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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 140 matches for " Bijay Parajuli "
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GM-CSF increases LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators via upregulation of TLR4 and CD14 in murine microglia
Parajuli Bijay,Sonobe Yoshifumi,Kawanokuchi Jun,Doi Yukiko
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-268
Abstract: Background Microglia are resident macrophage-like cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause innate immune responses via the LPS receptors, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and CD14, in a variety of neuroinflammatory disorders including bacterial infection, Alzheimer’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) activates microglia and induces inflammatory responses via binding to GM-CSF receptor complex composed of two different subunit GM-CSF receptor α (GM-CSFRα) and common β chain (βc). GM-CSF has been shown to be associated with neuroinflammatory responses in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. However, the mechanisms how GM-CSF promotes neuroinflammation still remain unclear. Methods Microglia were stimulated with 20 ng/ml GM-CSF and the levels of TLR4 and CD14 expression were evaluated by RT-PCR and flowcytometry. LPS binding was analyzed by flowcytometry. GM-CSF receptor complex was analyzed by immunocytechemistry. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in culture supernatant of GM-CSF-stimulated microglia and NF-κB nuclear translocation were determined by ELISA. Production of nitric oxide (NO) was measured by the Griess method. The levels of p-ERK1/2, ERK1/2, p-p38 and p38 were assessed by Western blotting. Statistically significant differences between experimental groups were determined by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test for multiple comparisons. Results GM-CSF receptor complex was expressed in microglia. GM-CSF enhanced TLR4 and CD14 expressions in microglia and subsequent LPS-binding to the cell surface. In addition, GM-CSF priming increased LPS-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NO by microglia. GM-CSF upregulated the levels of p-ERK1/2 and p-p38, suggesting that induction of TLR4 and CD14 expression by GM-CSF was mediated through ERK1/2 and p38, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that GM-CSF upregulates TLR4 and CD14 expression in microglia through ERK1/2 and p38, respectively, and thus promotes the LPS receptor-mediated inflammation in the CNS.
A Statistical Analysis of Wind Speed and Power Density Based on Weibull and Rayleigh Models of Jumla, Nepal  [PDF]
Ayush Parajuli
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2016.87026
Abstract: In the present study, wind speed data of Jumla, Nepal have been statistically analyzed. For this purpose, the daily averaged wind speed data for 10 year period (2004-2014: 2012 excluded) provided by Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) was analyzed to estimate wind power density. Wind speed as high as 18 m/s was recorded at height of 10 m. Annual mean wind speed was ascertained to be decreasing from 7.35 m/s in 2004 to 5.13 m/s in 2014 as a consequence of Global Climate Change. This is a subject of concern looking at government’s plan to harness wind energy. Monthly wind speed plot shows that the fastest wind speed is generally in month of June (Monsoon Season) and slowest in December/January (Winter Season). Results presented Weibull distribution to fit measured probability distribution better than the Rayleigh distribution for whole years in High altitude region of Nepal. Average value of wind power density based on mean and root mean cube seed approaches were 131.31 W/m2/year and 184.93 W/m2/year respectively indicating that Jumla stands in class III. Weibull distribution shows a good approximation for estimation of power density with maximum error of 3.68% when root mean cube speed is taken as reference.
The neuroprotective effects of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 against oligomeric amyloid β toxicity
Endong Li, Mariko Noda, Yukiko Doi, Bijay Parajuli, Jun Kawanokuchi, Yoshifumi Sonobe, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Tetsuya Mizuno, Akio Suzumura
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-148
Abstract: The release of MFG-E8 from microglia treated with conditioned medium from neurons exposed to neurotoxic substances, glutamate or oligomeric amyloid β (oAβ) was measured by ELISA. The neuroprotective effects of MFG-E8 and MFG-E8???induced microglial phagocytosis of oAβ were assessed by immunocytochemistry. The effects of MFG-E8 on the production of the anti-oxidative enzyme hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) were determined by ELISA and immunocytochemisty.MFG-E8 was induced in microglia treated with conditioned medium from neurons that had been exposed to neurotoxicants, glutamate or oAβ. MFG-E8 significantly attenuated oAβ-induced neuronal cell death in a primary neuron???microglia coculture system. Microglial phagocytosis of oAβ was accelerated by MFG-E8 treatment due to increased CD47 expression in the absence of neurotoxic molecule production, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide, and glutamate. MFG-E8???treated microglia induced nuclear factor E(2)???related factor 2 (Nrf2)???mediated HO-1 production, which also contributed to neuroprotection.These results suggest that microglia release MFG-E8 in response to signals from degenerated neurons and that MFG-E8 protects oAβ-induced neuronal cell death by promoting microglial phagocytic activity and activating the Nrf2-HO-1 pathway. Thus, MFG-E8 may have novel roles as a neuroprotectant in neurodegenerative conditions.
Fingolimod Phosphate Attenuates Oligomeric Amyloid β–Induced Neurotoxicity via Increased Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in Neurons
Yukiko Doi, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Hiroshi Horiuchi, Taketo Hanyu, Jun Kawanokuchi, Shijie Jin, Bijay Parajuli, Yoshifumi Sonobe, Tetsuya Mizuno, Akio Suzumura
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061988
Abstract: The neurodegenerative processes that underlie Alzheimer's disease are mediated, in part, by soluble oligomeric amyloid β, a neurotoxic protein that inhibits hippocampal long-term potentiation, disrupts synaptic plasticity, and induces the production of reactive oxygen species. Here we show that the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor (S1PR) agonist fingolimod phosphate (FTY720-P)-a new oral drug for multiple sclerosis-protects neurons against oligomeric amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity. We confirmed that primary mouse cortical neurons express all of the S1P receptor subtypes and FTY720-P directly affects the neurons. Treatment with FTY720-P enhanced the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neurons. Moreover, blocking BDNF-TrkB signaling with a BDNF scavenger, TrkB inhibitor, or ERK1/2 inhibitor almost completely ablated these neuroprotective effects. These results suggested that the neuroprotective effects of FTY720-P are mediated by upregulated neuronal BDNF levels. Therefore, FTY720-P may be a promising therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.
Comparison of Potential Bio-Energy Feedstock Production and Water Quality Impacts Using a Modeling Approach  [PDF]
Prem B. Parajuli
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.49087
Abstract: Cellulosic and agricultural bio-energy crops can be utilized as feedstock source for bio-fuels production and provide environmental benefits such as hydrology, water quality. This study compared potential feedstock yield and water quality benefit scenarios of six bio-energy crops: Miscanthus (Miscanthus-giganteus), Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Corn (Zea mays), and Soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.} at the watershed scale using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The SWAT model was calibrated (1998 to 2002) and validated (2003 to 2010) using monthly measured USGS stream flow data. Model was further verified using available monthly sediment yield, and county level NASS corn and soybean yield data within the watershed. The long-term average annual potential feedstock yield as an alternative energy source was determined the greatest when growing Miscanthus grass scenario (21.9 Mg/ha) followed by Switchgrass (15.2 Mg/ha), Johnsongrass (12.1 Mg/ha), Alfalfa (7 Mg/ha), Corn (5.9 Mg/ha), and Soybean (2.35 Mg/ha). Model results determined the least amount of average annual sediment yield (1.1 Mg/ha) from the Miscanthus grass scenario and the greatest amount (12 Mg/ha) from the corn crop scenario. About 11% less annual average surface water flow from the watershed could be anticipated when converting land areas from soybean to Miscanthus grass. The results of this study suggested that growing Miscanthus grass in the UPRW would have the greatest potential feedstock yield and water quality benefits. The results of this study may help in developing future watershed management programs.
Evaluating the Impacts of Forest Clear Cutting on Water and Sediment Yields Using SWAT in Mississippi  [PDF]
Sunita Khanal, Prem B. Parajuli
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.54047

Forest clear cutting alters the hydrological processes such as interception, evapotranspiration and infiltration of the forested watershed and consequently increases the amount of water and sediment leaving the watershed. This study was conducted in the Upper Pearl River Watershed (UPRW) located in east-central Mississippito evaluate and compare the potential impacts of forest clear cutting on water and sediment yields using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. For this purpose, five hypothetical scenarios representing clear cutting at 10%, 20%, 30%, 55% and 75% of the total forest area of the watershed were generated. The SWAT model was first calibrated (1981-1995) and validated (1996-2008) for monthly stream flow, and later verified (February 2010 to December 2010) for monthly sediment load. Results show that the SWAT model was able to simulate stream flow and sediment load satisfactorily during the calibration/validation and verification periods, respectively. The potential changes caused in yields as a result of the changes in clearcut area were computed by comparing predicted yields from each clear cutting scenario and a base condition. Results from five scenarios demonstrate substantial increase in yields with an increase in the percentage of forest area clearcut. When compared with the base scenario, potential changes in water and sediment yields occur between 17% to 96% and 33% to 250%, respectively, with an increase in clearcut area from 10% to 75%. Results also indicate that, for all scenarios, percentage wise change is larger for sediment yield. Although predicted water and sediment yields generated from each scenario are subject to further verification with observed data, this study provides useful information about the potential amount of water and sediment yields that may be produced under each scenario, and that the potential changes that may happen on yields if similar magnitude of clear cutting occurs in the UPRW or in similar watershed.

Evaluation of Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Moisture Content from Agricultural Fields in Mississippi  [PDF]
Prem B. Parajuli, Sarah Duffy
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2013.32009

Independent observation of the effects of agricultural management practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) with soil moisture content (SMC) is essential to quantify their potential relationships for sustainable ecosystems. Soil water retention studies and soil carbon stocks have been mapped in some areas worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted in the southeastern US, particularly in Mississippi. The objectives of this research study were to collect soil samples from fields chosen to be representative of the watersheds they are contained within, analyze the soil samples for carbon content and soil moisture content, and evaluate the relationship between SOC and different parameters (land use, vertical distribution, temporal distribution, and soil moisture content). Field sites were chosen based on their compositional similarity shared with the watershed as a whole in the Town Creek watershed (TCW) and Upper Pearl River watershed (UPRW) in Mississippi. Monthly soil samples from different depths (6 inch, 12 inch, and 24 inch) were collected from crop, pasture, and forest field areas. Soil samples were analyzed using bench analysis, elemental analysis, and statistical analysis. This study was able to demonstrate the SOC distribution in the soil layers across all three land uses studied. It was also shown that there does seem to be an interactive effect of parameters such as land use type, vertical distribution, and time on carbon accretion within the soil. Results of this study also determined that the near surface (6-in) layer was found to contain significantly more carbon than either the 12 inch or 24 inch layers (p < 0.01) across all field types. There was found to be a high degree of variability within the soil moisture data and correlation between SOC and SMC. It was found that carbon amount is not influenced by SMC but SMC could be influenced by SOC.

Sensitivity Analysis and Evaluation of Forest Biomass Production Potential Using SWAT Model  [PDF]
Sunita Khanal, Prem B. Parajuli
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2014.42013

Sensitivity analysis of crop parameters and the performance of SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model to simulate potential forest biomass production were evaluated for the Upper Pearl River Watershed (UPRW). Local sensitivity analysis of seven crop parameters: radiation use efficiency (kg/ha)/(MJ/m2) (BIOE), potential maximum leaf area index for the plant (BLAI), fraction of growing season at which senescence becomes the dominant growth process (DLAI), fraction of the maximum plant leaf area index corresponding to the 1st point on the optimal leaf area development curve (LAIMX1), fraction of growing season corresponding to the 1st point on the optimal leaf area development curve (FRGRW1), plants potential maximum canopy height (m) (CHTMX), and maximum rooting depth for plant (mm) (RDMX) reveals that only three parameters: DLAI, BIOE and BLAI are sensitive to forest biomass production. Further, results indicate moderate sensitivity of DLAI and BIOE and low sensitivity of BLAI with relative sensitivity index of 0.44, 0.35 and 0.14, respectively. The performance of SWAT to simulate potential forest biomass was evaluated by comparing simulated data against three years of observed data that were obtained from USDA Forest Service website. The results indicate satisfactory performance of SWAT in predicting potential forest biomass, which is shown by the high value of coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.83), small root mean square error (RMSE = 11.11 Mg/ha), and small difference between mean. Results also reveal that the UPRW has the potential to produce approximately 49 Mg/ha of average forest biomass annually, which is approximately 6% less than the observed biomass.

Geo-Hydrodynamics of Bagjata Area and its Significance with Respect to Seasonal Fluctuation of Groundwater  [PDF]
Bijay Singh, A. S. Singh
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.27079
Abstract: Bagjata area is a part of Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) falling within Survey of India Toposheets No. 73J/6, J/7, J/10 and J/11. The Subarnarekha River, Sankh Nala and Gohala faults are major disconti-nuities in the area. An attempt has been made to simulate the regional groundwater hydrodynamics. Few dug-wells were monitored for more than a year to find out the seasonal fluctuation changes in the drainage pattern and groundwater level. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical and chemical analysis. Results show that one of the major discontinuities in the area-the Gohala Fault controls largely the geohydrodynamics of the area. Discharge of groundwater is of effluence type during all the three seasons. The water is safe for drinking as most of the contaminations are much below the permissible limits. No such previous work has been attempted in this area to investigate the groundwater dynamics and hence the selection of few parameters were assumed and taken from similar surrounding aquifer systems for modeling. The groundwater flow was also assumed to be in steady state. The present paper deals with some important aspects related to the hydrological significance of the Bagjata Uranium mining area and its relationship with the local climate, physiography and meteorology. An attempt is also made to simulate the status of groundwater conditions of hard rock aquifers in the region. Further it envisages the necessity of such study being undertaken in the entire SSZ belt to secure precise information about the surface manifestations which govern the groundwater recharge potentiality as well as its quality.
Economics of Biodiesel Production in the Context of Fulfilling 20% Blending with Petro-Diesel in Nepal
Ranjan Parajuli
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v10i1.10881
Abstract: The article has attempted to introduce Jatropha curcas as one of the energy resource for partially substituting Petro-diesel in Nepal and is prepared to provide preliminary insight on the economics of biodiesel production in the country. There have been increasing trend of automobiles in the last two decades, which has also increased the total import volume of Petro-diesel in Nepal. The dependency on imported Petro-diesel and its escalating price is adversely affecting the national economy. To fulfill the 20% blending requirement of the Petro-diesel consumed in 2011 in the country, 4% of the uncultivated land of the country (representing terrain and hills only) are sufficient. With this realization, this article is prepared by the development of different scenarios in regard to substitution of 20% Petro-diesel in the country. The Scenarios basically comprise of price of seedlings required for cultivation, different yield of Jatropha plant, and the price of raw oil seeds required for processing. Prognosis of Petro-diesel consumption in the next 20 years is carried out considering the average growth rate of its sales in the last decade in the country, and further required volume of biodiesel required for blending is estimated. Techno-economic analysis carried out in this article has revealed that biodiesel can be economically produced with input parameters (plant yield greater than 2 kg/plant and with the price of oil seeds lower than 0.22 USD/kg). The return on the investment in the bio diesel production and its utilization is also positive with these input parameters. The study estimated that production of biodiesel in the present context of increasing fuel prices and depleting resources, is an economically viable option, however, there is need of strong policy to entertain potential entrepreneurs and farmers for generating resource required for the partial substitution and also to look after the issues of food insecurity during the process of generating this resource. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jie.v10i1.10881 Journal of the Institute of Engineering , Vol. 10, No. 1, 2014, pp. 80–93
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