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The lack of potable water poses a big problem in Syria. The
underground water, where exists, is usually brackish and cannot be used as it
is for drinking purposes. Syria lies in high solar isolation band and the vast
solar potential can be exploited to convert saline water to potable water. The
most economical and easy way to accomplish this objective is using solar still.
The purpose of the project is to evaluate the potential of using a solar still
basin. To implement this goal three similarly solar still basins have been
designed, manufactured and tested in selected day for saline water in month of
November, 2010. Each solar still consists of insulated metal box with channels.
Pyramidal glass covers attached to the basin at an angle (α = 45°). The three basins have divided into three models (M1, M2
and M3). Before taking the measurement of the distilled water three different
amount of water used, so for the (model M1) 3 liter of water, (model M2) 6
liter and (model M3) 9 liter, to study and evaluate the effect of water depth
in the basin. The average daily output was found to be (3.924) liters/day for
model (M1), (3.116) liters/day for model (M2) and 2.408 liters/day for model
(M3) for basin area of 1 m2 based on data of selected day.
The Sahelian region is known to have
extremes climatic constraints since the end of the seventies. The studied zone
is characterized by an extreme spatial and temporal variability of the
environmental factors, complicating the understanding of the mechanisms
governing the functioning of the hydrological system in the basin. The
evapotranspiration was very high (1975 mm/an), whereas the local annual
rainfall was around 300 mm/year. The piezometric data showed a rise of the
groundwater level during the rainy season and a decrease in the dry season. The
water balance obtained using the Penman-Monteith method showed the predominance
of the evapotranspiration (75% to 80% of the rainfall) on the drainage (20% to
25% of the precipitations).