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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 727 matches for " Biomarker "
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Comparing biomarkers and proteomic fingerprints for classification studies  [PDF]
Brian T. Luke, Jack R. Collins, Jens K. Habermann, DaRue A. Prieto, Timothy D. Veenstra, Thomas Ried
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.64057
Abstract:

Early disease detection is extremely important in the treatment and prognosis of many diseases, especially cancer. Often, proteomic fingerprints and a pattern recognition algorithm are used to classify the pathological condition of a given individual. It has been argued that accurate classification of the existing data implies an underlying biological significance. Two fingerprint-based classifiers, decision tree and medoid classification algorithm, and a biomarker-based classifier were examined using a published dataset of mass spectral peaks from 81 healthy individuals and 78 individuals with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). For all three methods, classifiers were constructed using the original data and the data after permuting the labels of the samples (BPH and healthy). The fingerprint-based classifiers produced accurate results for the original data, though the peaks used in a given classifier depended upon which samples were placed in the training set. Accurate results were also obtained for the dataset with permuted labels. In contrast, only three unique peaks were identified as putative biomarkers, producing a small number of reasonably accurate biomarker-based classifiers. The dataset with permuted labels was poorly classified. Since fingerprint-based classifiers accurately classified the dataset with permuted labels, the argument for biological significance from a fingerprint-based classifier must be questioned.

Correlation of Urinary Engrailed-2 Levels to Tumour Volume and Pathological Stage in Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy  [PDF]
Hardev Pandha, Saqib Javed, Prasanna Sooriakumaran, Simon Bott, Bruce Montgomery, Anthony Hutton, Christopher Eden, Christopher Eden, Stephen E. Langley, Richard Morgan
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.43089
Abstract:

The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between pre-prostatectomy urinary Engrailed-2 (EN2), a transcription factor secreted by prostate cancer cells, with tumour volume and pathological characteristics in resected prostate specimens. First pass urine samples (10 ml) without prior prostatic massage were collected and stored at –80°C. EN2 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Tumour volume in the prostatectomy specimens was determined histologically. 57 men undergoing RP in one urological cancer network were evaluated. EN2 was detected in 85% of RP patients. EN2 correlated with tumour volume (but not total prostatic volume) in a linear regression analysis, with increasing pathological T stage and margin positivity. Using three cutoff levels of tumour volume (0.5 ml, 1.3 ml and 2.5 ml) to define significant disease, men with significant disease had markedly higher levels of urinary EN2 (p < 0.001 for each cut off level). Levels of urinary EN2 may be useful in predicting tumour volume in men with prostate cancer by potentially identifying men with small volume insignificant disease. This study justifies a larger multicentre evaluation of urinary EN2 levels as a biomarker of PC significance using cancer volume, pathological and PSA criteria.

Novel genomic biomarkers for acute gentamicin nephrotoxicity in dog  [PDF]
James Eric McDuffie, Jingjin Gao, Jingying Ma, David La, Anton Bittner, Manisha Sonee, Matthew Wagoner, Sandra Snook
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology (OJMIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmip.2013.33018
Abstract:

Objectives: Novel biomarkers indicative of drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI) in dogs would have significant application in preclinical drug development. We conducted a feasibility study to identify genomic expression profiles for monitoring progressive, acute DIKI in dogs. Materials and Methods: Animals were intramuscularly administered either 0.9% physiological saline or gentamicin (40 mg/kg/day) for 10 consecutive days and euthanized on day 11. Serum and urine samples were collected at various time points and kidney samples were collected at necropsy for biomarker measurements. Results: Acute gentamicin-induced renal histopathology changes were localized to the proximal convoluted tubules and characterized as slight-to-marked, diffuse cortical-medullary tubular epithelial degeneration/necrosis. Serum creatinine (sCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) elevations suggestive of mild renal dysfunction were first observed on days 7 to 8. Gentamicin-induced increased urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) mRNA was observed on day 6 preceding detectable elevations of sCr and/or BUN. Increased urinary KIM-1 mRNA correlated with multifocal KIM-1 immunostaining in the corticomedullary tubular epithelial cells. Microarray analysis revealed changes in additional mRNA expression products detected in urine and/or kidney that should be further investigated for use as potential biomarkers for acute gentamicin related nephrotoxicity in dogs. Conclusion: These findings suggested the utility of non-invasive urinary genomic parameters for monitoring acute DIKI in dogs.

Age-Related Biomarkers Can be Modulated by Diet in the Rat  [PDF]
Hilary Anne MacQueen, Wassif Samuel Wassif, Ian Walker, Dawn Angela Sadler, Karen Evans
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.28120
Abstract: This study seeks to establish the normal serum concentrations of biochemical markers related to nutrition, inflammation and disease, and to investigate how the levels change with age and diet in the rat. To this end, we fed rats from weaning on three diets differing in their protein, carbohydrate and fatty acid content. The diets consisted of a control, nutritionally balanced diet, this same diet supplemented with 10% (wt/wt) beef tallow, and a diet that was high in fat and carbohydrate and low in protein. Blood samples from rats at two different ages, 3 months and 12 months, were then analysed. In control rats, with advancing age there was a general decrease in potassium, iron and serum albumin concentrations and in the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and an increase in total and HDL cholesterol. These changes were modulated by diet: many of the age-related changes (serum concentrations of potassium, iron and cholesterol, and liver enzyme activities) were not observed in animals eating the high fat diet. In contrast, the high carbohydrate, high fat, low protein diet-fed animals showed several additional changes (serum concentrations of sodium, urea, creatinine and TG, and activity of alkaline phosphatase) that can be related to kidney, liver and cardiovascular health.
Placenta related pathogenic factors for preeclampsia  [PDF]
Yuxuan Chen, Zhenyu Zhang
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2012.24072
Abstract: Preeclampsia (PE) is a life-threatening complication of pregnancy. The precise origin of PE remains obscure. Placenta has been considered to play a central role in its pathology. Here we present a brief overlook of placenta related pathogenic factors that might be involved in the pathology changes of PE. A series of factors that correlated with placenta pathology have been regarded attributed to the mechanism of the disease. Some of the factors may be confirmed to be useful biomarkers in the early prediction and monitoring of the disease in a future.
Integrating Biomarkers into Research with Latino Immigrants in the United States  [PDF]
Heather H. McClure, J. Josh Snodgrass, Charles R. Martinez. Jr., J. Mark Eddy, Thomas W. McDade, Melanie J. Hyers, Anne Johnstone-Díaz
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2013.32015
Abstract:

Despite extensive research into the toll of persistent psychosocial stress on individual physiology and health, little is known about the effects of chronic biosocial stress for immigrant populations. In the present paper, the authors review challenges encountered when integrating minimally-invasive stress-related biomarkers (e.g., blood pressure, Epstein-Barr Virus [EBV] antibodies, C-reactive protein [CRP], and salivary cortisol), as well as anthropometric (e.g., height, weight, waist circumference) and metabolic measures (e.g., glucose, cholesterol), into research with Latino immigrant adults and families in Oregon, USA. Finally, the authors present lessons learned and discuss strategies to support the full engagement of Latino immigrants as participants in studies that rely on the collection of biological data as a central component of research into psychosocial stress and its effects.

MicroRNAs: The Potential Biomarkers in Plant Stress Response  [PDF]
Sonali Bej, Jolly Basak
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.55089
Abstract:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNA regulatory molecules of approximate 20-24 nucleotides that are involved in regulating the intrinsic growth and development of organs in plants and animals as well as in maintaining the integrity of genomes. Past few years have witnessed an increase in research reports on the crucial role of miRNAs in plant stress response. Plant miRNAs regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level not only by suppression of mRNA translation but also by direct cleavage of the target mRNAs. This review starts with a brief overview on small RNAs including miRNAs, biogenesis of miRNA and focuses mainly on the various up and down-regulated plant miRNAs under different biotic and abiotic stresses showing advancement of studies about miRNA and their stress regulation pathway. This review explores the emerging role of miRNAs as potential biomarkers in plant stress responses.

MicroRNAs Play Significant Roles in Pathogenesis of HBV-Related Diseases  [PDF]
Gaoyun Chen, Min Liu, Zhigang Jiang, Mengbin Yu, Sichen Wei
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2016.910B011
Abstract:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) comprise an important class of small (about 22 nt) conserved nonprotein-coding RNAs that specifically regulate cellular gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Increasing researches showed that miRNAs have emerged as critical regulators involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes, in-cluding such as proliferation, differentiation and development, apoptosis and patho-gen-host interactions. This review summarizes the crucial roles of miRNAs in replica-tion of the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the mechanism underlying dysregulation of miRNAs in HBV-associated diseases. miRNAs are emerged as essential regulators of HBV replication and pathogenesis. To a certain extent, miRNA is a new promising biomarker and useful strategy for diagnosis of HBV-related diseases.
A Review on Survivin as a Prognostic and Therapeutic Cancer Biomarker  [PDF]
Amal Ahmed Ismail
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2018.81002
Abstract: Survivin is an antiapoptotic protein expressed in tumor cells that correlates with aggressiveness, prognosis and treatment. Objective: This review summarizes significance of survivin expression among different tumor types highlighting the potential value of survivin as an important biomarker that may have an impact on patient’s response to therapy with prognostic implications.
BIOMARKER RESEARCH: THE WAY FORWARD TO MODERN MEDICINE
Professor Theeshan Bahorun PhD,Professor Okezie I Aruoma PhD, DSc
Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL , 2011,
Abstract:
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