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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4196 matches for " Bida Basin "
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Soft Sediment Deformation Structures in the Maastrichtian Patti Formation, Southern Bida Basin Nigeria: Implications for the Assessment of Endogenic Triggers in the Maastrichtian Sedimentary Record  [PDF]
Solomon Ojo Olabode
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2016.66036
Abstract: Detailed fieldwork carried out in the southern part of Bida Basin, Nigeria, allowed the documentation of soft sediment deformation structures (SSDS) in the Maastrichtian Patti Formation. The aim of this study is to examine the sedimentary successions, describe and analyse these deformation features, discuss their deformation mechanisms and potential triggers. The Maastrichtian Patti Formation is composed of lithofacies interpreted to have been deposited in tidal and fluvial sedimentary environments. Soft sediment deformation structures recognised in the tidal sediments were clastic dykes, load cast, isolated sand balls, dish-and-pillar structures, convolute lamination, diapiric structures and recumbent folds. Severely deformed cross beds, ring structures, associated sand balls, normal folds and recumbent folds were identified in the fluvial sediments. SSDS recognised were interpreted to have been caused by effects of liquefaction and fluidization. Field observations, facies analysis and morphology of the SSDS indicate that there are relationship between the depositional environments and SSDS. Endogenic processes are considered as the trigger agents and they are represented by rapid sedimentation and overloading, impact of breaking waves, pressure fluctuations caused by turbulent water flow, cyclic stress and current generated by storm waves and changes in water table. The present study did not identify exogenic processes as trigger agent. The occurrence of SSDS in southern Bida Basin strongly favoured a non-tectonic origin but a clear relationship high energy processes in tidal and fluvial depositional environments.
The soils of the Parque Natural da Arrábida
Rolf Schrittenlocher
Finisterra - Revista Portuguesa de Geografia , 1997,
Abstract: The soils of the Parque Natural da Arrábida are surveyed along four "catenae" right across the Parque. Dominant soil formating processes and their regional importance are shown. The soils are described as units according to FAO (1988). On the basis of the FAO units an attempt is made to combine soil units with ecological classes. A comparison with the soil map 38-B and the portuguese classification (Cardoso 1964) is given. Unfortunately it is not possible to transform the units of that map into soil units according to FAO (1988).
Assessment of Heavy Metal Species in Some Decomposed Municipal Solid Wastes in Bida, Niger State, Nigeria
Advances in Analytical Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.aac.20120201.02
Abstract: Soil samples collected from three decomposed municipal solid waste dump sites located in Esso, Gbangbara and Eyagi areas of Bida town were analyzed for some heavy metals (Cu , Fe, Pb, Mn and Cr), using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The analysis of the aqua regia digestion showed an average mean concentration (mg/kg) of Cu (342.22±7.6), Mn (570.00± 1.0) and Fe (371.11±1.2) in the three dump sites were exceptionally high. The variation of these heavy metals across these three dump sites were in the order Pb (EY) > Pb (ES) > Pb (GB), Mn(GB) > Mn (ES) > Mn (EY), Fe (GB) > Fe (GB) > Fe (ES) > Fe (EY), Cr (GB) > Cr (EY) > (ES), Cu (GB) > Cu (ES) > Cu (EY). The analysis of the weak sodium acetate solution digestion showed that Cu (5.47± 0.2), Mn (1.88 ± 0.0) and Fe (1.47 ±0.1) (mg/l) on the average exhibited high concentrations in the dump sites. Most of the Cu, Mn and Fe were found to be associated with the exchangeable fraction, which is very soluble and mobile. Base on Federal Environmental Protection Agency and Land Disposal Restrictions standard regulations, these metals exhibit hazardous concentrations.
Geological Conditions and Hydrocarbon Accumulation Processes in the Sahul Platform, Northern Bonaparte Basin, Australia  [PDF]
Rakotondravoavy Jules, Jiaren Ye, Qiang Cao
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.76061
Abstract: The Sahul Platform where the Sunset-Loxton Shoals and Chuditch gas fields were discovered is located between the Timor Trough to the north and the Malita Graben to the south. These areas are located respectively 440 km and 380 km northwest of Darwin in the northern Bonaparte Basin, Australia. Based on the structural evolution of the northern Bonaparte Basin, data from the wells Loxton Shoals 1, Sunset 1 and Chuditch 1 in the Sahul Platform and Heron 1 in the Malita Graben depocentre, and the Seismic Line N11606 were used to clarify the geological conditions and reconstruct the hydrocarbon accumulation processes in the study area. BasinMod 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D software was used for modeling. The Plover Formation source rock was a poor-to-good hydrocarbon generative potential and reached the middle to late mature oil window in the Sunset-Loxton Shoals field whereas in the Chuditch field, it was an overall fair-to-good hydrocarbon generative potential, and attained the Late mature oil window. The Flamingo, and the Echuca Shoals formations source rocks in the same field were a fair and good hydrocarbon generation potential respectively, and both reached mid-mature oil window. In the Malita Graben depocentre, the Petrel (Frigate) and the Echuca Shoals formations source rocks were a poor-to-very good hydrocarbon generating potential, and had attained wet gas window at the present day. The analyses of organic matter showed that the source rocks in the study area and Malita Graben were gas prone with kerogen types II2 & III and III predominantly. The Middle Jurassic Plover Formation sandstone reservoir in the Sunset-Loxton field was a poor-to-very good quality and potential for gas beds, and it was a very poor-to-very good quality and potential for gas beds in the Chuditch field. The intensities of gas generation and expulsion were more than of oil ones either in the Sahul Platform or in the Malita Graben. The Plover, Petrel (Frigate) and Echuca Shoals formations source rocks in the wells Chuditch 1 and Heron 1, except for the Flamingo Formation in the well Chuditch 1, had higher gas and oil expelling efficiencies than the Plover Formation source rock of the wells in the Sunset-Loxton Shoals field. The hydrocarbon migrated mainly from the Upper Jurassic Frigate Shale source rock in the Malita Graben depocentre (structurally lower) to the Plover Formation sandstone reservoir in the Sunset-Loxton Shoals field during the Late Cretaceous at 66 Ma. In the Chuditch field, the hydrocarbon migration to the Plover Formation sandstone reservoir was initiated during the
Exploring of Water Distillation by Single Solar Still Basins  [PDF]
Ghassan A. Al-hassan, Salem A. Algarni
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.21006

The lack of potable water poses a big problem in Syria. The underground water, where exists, is usually brackish and cannot be used as it is for drinking purposes. Syria lies in high solar isolation band and the vast solar potential can be exploited to convert saline water to potable water. The most economical and easy way to accomplish this objective is using solar still. The purpose of the project is to evaluate the potential of using a solar still basin. To implement this goal three similarly solar still basins have been designed, manufactured and tested in selected day for saline water in month of November, 2010. Each solar still consists of insulated metal box with channels. Pyramidal glass covers attached to the basin at an angle (α = 45°). The three basins have divided into three models (M1, M2 and M3). Before taking the measurement of the distilled water three different amount of water used, so for the (model M1) 3 liter of water, (model M2) 6 liter and (model M3) 9 liter, to study and evaluate the effect of water depth in the basin. The average daily output was found to be (3.924) liters/day for model (M1), (3.116) liters/day for model (M2) and 2.408 liters/day for model (M3) for basin area of 1 m2 based on data of selected day.

Groundwater Annual Dynamics in the Basins of Woro and Chago (Eastern Niger) as Affected by Seasonal Variability and Anthropic Activities  [PDF]
Adamou Mahaman Moustapha, Nazoumou Yahaya, Aw Sadat, Awaiss Yahaya, Ambouta Karimou
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.59094

The Sahelian region is known to have extremes climatic constraints since the end of the seventies. The studied zone is characterized by an extreme spatial and temporal variability of the environmental factors, complicating the understanding of the mechanisms governing the functioning of the hydrological system in the basin. The evapotranspiration was very high (1975 mm/an), whereas the local annual rainfall was around 300 mm/year. The piezometric data showed a rise of the groundwater level during the rainy season and a decrease in the dry season. The water balance obtained using the Penman-Monteith method showed the predominance of the evapotranspiration (75% to 80% of the rainfall) on the drainage (20% to 25% of the precipitations).

Seasonal Variation of Nutrient Pollution and Suspended Solids in the Drainage Network of Okpara Basin in Parakou (North-East of Benin)  [PDF]
Maurille P. S. Lanmandjèkpogni, Fran?ois De Paule Codo, Benjamin K. Yao, Martin P. Aina
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.913084
Abstract: This work presents mainly, the seasonal variation of pollution by nutrients and suspended solids thresholds between the old urban core and the peripheral areas of the city of Parakou on the Okpara basin. The city of Parakou has been experiencing strong demographic and socio-economic growth for about two decades. A total of sixty wastewater samples from twelve sampling sites were collected in 2016 according to the AFNOR standards, between the months of March and April in the dry season, then August, September and October in the rainy season. The descriptive statistic of data (minima-maxima) indicates variations of the parameters as follows: The temperature varies between 27.05 and 30.82, the water is a highly variable pH in the dry season (5.84 < pH < 9.14; mean = 7.17) and wet (6.28 < pH < 9.38; mean = 7.45). The reduction potential is lower in rainy season (-89.50 < Eh < 48.80) in the dry season (-131.61 < Eh < 42.50). COD and BOD5 respectively reach the highest ratio (55 mg/L O2 and 232.08 mg/LO2) in the dry season than in the wet season (12.00 mg/L O2 and 202.40 mg/L O2). Nitrates have reached a maximum of 12.60 mg/L in the rainy season against 5.40 mg/L in the dry season. For nitrite, yielded 3.34 mg/L against 0.45 mg/L for conversely, phosphates are at 6.45 mg/L in the dry season against 2.32 mg/L in the rainy season. The mean concentrations of suspended solids are between 40 mg/L in the rainy season and 0.52 mg/L in the dry season. From the physico-chemical characterization and the chi-square independent test, this work shows mainly two results: On the one hand, apart from phosphates, concentrations of nitrates, nitrites and suspended solids on the Okpara basin in Parakou, are higher in the rainy season than in dry season. This can be explained by the variability of soil leaching and thus shows a relative link between the quality of surface water and the hydrogeomorphic basin conditions shown by the independence test (0.456 < CC < 0.856). In addition, pollutant concentrations vary according to a decreasing gradient between the former urban core, the periphery zone and the exit of the peripheral zone.
Water Pollution and Environmental Governance of the Tai and Chao Lake Basins in China in an International Perspective  [PDF]
Lei Qiu, Meine Pieter Van Dijk, Huimin Wang
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.710067
Abstract: The Tai and Chao Lake basins are currently facing a serious water pollution crisis associated with the absence of an effective environmental governance system. The water pollution and the water governance system of the two basins will be compared. The reasons for water pollution in both basins are similar, namely the weak current water environmental governance system cannot deal with the consequences of the rapidly growing economy. China’s water governance system is a complicated combination of basin management with both departmental management and regional management. There is an absence of legal support and sound coordination mechanisms, resulting in fragmented management practices in the existing water environmental governance system. A comparison is made for the Tai and Chao Lake basins and Canada, France, the United Kingdom and the United States. Based on China’s present central-local governance structure and departmental system, an integrated reform of basin level and water environmental governance in China should learn from international experiences. The reforms could consist of improved governance structures, rebuilding authoritative and powerful agencies for basin management, strengthening the organizational structure of the basin administrations, improving legislation and regulatory systems for basin management and enhancing public participation mechanisms.
Scientific Drilling of the Terrestrial Cretaceous Songliao Basin
Yongjian Huang,Cheng-Shan Wang,Terrestrial Scientific Drilling of the Cretaceous Songliao Basin Science Team
Scientific Drilling , 2008, DOI: 10.2204/iodp.sd.6.11.2008
Abstract: Investigations of critical climate changes during the Cretaceous have the potential to enhance our understanding of modern global warming because the extreme variances are the best-known and most recent example of a greenhouse Earth (Bice et al., 2006). Marine Cretaceous climate archives are relatively well explored by scientific ocean drilling programs such as the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) and its predecessors. However, Cretaceous terrestrial climate records are at best fragmentary (Heimhofer et al., 2005). The long-lived Cretaceous Songliao Basin of NE China is an excellent candidate to fill this gap and provide important ocean-continent linkages in relation to environmental change (Fig. 1). This basin, located within one of the largest Cretaceous landmasses (Scotese, 1988), acted for about 100 million years as an intra-continental sediment trap; the present-day area of the basin is about 260,000 km2. It provides an almost complete terrestrial sedimentary recordfrom the Upper Jurassic to the Paleocene (Chen and Chang, 1994). Large-scale geological and geophysical investigations of lacustrine sediments and basin structures demonstrate that a rich archive of Cretaceous paleoclimate proxies exists. For example, the basin includes the Jehol Biota, a terrestrial response to the Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), and a potential K/T boundary (Qiang et al., 1998). An ongoing drilling program is supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and by the Daqing Oilfield. It allowed for recovering of nearly complete cores from Upper Albian to the Uppermost Cretaceous in two boreholes (SK-I, SK II; commenced in 2006, Fig. 1). However, the older Cretaceous sedimentary record of Songliao Basin has not yet been cored. For that reason, a scientific drilling program has been proposed to the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) to sample the deeper sedimentaryrecord of the Songliao Basin through a new drill hole (Figs. 1 and 2).
An application of the HBV model to the Tamor Basin in Eastern Nepal
S Normand,M Konz,J Merz
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/jhm.v7i1.5616
Abstract: The semi-distributed, conceptual hydrological model HBV was applied to Tamor Nadi in order to estimate runoff at Tapethok, Taplejung, in Eastern Nepal. As there was no discharge data available for this particular location, the model was first calibrated and validated for the bigger, gauged basins at Mulghat and Majithar. However due to its structure HBV shows difficulties in modelling low and high flows correctly at the same time. Therefore two parameter sets were produced: one with focus on the model performance during low flows and the second one, on high flows. Those parameters were then applied to the basin at Tapethok. Generally HBV was able to correctly simulate low flows except for some sharp peaks due to isolated precipitation events. However, pre-monsoon discharge was overestimated while the runoff of the monsoon season were most of the time underestimated. The main reasons for this situation are: (1) HBV generates runoff from one single groundwater reservoir for the entire catchment, leading to sharp peaks with a rapid recession and therefore exaggerated reactions on precipitation during dry season; (2) during pre-monsoon snow and ice melt gain in importance and add to the mentioned problem; (3) due to the simplified representation of storages in the model structure the catchment area drains too quickly. Keywords: Tamor Basin DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jhm.v7i1.5616 ? JHM 2010; 7(1): 49-58 ?
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