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Mutual Health Insurance and Access to Care in the Health Zone of Kabinda, Kasai-Oriental, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)  [PDF]
Cibangu Kazadi Richard, Bilonda Mpiana Alphonsine, Kabengele Mpinga Emmanuel, Mulewu Ngandu Hippolyte, Ciamala Mukendi Paul, Kanyiki Katala Moise, Kapitena Mangola Dominique, Tshimungu Kandolo Félicien
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103568
In the Democratic Republic of Congo, a large part of the population now lives in a context of extreme poverty and suffers from serious health problems. Deprived of social protection, these people see themselves therefore in the financial inability to access quality health care. This study aims to analyze the different characteristics of members of the mutual health insurance and compare with non-members. The following observations were made: Of those surveyed, 97.7% and 91.4% of members were not members resorted average 4 times to health services during the last 6 months prior to the survey, a statistically significant difference was observed (p = 0.027). The survey data showed that a significant proportion of members and non-members (62.5% vs 66.4%; p = 0.36) had resorted to self-medication. For non-members, the rate of self-medication and traditional therapy were higher. Lack of money is mentioned by members and non-members as a problem limiting access to health care (38.3% vs 69.5%; p < 0.0001).
Migrants’ Remittances as a Source of Funding Local Development: Case of Burkinabè Migrants in C?te d’Ivoire  [PDF]
Zié Ballo, Coulibaly Okayo Alphonsine
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.87091
Abstract: This paper examines the possibility of directing remittances from Burkinabè migrants to the municipalities of their home country through loans. The descriptive results indicate that 94% of Burkinabè migrants agree to lend to the municipalities of their country. The econometric results obtained using the Tobit model show that variables of interest and economic variables such as profit, economic development, poverty reduction and job creation do not influence loan consent to the municipalities. On the other hand, cultural variables such as community spirit, unity, and mutual support, belief in God, conformism, and gerontocracy explain agreement to lend.
Efficacy of PermaNet? 2.0 and PermaNet? 3.0 against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae in experimental huts in C?te d'Ivoire
Benjamin G Koudou, Alphonsine A Koffi, David Malone, Janet Hemingway
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-172
Abstract: The study was conducted in the station of Yaokoffikro, in central C?te d'Ivoire. The efficacy of intact unwashed and washed LLINs was compared over a 12-week period with a conventionally-treated net (CTN) washed to just before exhaustion. WHO cone bioassays were performed on sub-sections of the nets, using wild-resistant An. gambiae and Kisumu strains. Mosquitoes were collected five days per week and were identified to genus and species level and classified as dead or alive, then unfed or blood-fed.Mortality rates of over 80% from cone bioassays with wild-caught pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s were recorded only with unwashed PermaNet? 3.0. Over 12 weeks, a total of 7,291 mosquitoes were collected. There were significantly more An. gambiae s.s. and Culex spp. caught in control huts than with other treatments (P < 0.001). The proportion of mosquitoes exiting the huts was significantly lower with the control than for the treatment arms (P < 0.001). Mortality rates with resistant An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp, were lower for the control than for other treatments (P < 0.001), which did not differ (P > 0.05) except for unwashed PermaNet? 3.0 (P < 0.001), which gave significantly higher mortality (P < 0.001).This study showed that unwashed PermaNet? 3.0 caused significantly higher mortality against pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp than PermaNet? 2.0 and the CTN. The increased efficacy with unwashed PermaNet? 3.0 over PermaNet? 2.0 and the CTN was also demonstrated by higher KD and mortality rates (KD > 95% and mortality rate > 80%) in cone bioassays performed with wild pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s from Yaokoffikro.Despite considerable efforts to control malaria, the disease remains one of the most pressing public health issues across sub-Saharan Africa. In 2006, there were about 250 million malaria cases [1]. In 2008, there were an estimated 880,000 deaths from malaria [2,3]. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) significantly reduce malaria-relat
Alphonsine N. Guedem,Louis P. Sandjo,Till Opatz,Dieter Schollmeyer
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2012, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536812035313
Abstract: The crystal structure of the title compound, C8H9NO3, is characterized by a complex three-dimensional hydrogen-bond network in which every molecule is connected to six symmetry-related neighbours.
“Why I tried to kill myself”- an exploration of the factors contributing to suicide in the Waterberg District
PM Mpiana, GJO Marincowitz, S Ragavan, N Malete
South African Family Practice , 2004,
Abstract: Background: One of the authors (PM) did a study of parasuicide patients at Voortrekker Hospital in the Waterberg District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. The aim of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of the parasuicide patients' perceptions regarding their reasons for attempting suicide. Method: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted using free attitude interviews in English with eight purposefully selected participants. Participants were recruited from patients admitted to Voortrekker Hospital during the study period after attempting suicide. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Themes were identified through the McMillan method. A combined list of themes was compiled. The results were interpreted, conclusions were drawn and recommendations were made. Results: Reasons identified were multi-factorial and can effectively be summarised by the term bio-psychosocial, which gives an indication of the range of problems. Included were predisposing economic and health-related factors, substance abuse and disturbed interpersonal relationships. Other contributory factors were emotional reactions, unpleasant feelings and thoughts of self-killing with the expectation to die and rest in peace. These factors were interrelated and connected to each other in various ways. The process of parasuicide consisted of a combination of these factors, but was different for each participant. Conclusions and recommendations: A range of psychosocial risk factors contributes to parasuicide. Patients said that they had attempted suicide predominantly because there were faced by too many overwhelming physical or social problems, they felt isolated and that their lives were meaningless and purposeless. In addition to the findings obtained from the research, the process of qualitative free attitude interviewing were helpful in that the process of learning the interview techniques improved the researcher's skills and therefore the quality of care given to patients (participants in the study and others). The participants also felt that ventilating and sharing their problems were beneficial to them. SA Fam Pract 2004;46(7): 21-25
The Effect of the Monosubstituted Benzenes Functional Groups on the Inhibition of Methane Gas Biosynthesis  [PDF]
Kalombo Kayembe, Lolofo Basosila, Pius T. Mpiana, Lisika Makambo, Pole C. Sikulisimwa, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Rigobertine K. Tati
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2012.24013
Abstract: Aromatic compounds are inhibitors of methane biosynthesis in anaerobic treatment of solid wastes and industrial effluents. Anaerobic treatment of solid wastes and industrial effluents may be limited by the methanogenic bacteria inhibition exerted by these types of compounds, the production of biogas is not possible and the organic matter contained in the effluent is not reduced. These effluents poured in the nature can be the basis of the pollution. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of monosubstituted aromatic compounds functional groups on the methanogenic inhibition. The toxicity to acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria has performed in serum flasks, utilizing digested pig manure as inoculums, by measuring methane production. The nature of aromatic functional groups was observed to have a profound effect on the toxicity of the monosubstituted aromatics. Among the monosubstituted aromatic, the chlorobenzene was the most toxic with 50% of inhibition occurring at the concentration of 30.08 mg/l. In contrast, benzoic acid is the least inhibitory with IC50 of 2515.20 mg/l. The partition coefficient octanol/water (logPoct), an indicator of hydrophobicity, had a significant correlation with the methanogenic toxicity.
The Impact of the Bisubstituted Aromatics Functional Groups on the Inhibition of Methane Biosynthesis (Biogas)  [PDF]
Kalombo Kayembe, Lolofo Basosila, Pius T. Mpiana, Pole C. Sikulisimwa, Juliette K. Kabongo, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Rigobertine K. Tati
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2012.24080

Inhibitory compounds are often found to be the leading cause of anaerobic reactor upset and failure since they are present in substantial concentration in wastewaters and organic solid wastes. Among these inhibitory compounds, organic compounds are mentioned and more especially aromatic compounds. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of bisubstituted aromatics functional groups on the methanogenic inhibition. The toxicity to acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria has performed in serum flasks, utilizing digested pig manure as inoculums, by measuring cumulative methane production. The results obtained indicate that some general relationships exist between the bisubstituted aromatic structures and their inhibitory effects on methanogenic bacteria. This demonstrates sufficiently that the grafting of hydrophobic or hydrophilic substituent on the benzene or monofunctional aromatic compound, make the obtained compound more or less toxic as the case and that in the same order of toxicity. A significant correlation was obtained indicating that the partitioning of bisubstituted aromatics into lipophilic membranes in bacteria may have a role in the inhibition of methane biosynthesis.

Evidence of Introgression of the ace-1R Mutation and of the ace-1 Duplication in West African Anopheles gambiae s. s
Luc Djogbénou, Fabrice Chandre, Arnaud Berthomieu, Roch Dabiré, Alphonsine Koffi, Haoues Alout, Mylène Weill
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002172
Abstract: Background The role of inter-specific hybridisation is of particular importance in mosquito disease vectors for predicting the evolution of insecticide resistance. Two molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae s.s., currently recognized as S and M taxa, are considered to be incipient sibling species. Hybrid scarcity in the field was suggested that differentiation of M and S taxa is maintained by limited or absent gene flow. However, recent studies have revealed shared polymorphisms within the M and S forms, and a better understanding of the occurrence of gene flow is needed. One such shared polymorphism is the G119S mutation in the ace-1 gene (which is responsible for insecticide resistance); this mutation has been described in both the M and S forms of A. gambiae s.s. Methods and Results To establish whether the G119S mutation has arisen independently in each form or by genetic introgression, we analysed coding and non-coding sequences of ace-1 alleles in M and S mosquitoes from representative field populations. Our data revealed many polymorphic sites shared by S and M forms, but no diversity was associated with the G119S mutation. These results indicate that the G119S mutation was a unique event and that genetic introgression explains the observed distribution of the G119S mutation within the two forms. However, it was impossible to determine from our data whether the mutation occurred first in the S form or in the M form. Unexpectedly, sequence analysis of some resistant individuals revealed a duplication of the ace-1 gene that was observed in both A. gambiae s.s. M and S forms. Again, the distribution of this duplication in the two forms most likely occurred through introgression. Conclusions These results highlight the need for more research to understand the forces driving the evolution of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors and to regularly monitor resistance in mosquito populations of Africa.
Update on resistance status of Anopheles gambiae s.s. to conventional insecticides at a previous WHOPES field site, "Yaokoffikro", 6 years after the political crisis in C?te d'Ivoire
Alphonsine A Koffi, Ludovic Alou, Maurice A Adja, Moussa Koné, Fabrice Chandre, Raphael N'Guessan
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-68
Abstract: An. gambiae s.s. larvae from Yaokoffikro were collected in breeding sites and reared to adults. Resistance status of this population to insecticides was assessed using WHO bioassay test kits for adult mosquitoes with seven insecticides: two pyrethroids, a pseudo-pyrethroid, an organochloride, two carbamates and an organophosphate.Molecular and biochemical assays were carried out to identify the L1014F kdr and ace-1R alleles in individual mosquitoes and to detect potential increase in mixed function oxidases (MFO), non-specific esterases (NSE) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) activity.High pyrethroids, DDT and carbamate resistance was confirmed in An. gambiae s.s. populations from Yaokoffikro. Mortality rates were less than 70% with pyrethroids and etofenprox, 12% with DDT, and less than 22% with the carbamates. Tolerance to fenitrothion was observed, with 95% mortality after 24 h.PCR analysis of samples from the site showed high allelic frequency of the L1014F kdr (0.94) and the ace-1R (0.50) as before the crisis. In addition, increased activity of NSE, GST and to a lesser extent MFO was found relative to the reference strain Kisumu. This was the first report detecting enhanced activity of these enzymes in An. gambiae s.s from Yaokoffikro, which could have serious implications in detoxification of insecticides. Their specific roles in resistance should be investigated using additional tools.The insecticide resistance profile at Yaokoffikro appears multifactorial. The site presents a unique opportunity to evaluate its impact on the protective efficacy of insecticidal products as well as new tools to manage these complex mechanisms. It calls for innovative research on the behaviour of the local vector, its biology and genetics that drive resistance.The scaling up of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and to some extent Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) is a major element of international strategies to control malaria, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa [1]. Pyret
Ent-kaurene and ent-beyerene diterpenoids and other constituents of Thecacoris batesii
Bonaventure T. Ngadjui, Herve M.P. Poumale, Alphonsine N. Guedem, Merhatibeb Bezabih, Berhanu M. Abegaz
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2007,
Abstract: Two novel diterpenoids, thecacorins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from Thecacoris batesii and their structures were established as ent-3b,20-epoxy-16-kaurene-3a,12b-diol and ent-15-beyerene-2b,3b-diol, respectively, on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, especially, 1D NMR spectra, in conjunction with 2D experiments, COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC. KEY WORDS: Diterpenoids, Thecacorin A, Thecacorin B, Ent-3b,20-epoxy-16-kaurene-3a,12b-diol, Ent-15-beyerene-2b,3b-diol, Thecacoris batesii Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2007, 21(1), 89-94.
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