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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 252 matches for " Biofuels "
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Assessment of Feedstock Options for Biofuels Production in Ghana  [PDF]
Francis Kemausuor, Joseph Oppong Akowuah, Emmanuel Ofori
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.32017

In the wake of climate change and increasing fossil fuel prices, biofuels are becoming attractive to agricultural dependent economies in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions of the world. This study evaluates the energy production potential of biomass resources grown on the available arable agricultural land under two principal scenarios: using 2.5% and 5% of the available arable land for energy crop expansion. Using conservative biofuel yields from crops in the sub-region, a 2.5% of uncultivated arable land dedicated to four traditional crops grown in Ghana namely maize, cassava, sweet sorghum and oil palm could potentially replace 9.3% and 7.2% of transportation fuels by 2020 and 2030 respectively. Using 5% of the uncultivated arable land to cultivate the above four crops and jatropha could potentially produce biofuel to replace 17.3% of transport fuels by 2020 and 13.3% by 2030. In order to enrol such a scheme, government is encouraged to put in place appropriate structures to ensure that, the industry meet international sustainability standards.

Succinic Acid Production across Candidate Lignocellulosic Biorefinery Feedstocks  [PDF]
Yifeng Xu, Jamie L. Foster, James P. Muir, Byron L. Burson, Russell W. Jessup
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.911155
Abstract: Non-food lignocellulosic crops with both high biomass yields and superior adaptation to marginal lands have significant potential as biofuel feedstocks that can replace fossil fuels. Deployment of dedicated crops into single biofuels, however, has been reduced by conversion technology costs and low petroleum prices. Integrated biorefinery strategies, in which value-added coproducts are generated in conjunction with biofuels, by comparison offer opportunities to overcome this economic disadvantage. The objective of this research was to evaluate succinic acid accumulation across candidate lignocellulosic feedstocks. Feedstock entries included pearl millet x napiergrass hybrids (“PMN”; Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br. × P. purpureum Schumach.), napiergrass (P. purpureum Schumach.), annual sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench), pearl millet (P. glaucum [L.] R. Br.), perennial sorghum (Sorghum spp.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus J. M. Greef & Deuter) and energy cane (Saccharum spp. L.). Replicated field plots, as well as an independent greenhouse trial, were characterized for succinic acid content. The PMN, napiergrass, sunn hemp and energy cane entries had greater (P ≤ 0.05) succinic acid yields, up to 556 kg·ha-1, in field trials. Napiergrass and PMN entries similarly had higher succinic acid yields under greenhouse conditions; however, irrigation treatments did not alter succinic acid accumulation in this study. Napiergrass, PMN, and energy cane thus are promising biorefinery feedstocks.
Trehalose and Sucrose Osmolytes Accumulated by Algae as Potential Raw Material for Bioethanol  [PDF]
Ma. del Pilar Bremauntz, Luis G. Torres-Bustillos, Rosa-Olivia Ca?izares-Villanueva, Enrique Duran-Paramo, Luis Fernández-Linares
Natural Resources (NR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2011.23023
Abstract: Currently, obtaining sustainable fuels, such as biodiesel and bioethanol, from cheap and renewable materials is a challenge. In recent years, a new approach being developed consists of producing, sugars from algae by photosynthesis. Sugar accumulation can be increased under osmotic stress (osmoregulation). The aim of this study is to show the pro-duction of sugars from algae, isolated from natural sources, and the effect of osmotic stress on fermentable sugars ac-cumulation. Strain isolation, production of sugars from each alga and the effect of osmotic stress on growth and sugar production are described. Twelve algal strains were isolated, showing growths between 0.6 and 1.8 g of biomass dry weight /L, all with production of intracellular and extracellular sugars. The strain identified as Chlorella sp. showed an increase in sugar production from 23.64 to 421 mg of sugars/g of biomass dry weight after 24 h of osmotic stress with 0.4 M NaCl. Sucrose and trehalose, both fermentable sugars, were the compatible osmolytes accumulated in response to the osmotic stress. The isolated strains are potential producers of fermentable sugars, using the photosynthetic pathway and osmotic stress.
Developmental Trends of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems at TMU Laboratories  [PDF]
Barat Ghobadian
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2012.22002
Abstract: This paper describes a brief review of biodiesel R & D developmental trends at Tarbiat Modares University (TMU) bio- energy research laboratories (lab.), Tehran, Iran. The developmental trends at includes potential and feasibility study, cultivation of a sample bioenrgy farm, technology innovation and its scale up (patents) for fuel processing, and finally the fuel application in diesel engines. A national investigation was carried out to find out the possible potential of sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. The results showed that easily available biodiesel feedstock is waste cooking oil with a maximum potential of 750 mil.lit and an approximately 350 mil.lit. of collectable waste cooking oil. A castor oil plant farm was cultivated to harvest castor plant seeds, extract its oil, produce biodiesel fuel and use it in diesel engines. This led to a series of patent and consequently technology innovation from 7 lit. lab. scale to semi-continuous, semi-industrial scale of 2 ton capacity.
Land Conversion and Agrofuel Plantations in Mindanao: Promises and Uncertainties
Alternate Forum for Research in Mindanao (AFRIM)
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2011,
Abstract: As a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, the Philippines enacted the Biofuels Act of 2006 (RA 9367). Signed into law in January 2007, it aims for the phasing out of harmful gasoline additives and/or oxygenates, and the mandatory use of biofuels with one percent biodiesel blend and five percent bioethanol blend for all diesel and gasoline fuels, respectively. This policy has led to frenzied development of biofuel plantations, particularly sugarcane, cassava, and sweet sorghum for bioethanol production, and coconut, oil palm, and jatropha for production of biodiesel. Mindanao has been identified as a major contributor in fulfilling the Philippine government’s biofuel targets. The island’s vast agricultural lands are thus giving way to monocrop oil plantations.
Metabolic Engineering of Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum for Increased n-Butanol Production  [PDF]
Ashwini Bhandiwad, Anna Guseva, Lee Lynd
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.31007

Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum shows promise as a host for n-butanol production since it natively has the required genes involved in the n-butanol biosynthetic pathway. Overexpression of the natively occurring bcs operon containing the genes thl, hbd, crt, bcd, etfA, and etfB responsible for the formation of butyryl CoA increased the n-butanol production by 180% compared to the wild type from a n-butanol titer of 1.8 mM to 5.1 mM. The deletion of one of the six alcohol dehydrogenase genes confirmed that it was the primary gene responsible for ethanol and n-butanol production from acetyl CoA and butyryl CoA respectively.

A Life Cycle Assessment Based Evaluation of a Coupled Wastewater Treatment and Biofuel Production Paradigm  [PDF]
Monica C. Rothermel, Amy E. Landis, William J. Barr, Kullapa Soratana, Kayla M. Reddington, Matthew K. Weschler, Grace Witter, Willie F. Harper
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.49118

A laboratory experiment was performed to determine the feasibility of coupling a conventional wastewater treatment system with an algal photobioreactor (PBR) for the removal of nutrients from wastewater and production of renewable resources. An activated sludge batch reactor was set up in series with an algal PBR to feed synthetic wastewater to Chlorella vulgaris. The nutrient concentration in the water as well as lipid content, carbohydrate content, and growth rate of the algal biomass were tested over 10 cycles to determine the capabilities of the coupled system. The study revealed complete nutrient removal in some cycles, with the average final nutrient content of 2 mg-P/L and 3 mg-N/L in effluent of the PBR. The algae biomass contained 24% ± 3% lipids and 26% ± 7% carbohydrates by dry weight. A life cycle assessment revealed the highest energy demand occurred during harvesting of the algal mixture through centrifugation or filtration, but the highest global warming and eutrophication impacts were due to CO2 use and PBR construction material production. It is feasible for the system to treat wastewater while generating renewable resources, but the system must be optimized to reduce life cycle environmental impacts and result in a net energy gain before large-scale implementation is possible.

Characterization of a Thermostable, Recombinant Carboxylesterase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Metallosphaera sedula DSM5348  [PDF]
Rushyannah Killens-Cade, Rachel Turner, Christine MacInnes, Amy Grunden
Advances in Enzyme Research (AER) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aer.2014.21001
Abstract: Lipid-producing microalgae are emerging as the leading platform for producing alternative biofuels in response to diminishing petroleum reserves. Optimization of fatty acid production is required for efficient conversion of microalgal fatty acids into usable transportation fuels. Microbial lipases/esterases can be used to enhance fatty acid production because of their efficacy in catalyzing hydrolysis of esters into alcohols and fatty acids while minimizing the potential poisoning of catalysts needed in the biofuel production process. Although studies have extensively focused on lipases/esterases produced by mesophilic organisms, an understanding of lipases/esterases produced by thermophilic, acidic tolerant microbes, such as Metallosphaera sedula, is limited. In this work, the carboxylesterase from Metallosphaera sedula DSM5348 encoded by Msed_1072 was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (λDE3). The purified enzyme either with a hexahistidine (His6)-tag (Msed_1072Nt and Msed_1072Ct) or without the hexahistidine (His6)-tag (Msed_1072) was biochemically characterized using a variety of substrates over a range of temperatures and pH and in the presence of metal ions, organic solvents, and detergents. In this study, the fusion of the protein with a hexahistidine (His6)-tag did not result in a change in substrate specificity, but the findings provide information on which enzyme variant can hydrolyze fatty acid esters in the presence of various chemicals, and this has important implication for their use in industrial processes. It also demonstrates that Metallosphaera sedula Msed_1072 can have application in microalgae-based biofuel production systems.
The Technology of Waste, Biofuels and Global Warming in Viable Closed Loop, Sustainable Operations
William R. Butterworth
Energies , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/en20401192
Abstract: This research set out to explore and develop a route relating the recycling of urban and industrial wastes to land to produce agricultural crops with energy crops in the rotation, using the green leaf to “harvest” sunlight and to examine the sequestration of carbon dioxide and release of oxygen in a sustainable closed loop. Further, to establish if the pollution, particularly of nitrogen and phosphates (often associated with cultivations and use of mineral fertilisers) could be reduced or eliminated, so as to be able to develop systems which could contribute to the reversal of global warming. Finally, to probe whether practical operators on the ground could understand the technology, use it, and express what they were doing in a way acceptable to a wider society.
Corn and Cellulosic Ethanol Cause Major Problems
David Pimentel,Marcia Pimentel
Energies , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/en1010035
Abstract: Crops for biofuels squanders cropland, water, and energy resources vital for food production needed for people.
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