oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2018 ( 4 )

2017 ( 30 )

2016 ( 7 )

2015 ( 27 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 741 matches for " Bilal Akash "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /741
Display every page Item
Our Universe
Relly Victoria Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, MirMilad Mirsayar, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/jastsp.2017.69.79
Abstract: It's hard to know ourselves and our role as humanity, without knowing our precise location first. In the universe where we find ourselves (what we know not much about), there are billions of galaxies. A galaxy is a large cluster of stars (suns), i.e., solar systems; on average an ordinary galaxy contains about two billion stars (suns), which may or may not have planets around them. A constellation is a group of galaxies that depend on each other. Virgo is a very famous zodiacal constellation. Her name comes from Latin, the virgin and her symbol is ?. The constellation of the Virgin is located between the Lion to the west and the Libra to the east, being the second constellation in the sky (after Hydra) in size. The constellation of the Virgin can easily be observed in the sky of the earth due to its sparkling star named Spica. So our universe contains about two billion galaxies and many constellations; a constellation comprises several galaxies and a galaxy has about 2 billion stars. Nowadays, thanks to modern telescopes, we know a great many galaxies, but only 88 constellations have been identified by humanity (for now).
What is a UFO?
Relly Victoria Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, MirMilad Mirsayar, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/jastsp.2017.80.90
Abstract: There is much talk about UFOs sometimes. Is there anyway? If so what are they? Here are some questions we want to answer them briefly in this paper. An unidentified flying object or UFO is defined as any apparent object in the sky that can’t be identified and classified as an object or phenomenon already known. But the name is generally widely used to refer to the alleged or actual observations of alien ships. Today, the vast majority of observed UFOs are later identified as conventional objects or phenomena (such as aircraft, meteorological balloons, clouds). However, some of them can not be identified, either due to lack of evidence or due to the lack of conventional explanations, despite extensive evidence. Some people believe that the latest cases represent possible observations of alien spacecraft craft. The issue of past observations is difficult to explain otherwise than through the existence of other civilizations more advanced than ours. UFO events in the last thirty years are hard to analyze and classify, as we now have intelligent ships with special capabilities that can easily be confused with an alien ship.
When Boeing is Dreaming – a Review
Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion T. Petrescu
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/jastsp.2017.149.161
Abstract: Boeing is an aeronautical and aerospace manufacturer. Its head office is located in Chicago, Illinois. Its two largest plants are located in Wichita, Kansas and Everett, near Seattle. This aircraft manufacturer specializes in the design of civil aircraft, but also in military aircraft, helicopters and in satellites and rockets with its Boeing Defense, Space and Security division. In 2012, it ranks second in world military equipment sales. The company was born on July 15, 1916, thanks to its two fathers William E. Boeing and George Conrad Westervelt and is named "B and W". Shortly afterwards, his name became "Pacific Aero Products" and finally "Boeing Airplane Company". In 1938, Boeing commissioned the 307 Stratoliner; It was the first airplane with pressurized cabin; He was able to fly at a cruising altitude of 20,000 feet, so above most weather disturbances, making him the strongest aircraft in the Boeing fleet. In response to the concentration move in the US defense industry initiated by its competitor Lockheed in 1995, Boeing acquired Rockwell International's space and defense operations in August 1996 for $3.2 billion. Rockwell was the manufacturer of the seven US space shuttles (Enterprise, Pathfinder, Columbia, Atlantis, Endeavor, Discovery and Challenger). Then, Boeing bought the number two defense equipment behind Lockheed Martin that is McDonnell Douglas, for $13 billion in August 1997. McDonnell Douglas was the manufacturer of the Delta launchers. In 1999, the Boeing aircraft manufacturer sold 620 aircraft; in 2004, deliveries fell to 285 aircraft. It is now overtaken by its European competitor Airbus in orders since 2002 and in deliveries since 2004 (Source: Le Monde, 13 June 2005). In 2005, in a record market, the company announces 1,005 orders (of which 569 B737, 235 B787 and 154 B777) surpassed again by Airbus of about fifty aircraft. Boeing became the world's first aircraft manufacturer in 2006 with 1,044 orders versus 824 for Airbus. In 2008, Boeing is the world leader in the defense sector. In November 2016, Boeing announced a restructuring of its defense arm with the suppression of 500 positions, the closure of two plants in El Paso and Newington and the displacement of 2,000 employees.
About Northrop Grumman
Relly Victoria Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/jastsp.2017.162.185
Abstract: The Northrop Grumman (formerly Ryan Aeronautical) RQ-4 Global Hawk (known as Tier II during development) is an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) used by the United States Air Force and Navy and the German Air Force as a surveillance aircraft. The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit (also known as the Stealth Bomber) is an American strategic bomber, featuring low observable stealth technology designed for penetrating dense anti-aircraft defenses; it is able to deploy both conventional and nuclear weapons. The bomber has a crew of two and can drop up to eighty 500 lb (230 kg)-class JDAM GPS-guided bombs, or sixteen 2,400 lb (1,100 kg) B83 nuclear bombs. The B-2 is the only aircraft that can carry large airto-surface standoff weapons in a stealth configuration. The BQM-74 Chukar is a series of aerial target drones produced by Northrop. The Chukar has gone through three major revisions, including the initial MQM-74A Chukar I, the MQM-74C Chukar II and the BQM-74C Chukar III. They are recoverable, remote controlled, subsonic aerial target, capable of speeds up to Mach 0.86 and altitudes from 30 to 40,000 ft (10 to 12,000 m). Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE: NOC) is an American global aerospace and defense technology company formed by the 1994 purchase of Grumman by Northrop. The company was the fourth-largest defense contractor in the world as of 2010 and the largest builder of naval vessels. Northrop Grumman employs over 75,000 people worldwide. Its 2010 annual revenue is reported at US$34 billion. Northrop Grumman ranks #72 on the 2011 Fortune 500 list of America's largest corporations and ranks in the top ten military-friendly employers. It has its headquarters in Falls Church, Virginia. Separate sectors, such as Aerospace Systems, produce aircraft for the US and other nations. The B-2 Spirit strategic bomber, the E-8C Joint STARS surveillance aircraft, the RQ-4 Global Hawk and the T-38 Talon supersonic trainer, are used by the US Air Force. The US Army uses Northrop Grumman's RQ-5 Hunter unmanned air vehicle, which has been in operational use for more than 10 years. The US Navy uses Northrop Grumman-built aerial vehicles such as the BQM-74 Chukar, RQ-4 Global Hawk based BAMS UAS, C-2 Greyhound, E-2 Hawkeye and the EA-6B Prowler. Northrop Grumman provides major components and assemblies for different aircraft such as F/A-18 Hornet, F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and the EA-18G Growler. Many aircraft, such as the F-5, T-38 Talon and E-2 Hawkeye are used by other nations.
Some Special Aircraft
Relly Victoria Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/jastsp.2017.186.203
Abstract: In this study, the authors want to present a few more distinct aircraft from a constructive and functional point of view. Their role has often been determined by the need to achieve or fulfill certain more or less strategic objectives. Such ships will also be built in the future more and more often in order to be able to respond to all new flight requirements and to meet, under optimal conditions, the new and increasingly demanding requirements. Many of the new special aircraft have been built so far to achieve special tasks, or at the request of the defense ministry in some highly developed countries, even with the United States of America. The PA-23 was the first twin-engine design from Piper and was developed from a proposed "Twin Stinson" design inherited when Piper bought the Stinson Division of the Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation. The prototype PA-23 was a four-seater low-wing all-metal monoplane with a twin tail, powered by a two 125 hp Lycoming O-290-D piston engines the prototype first flew 2 March 1952. The aircraft performed badly and it was redesigned with a single vertical stabilizer and an all-metal rear fuselage and more powerful 150 hp Lycoming O-320-A engines. Two new prototypes of re-designed aircraft now named Apache were built in 1953 and entered production in 1954; 1,231 were built. In 1958, the Apache 160 was produced by upgrading the engines to 160 hp (119 kW) and 816 were built before being superseded by the Apache 235, which went to 235 hp (175 kW) engines and swept tail surfaces (119 built). In 1958 an upgraded version with 250 hp (186 kW) Lycoming O-540 engines and adding a swept vertical tail was produced as the PA-23-250 and was named Aztec. These first models came in a five-seat configuration which became available in 1959. In 1961 a longer nosed variant the Aztec B entered production. The later models of the Aztec were equipped with IO-540 fuel injected engines and six-seat capacity and continued in production until 1982. There were also turbocharged versions of the later models, which were able to fly at higher altitudes. The US Navy acquired 20 Aztecs, designating them UO-1, which changed to U-11A when unified designations were adopted in 1962. In 1974, Piper produced a single experimental PA-41P Pressurized Aztec concept.
About Helicopters
Relly Victoria Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/jastsp.2017.204.223
Abstract: A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by one or more engine-driven rotors. In contrast with fixed-wing aircraft, this allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover and to fly forwards, backward and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft would not be able to take off or land. The capability to efficiently hover for extended periods of time allows a helicopter to accomplish tasks that fixed-wing aircraft and other forms of vertical takeoff and landing aircraft cannot perform. The word 'helicopter' is adapted from the French hélicoptère, coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amecourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix/helik = "twisted, curved" and pteron = "wing". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936. Some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, it was the single main rotor with antitorque tail rotor configuration of this design that would come to be recognized worldwide as the helicopter. The earliest references for vertical flight have come from China. Since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys and the 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi ("Master who Embraces Simplicity") reportedly describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft: Someone asked the master about the principles of mounting to dangerous heights and traveling into the vast inane. The Master said, "Some have made flying cars with wood from the inner part of the jujube tree, using ox-leather fastened to returning blades so as to set the machine in motion." It was not until the early 1480s when Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an "aerial screw" that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight. His notes suggested that he built small flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the whole craft rotate. As scientific knowledge increased and became more accepted, men continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight.
Time-seismicity evolution and seismic risk assessment of the Arabian plate  [PDF]
Ahmad Bilal
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.59126
Abstract:

The seismicity of the Arabian plate, which is the aim of this paper, is controlled by the ZagrosTaurus collision zone in the North, the Indian expansion zone and the Arab golf in the South and the East, the Dead Sea Fault, the North continuity of the Red Sea, and the Syrian rift, which links the rigid Arabian plate to the mobile ophiolite belt of Cyprus-Southern Turkey in the West. These major elements with their related fracture system, make the Arabian plate an important seismic centre. To attain our purpose, a variable methodology is used in: measurements of movement rate-displacement in the field, the analysis of historical and recent seismic data, and physical effects on the structures. The movement rate-displacement, calculated in the field by different specialists, varies from 2 to 6 mm/year. This rate increases from 2 - 3 mm/year in the North, to 6 mm in the South. These estimations are confirmed by historical seismic data, the recent seismic recorded by the Arab seismic centers, and physical effects on the building structures in the region. The analysis of historical and recent seismic data recorded in the seismic centre show that the seismicity in this plate, tend to fade out with time. This result is in agreement with recent estimations on the movement rate, and in line with the decrease of major seismic intensity, which has occurred during the last millennium. A conclusion of time-evolution seismicity is traced, and a seismic zoning map, for the Arabian plate, using movement rate, seismic data, and tectono-geodynamic analysis, is proposed.

Arab metallurgy owes much to meteorites iron—A special regard to Damask saber  [PDF]
Ahmad Bilal
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.62012
Abstract:

Ancient Arabs have recognized metallic and mineral ores, including their fluid inclusions which were still considered as a new scientific fields in the 70’s last century. They discovered metallic ores (gold, silver, copper), in inhabited areas and in delta and river crosses, using different techniques for exploration and exploitation. Metallic industry flourished during the Islamic period, silver and gold were used as currency for commercial exchanges. Meteorites were also recognized by Ancient Arabs. They collected them in the deserted areas, and used them for arms manufacturing, as sabers and daggers. The more famous of these arms is the Damask saber steel, known reputedly Jaohar. It has an extraordinary mechanical properties, and exceptional sharp cutting edge. The Jaohar blades were forged directly from fall meteorites, at temperature of 80℃, using a sophistical thermomechanical of forging, annealing to refine the steel, and giving it this exceptional quality and superelastic behavior. Meteorites using by Ancient Arabs come back to 400 years ago, as confirmed by a recent research on two meteorites samples, presented in Aleppo museum, found in Ras Shamra, and Umm El Maraa, in Syria.

Modern Propulsions for Aerospace-A Review
Relly Victoria Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Ronald Bucinell, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, MirMilad Mirsayar, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/jastsp.2017.1.8
Abstract: A spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. There are several different methods, each with advantages and disadvantages, spacecraft propulsion being an active area of research. However, most current spacecraft are propelled by forcing a gas exits through the rear of the vehicle at high speed through supersonic nozzle of a rocket engine. All spacecraft are using chemical rockets (fuel or solid fuel) to launch, although some (such as Pegasus missiles and Space Ship One) are using air jet engines in the first step. Most satellites have simple chemical thrusters (often missiles mono) or missiles resistojet to maintain orbit. Soviet bloc satellites have used electric propulsion for decades and the new Western geo-orbital spacecraft begin using electric propulsion for orbit maintenance of north-south. There is a need increasingly of more new propulsion systems, modern, technology-based. Copyright ? 2017 Relly Victoria Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Ronald Bucinell, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, MirMilad Mirsayar, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Modern Propulsions for Aerospace-Part II
Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Ronald Bucinell, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, MirMilad Mirsayar, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/jastsp.2017.9.17
Abstract: Speaking about a new engine ionic means to speak about a new aircraft. The paper presents in a short time the actual engines ion chambers (called the ion thrusters) and other new ionic motors proposed by the authors. The engine (ionic propulsion unit of ions, that accelerates the positive ions through a potential difference) is approximately ten times more efficient than classic system based on combustion. We can further improve the efficiency of the 10-50 times in the case in which is used the pulses of positive ions accelerated in a cyclotron mounted on the ship; efficiency may increase with ease of a thousand times in the case in which the positive ions will be accelerate in a synchrotron high energy, synchrocyclotron or isochronous cyclotron (1-100 GeV). For this, the great classic synchrotron is reduced to a surface-ring (magnetic core). The future (ionic) engine will have a circular particle binding (energy high or very high speed). Thus we can increase the speed and autonomy of the vessel, using a smaller quantity of fuel. It can be used a radiation synchrotron (synchrotron high intensity), with X-ray or gamma radiation. In this case, will result in a beam engine with the wiring (not an ionic engine), which will use only the power (energy, which may be solar energy, nuclear energy, or a combination) and so we will eliminate the fuel. It is suggested to use a powerful LINAC at the outlet of the synchrotron (especially when one accelerates the electron beam) in order not to lose power by photons of the emission premature. With a new ionic engine practically builds a brand new aircraft that can move through the water and air with the same ease. This new aircraft will be able to expedite directly, without an engine with the additional combustion and without the gravity assistance. Copyright ? 2017 Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Ronald Bucinell, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, MirMilad Mirsayar, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Page 1 /741
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.