitalisation = 12, death = 4). No difference in the San Francisco Syncope Rule was found in patients with and without adverse events (SFSR ≥ 1: 37% vs. 39%, p = 0.877). Median levels of ProADM (1.23 vs. 0.81 nmol/l; p = 0.006) and NT-proBNP (454 vs 134ng/l; p = 0.035) were higher and median levels for cholesterol (3.68 vs 4.57 mmol/l; p = 0.008) and prealbumin (0.19 vs0.26 g/l; p = 0.005) were lower in patients with adverse events. Prealbumin (AUC 0.72) and ProADM (AUC 0.70) had the highest prognostic accuracy. Conclusion: Biomarkers predicted poor outcome and might be helpful in the context of a clinical algorithm for an improved triage of syncope patients in the ED.

Serum C reactive protein level in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending diabetic clinic in Benin City, Nigeria  [PDF]
Alfred Friday Ehiaghe, Dennis E. Agbonlahor, Youtchou Mirabeau Tatfeng, Folarin Onikepe, Faith Efosa Oviasogie, Joy Imuetinya Ehiaghe
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2013.34026

C reactive protein is sensitive physiological biomarkers of sub clinical inflammation associated with hyperglycemia. The aim of this study is to determine the fasting serum C reactive protein level in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending diabetic clinic in Benin City, Nigeria. The population sample consists of 142 subjects. 71 patients were known type 2 diabetes mellitus, while the other 71 were age matched control subjects. Fasting glucose and C reactive protein were estimated using glucose oxidase method and ELISA method respectively. The age group that has the highest number of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 41 - 50 (64% of males and 36% of the females). Our finding revealed that C reactive protein and serum glucose level of type 2 Diabetes mellitus in both females and males show a statistically significant increase as compared with age matched Control subjects, (P < 0.05). An elevation of serum C-reactive protein was demonstrated in both males and females type 2 diabetes mellitus in Benin City, Nigeria. These data support a possible role of inflammatory biomarkers in diabetogenesis.

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