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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2437 matches for " Biodiversity "
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Biodiversity - the story of a delusion Биоразнообразие – история одного заблуждения
Ivanter Ernest Victorovich
Principy èkologii , 2012, DOI: 1234567
Abstract: The history and current state of the problem of biological diversity is discussed. The origin of the problem , its gnoseological, methodological and terminological basis as well as its significance and pjsition in the system of modern environmental knowledge are analysed. "The concept of biological diversity" adopted in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro is discussed from modern point of view,. Following A.M.Gilyarovym (1992, 1996, 2001), the author considers that the main reason for the confusion and contradictions of modern concepts of "biodiversity" lies in a typical mythological thinking characteristic for pseudo-scientific circles and the artificial boom around the term created on this base. Обсуждается история и современное состояние проблемы биологического разнообразия. Анализируются ее истоки, гносеологические, терминологические и методологические корни, а также значение и место в системе современных экологических знаний. С современных позиций обсуждается принятая в 1992 г. в Рио-де-Жанейро Концепция о биологическом разнообразии . Вслед за А. М. Гиляровым (1992, 1996, 2001) главную причину разброда и противоречивости современных представлений о биоразнообразии автор сообщения видит в характерном для околонаучных кругов мифологическом мышлении и созданном на этой основе искусственном буме вокруг данного термина.
Celebrating 2010 as International Year of Biodiversity
The Editor
Banko Janakari , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/banko.v20i1.3501
Abstract: DOI: 10.3126/banko.v20i1.3501 Banko Janakari , Vol. 20, No. 1 pp.1-2
Collembolan Density and Diversity in a Forest and an Agroecosystem  [PDF]
D. Paul, A. Nongmaithem, L. K. Jha
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2011.12008
Abstract: Collembola, commonly called “springtails” are wingless soft-bodied hexapods that are usually between 1 and 3 millimetres in length and occur in varying habits such as, soil surface and litter, under rocks or the bark of trees. The great majority develop in soil, feeding on fungi, bacteria, algae and decaying plant matter, and along with other soil fauna constitute the decomposer community. The present study examines the diversity, density, and seasonal variation patterns of collembolan fauna under different intensities of disturbance, as evidenced in a forest and an agroecosystem. Results indicate that both densities and diversity of collembola was higher in the forest than in the agroecosystem. Seasonal fluctuation exhibited an increase from spring to summer and autumn and a decrease during winter. The coorelation patterns with different chemo-edaphic factors did not show any specific trend.Indices of diversity and significant correlation values are discussed in light of landuse.
Microarray Technology and Its Applicability in Soil Science – A Short Review  [PDF]
Stella Asuming- Brempong
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2012.23039
Abstract: The GeoChip is a glass slide containing oligonucleotide probes targeting genes that confer specific function to micro-organism. The GeoChip has been used to dissect the microbial community functional structure of environmental samples. The PhyloChip is a glass slide containing oligonucleotide probes of the 16S rRNA genes and it offers tremendous potential to monitor microbial population. Below ground microbial community can be linked to the above ground plant community by the use of these Chips in a high throughput manner. This review seeks to determine the various roles of the GeoChip and the PhyloChip in soil microbial ecology studies. During biostimulation of uranium in groundwater, microbial community dynamics was linked to functional processes and in global warming studies, microbial response to functional gene structure has been possible by the use of the GeoChip. The PhyloChip, on the other hand, provides more comprehensive survey of the microbial diversity, composition and structure and are less susceptible to the influence of dominance in microbial community. Some of the concerns regarding the use of compost in agricultural soils i.e. the spread of human, animal and plant pathogens were reduced when the PhyloChip was used to monitor composting.
Sustainable Ecotourism Established on Local Communities and Its Assessment System in Costa Rica  [PDF]
Jing Li
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.41006
Abstract:

This dissertation chiefly examines the difficulties and principles of establishing sustainable ecotourism based on local communities. Furthermore, mainly address management techniques of sustainability in Costa Rica, a country with a growing reputation as an ecotourist destination; meanwhile, throw light upon that effective management and setting up Green Certification Program could improve efficiency. It have been noted that the importance of establishing ecotourism in promoting sustainable maintenances, cultural preservation, and biodiversity conservation within indigenous communities. However, widely management methods to identify the potential and gauge the progress of ecotourism sites have yet to emerge, which is due to there have been few practical assessments of the status of ecotourism at specific locations. In addition, putting ecotourism theory into practice would be much more complicated than originally thought. As far as I am concerned, practical principles combining the most integrated approach would considerably bring mutual benefits between ecotourism and local communities, as appropriate management could help to achieve a balance between conservation and development. With regard to the overall research approach, a case study in Costa Rica will gain prominence in the establishment of sustainable ecotourism since previous research and experience would be highlighted and explored in depth. To some extent, it could be predicted that some gaps between theory and practice of ecotourism would be improved by promoting its sustainability based on communities, resources and economics. As a whole, establishment of benchmark for assessing sustainable ecotourism would be explored as a broader conservation strategy and offers suggestions for further improving the potential of ecotourism.

Biodiversity Conservation and the Poor: Practical Issues beyond Global Conferences  [PDF]
Esther W. Dungumaro
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.44040
Abstract:

The paper focuses on biodiversity—an issue that easily gets left out of consideration because it is hard to measure. While efforts to reduce over-fishing or conservation of water resources are relatively easy to discuss in quantitative terms, biodiversity in terms of plant species is usually covered by crude and even invalid figures. The paper begins by providing a brief historical overview of attempts to define biodiversity, going back to the early efforts in Africa to deal with conservation and showing how definitions have evolved overtime and how they have shaped conservation efforts. While the main focus of the paper is biodiversity conservation and the poor, the paper makes references to the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) and other important global conferences including the World Conference on Environment and Development and Convention on Biological Diversity. The paper finds that international conferences by and large do not adequately address the issue of biodiversity and the poor. The limited commitment shown by political leaders at the conferences should be a reason for global and local authorities to create an environment that enables communities to meet their daily needs, foster development and conserve biodiversity.

 

Avian Diversity in and around Digha, District—East Midnapore (West Bengal, India)  [PDF]
Goutam Patra, Santanu Chakrabarti
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2014.57070
Abstract:

The digha is located at the border of West Bengal and Orissa state. It has both fresh and saline waterbodies rich in aquatic vegetation and several kinds of birds in the harbours in all the seasons. Grassland areas, rice fields, herbs, shrubs and trees located in and around the water bodies provide food and shelter for these birds. Total number of 86 bird species belonging to 10 orders and 35 families were recorded during the 2-year long study period. Passeriformes is the dominant order of birds. But the future of this avian fauna is in danger due to unchecked growth of tourism related hotel industry and urbanisation of the city.

A Checklist of Botanical Piscicides Available in Nigeria  [PDF]
E. A. Ekpendu, J. K. Saliu, A. A. Otitoloju
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2014.47032
Abstract:

The judicious use and rational management of biodiversity are predicated on the identification and documentation of various taxa. A field survey of botanical piscicides and their various uses was carried out in the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Six states, each from a geo-political zone of Nigeria, {south-east (Imo State), south-west (Lagos State), north-west (Kaduna State), north-central (Benue State), north-east (Adamawa State) and south-south (Rivers State)} were covered. Four local governments were selected from each of the six states as sampling locations, (a total of 24 local government areas). Luffa cylindrica, Carica papaya, Nicotiana tabacum, Anacardium occidenttale, Senna occidentalis, Raphia venifera, Musa acuminata, Vernonia amygdalina, Jatropha curcas, and Raphia venifera were common to all the areas investigated. Luffa cylindrica was the most frequently used botanical in Rivers, Lagos and Adamawa States (27%, 28% and 24%) respectively, Carica papaya in Kaduna State (24%), and Nicotiana tabacum in Imo and Benue States (28% and 22%) respectively. The least used botanicals across the states are Musa acuminata (2%),

Effects of Organic and Chemical Agriculture Systems on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Green Tomato Production in Calakmul, Mexico  [PDF]
Yuriko Pilar Cruz-Koizumi, José Armando Alayón-Gamboa, Alejandro Morón-Ríos, Jorge Castellanos-Albores, Ana Aguilar-Chama, Roger Guevara
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.99080
Abstract: Organic agriculture is increasingly used as an alternative to conventional agriculture due to its positive impact on the health of ecosystems and agroecosystems. However, the outcome of organic agriculture in terms of the production of various crops remains uncertain due to the influence of many variables, rising questions about its advantages over conventional agriculture. This study assessed the impacts of organic agricultural system on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi diversity in soil and green tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Horn) crop production. A field experiment was conducted using a random block design with five repetitions of the following treatments: a) Control (no fertilization, NF); b) Vermicompost use (OTV); c) OTV with vermicompost leaching (OTH); and d) Inorganic fertilization (CST). Throughout the crop cycle, soil samples were analyzed chemically, the relative growth rate (RGR) of the plants was measured, and the colonization and diversity of AM fungi were quantified in roots and soil; finally, above-ground, root biomass, and fruit production were measured. Organic fertilization (OTV, OTH) increased (p < 0.05) RGR (10.47 cm OTV), AM colonization (21.80% on OTV and 20.95% on OTH) and diversity (21 species on OTV and 28 species on OTH), compared to CST treatment (8.18 cm on RGR; 15.17% AM colonization, and 11 species). Some AM species were uniquely associated with organic matter, phosphorous, cation exchange capacity and bulk density of soil on the organic system; however, biomass production and fruit yield did not differ (p > 0.05). It is concluded that organic agriculture management is essential to promote a greater AM fungi diversity and fungi root colonization. Plant-AM fungi interaction increases growth rates and it allows a similar tomato production compared with conventional agriculture.
Case Study: Analysis of the Physical Factors of Palestinian Bioclimate  [PDF]
Jehad M. H. Ighbareyeh, A. Cano-Ortiz, E. Cano
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.32021
Abstract:

This study analyses the physical factors of the Palestinian bioclimate, the mean monthly and annual temperature, mean monthly maximum temperature, and mean monthly minimum temperature using data from six weather stations from the Palestine Meteorological Department, recorded in two periods: The first period from 1969 to 1981, the second period from 1975 to 1995 (more than 32 years). Statistical tests included a bioclimatic analysis of Palestinian meteorological stations for the periods from 1969-1981 and 1975-1995 by using bioclimatic classification of the Earth of Rivas Martinez Salvador, with regard to thermicity index, compensated thermicity index, annual ombrothermic index, and simple continentality index. The bioclimate of Palestineis affected by various factors, such as the Jordanian-Syrian desert, and its natural geography and topography, among others as well as biodiversity. Annual ombrothermic index value ranging between 0.6 to 3.4 and simple continentality index was from 12.4 to 18.1. It is concluded that the occupied Palestinian territories belong to the arid, semiarid, dry, sub-humid and humid ombrotype, and the Inframediterranean, Thermomediterranean and Mesomediterranean bioclimatic belt.

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