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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 588 matches for " Bhekumusa Wellington Lukhele "
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Food Insecurity Is Associated with Increased Risk of Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-Infected Adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Cross-Sectional Study
Patou Masika Musumari, Edwin Wouters, Patrick Kalambayi Kayembe, Modeste Kiumbu Nzita, Samclide Mutindu Mbikayi, S. Pilar Suguimoto, Teeranee Techasrivichien, Bhekumusa Wellington Lukhele, Christina El-saaidi, Peter Piot, Masako Ono-Kihara, Masahiro Kihara
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085327
Abstract: Background Food insecurity is increasingly reported as an important barrier of patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in both resource-poor and rich settings. However, unlike in resource rich-settings, very few quantitative studies to date have investigated the association of food insecurity with patient adherence to ART in Sub-Saharan Africa. The current study examines the association between food insecurity and adherence to ART among HIV-infected adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods and Findings This is a cross-sectional quantitative study of patients receiving ART at three private and one public health facilities in Kinshasa, DRC. Participants were consecutively recruited into the study between April and November 2012. Adherence was measured using a combined method coupling pharmacy refill and self-reported adherence. Food insecurity was the primary predictor, and was assessed using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Of the 898 participants recruited into the study, 512 (57%) were food insecure, and 188 (20.9%) were not adherent to ART. Food insecurity was significantly associated with non-adherence to ART (AOR, 2.06; CI, 1.38–3.09). We also found that perceived harmfulness of ART and psychological distress were associated respectively with increased (AOR, 1.95; CI, 1.15–3.32) and decreased (AOR, 0.31; CI, 0.11–0.83) odds of non-adherence to ART. Conclusion Food insecurity is prevalent and a significant risk factor for non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected individuals in the DRC. Our findings highlight the urgent need for strategies to improve food access among HIV-infected on ART in order to ensure patient adherence to ART and ultimately the long-term success of HIV treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa.
The chemical composition and potential nutritive value of the foliage of four subtropical tree species in southern Africa for ruminants
MS Lukhele, JBJ Van Ryssen
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2003,
Abstract: The foliage of three Combretum species, C. apiculatum, C. molle and C. zeyheri, as well as that of Colophospermum mopane was collected over a period of two years. The chemical composition, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and the rumen degradability of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) were determined on these samples. Mean values for crude protein (CP) concentration varied from 92 g/kg DM for C. molle to 141 mg/kg DM for C. mopane, the neutral detergent fibre concentration from 323 g/kg DM for C. apiculatum to 392 g/kg DM for C. molle and that of acid detergent fibre from 247 g/kg DM for C. apiculatum to 355 g/kg DM for C. molle. The calcium (Ca) concentration in the foliage was high (8-16 g/kg DM) compared to the phosphorus (P) concentrations of between 0.8-2.1 g/kg DM, resulting in an average Ca: P ratio of 9.3: 1. The foliage contained relatively low levels of sodium (Na), 0.041 g/kg DM, based on beef cattle standards. The IVOMD ranged from 53% for C. mopane to 64% C. apiculatum and the rumen degradability of DM from 78% for C. molle to 94% for C. apiculatum. The DM degradability was substantially higher than that of nitrogen, which varied between 47% for C. apiculatum and 60% for C. zeyheri. It was concluded that the foliage tested would not be suitable sources of N to supplement protein deficiencies in low quality herbage. Furthermore, browsers would require additional sources of P and Na to avoid deficiencies in these elements.
Determining the Best Optimum Time for Predicting Sugarcane Yield Using Hyper-Temporal Satellite Imagery  [PDF]
Shingirirai Mutanga, Chris van Schoor, Phindile Lukhele Olorunju, Tichatonga Gonah, Abel Ramoelo
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2013.23029

Hyper-temporal satellite imagery provides timely up to date and relatively accurate information for the management of crops. Nonetheless models which use high time series satellite data for sugarcane yield estimation remain scant. This study determined the best optimum time for predicting sugarcane yield using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from SPOT-VEGETATION images. The study used actual yield data obtained from the mill and related it to NDVI of several two-month periods of integration spread along the sugarcane growing cycle. Findings were in agreement with results of previous studies which indicated that the best acquisition period of satellite images for the assessment of sugarcane yield is about 2 months preceding the beginning of harvest. Overall, of the five years tested to determine the relationship between actual yield and integrated NDVI, three years showed a significant positive relationship with a highest r2 value of 85%. The study however warrants further investigation to improve and develop accurate operational sugarcane yield estimation models at the local level given that other years had weak results. Such hybrid models may combine different vegetation indexes with agro-meteorological models which take into account broader crop’s physiological, growth demands, and soil management which are equally important when predicting yield.

Profitability of Smallholder Sugarcane Farming in Swaziland: The case of Komati Downstream Development Programme (KDDP) Sugar Farmers’ Associations, 2005-2011
Micah Bheki Masuku,Mandla Bhekumusa Dlamini
Sustainable Agriculture Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/sar.v2n1p8
Abstract: Smallholder sugarcane growing is central to rural development and poverty alleviation in Swaziland. The main objective of the study was to investigate the profitability of smallholder sugarcane farmers’ associations under KDDP and to explain the determinants of sugarcane profitability. The study used data from 2004/05 to 2010/11 production seasons for 15 smallholder sugarcane farmers’ associations under KDDP. A structured questionnaire was used to solicit production and financial data. Secondary data were obtained from accounting records of the farmers. The associations were purposively selected because of their experience in sugarcane production. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum values were used in data analysis. The cost and returns analysis was used to assess the profitability, whilst multiple linear regression analysis was used in identifying the determinants of profitability.The associations were found to be profitable with a mean profit per hectare of E5080.00.The further results indicated that variables such as farm size, farming experience, sucrose price, labour cost per hectare and fertilizer cost per hectare significantly (p<0.01) influence the profitability of smallholder sugarcane farmers’ associations in the study area. The adjusted R2 was 0.623, suggesting that about 62.3% in the variation in profit per hectare is explained by the explanatory variables. It is, therefore recommended that good crop husbandry practices like timely weeding, fertilization, and irrigation should be adopted to produce a good crop which will enhance profitability. There is need for the promotion of collective action as an institutional means to improve bargaining power of farmers, especially when procuring inputs. Collective action will enable smallholder sugarcane farmers to buy in bulk and be entitled to discounts and that can enhance sustainability of profitability of the farmers.
Comparative Study of the Kinetics of Dissolution of Laterite in some Acidic Media  [PDF]
Olushola S. AYANDA, Folahan A. ADEKOLA, Alafara A. BABA, Olalekan S. FATOKI, Bhekumusa J. XIMBA
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.1015113
Abstract: Studies on the kinetics of dissolution of a Nigerian lateritic soil in acids media including hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids have been undertaken. The elemental and mineralogical characterization, loss of mass on ignition, moisture content and pH of the material suspension in water were determined. The effects of acid concentration, process temperature, stirring rate and particle size on the dissolution rate were investigated. Experimental results indicated that laterite dissolution was greatly influenced by hydrogen ion concentration and the leaching data fitted a diffusion model. The linear dependence of the rate constant k on 1/ro 2 supported the proposed kinetic model. Values of 60.23 kJmol-1, 64.31 kJmol-1 and 67.53 kJmol-1 were obtained for the activation energies of laterite dissolution in hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids respectively; and the order of reaction was approximately one with respect to each of the three acids.
Problems Facing Small and Medium Size Contractors in Swaziland  [PDF]
Wellington Didibhuku Thwala, Mpendulo Mvubu
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2009.24042
Abstract: The paper explores the problems facing Small and Medium Size Contractors in Swaziland. The construction sector in Swaziland is not only a significant source of direct employment but also a sector which contributes, through its wide range of projects and operations. The paper will also look at the current government initiatives that had been put in place to address the challenges and problems in order to ensure that contractors are successful. There is a high failure rate among small and medium size contractors in Swaziland. These contractors fail for a variety of reasons ranging from lack of adequate capacity to handle the uniqueness, complexity and risks in contracting, lack of effective management, lack of business management, poor record keeping and inadequate technical, financial and contract managerial skills. Drawing on research on small and medium size contractors, the paper used both secondary and primary litera-ture. 100 questionnaires were distributed to different role players in the construction sector in Swaziland. The response rate was eighty seven (87) percent. The paper reveals that the most problems facing small and medium size contractors in Swaziland is lack of access to finance and late payment by government. The paper closes with recommendations and key lessons for the future.
Synthesis of silver impregnated carbon nanotubes and cyclodextrin polyurethanes for the disinfection of water
L.P Lukhele, R Krause, B Mamba, M Momba
Water SA , 2010,
Abstract: Silver impregnated carbon nanotubes and cyclodextrin polymers were synthesised by first functionalising carbon nanotubes in a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid before impregnating them with silver nanoparticles. The silver impregnated functionalised carbon nanotubes were then polymerised with β cyclodextrin using hexamethylene diisocyanate as the linker. The polymers were characterised using various techniques. The polymers were then tested for their ability to destroy bacteria in water and were found to reduce bacterial cell counts in water spiked with E. coli (ATCC 25925) to as low as zero cfu/m . Furthermore, the polymers could absorb 58% of para-nitrophenol from water spiked with this organic compound, which is a known pollutant in water.
The interactive effect of phosphorus and nitrogen on "in vitro" spore germination of Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann, root growth and mycorrhizal colonization
Bressan, Wellington;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822001000400004
Abstract: the effects of p and n amendment and its interactions on spore germination, root growth and colonized root length by glomus etunicatum becker & gerdemann (invam s329) was studied "in vitro" in rit - dna transformed roots of anthylis vulneraria sub sp. sampaiana (kidney vetch). three n media concentrations (5, 10 and 50 mg/l) at p constant level (2 mg/l) and three p media concentrations (2, 10 and 20 mg/l) at n constant level (5 mg/l) were utilized as a treatment. bécard & fortin medium was used as a basal medium for root growth and colonized root length, and water/agar (0.8%) media was the control for spore germination. spore germination of g. etunicatum at low p level was reduced by n addition in relation to the control media, and at low n level addition of p stimulated spore germination. total root length was stimulated by n addtion at low p level, but no significant difference (p£0.05) was observed between 10 and 50 mg/l of n. p addition at low n level media also stimulated total root growth, and a significant difference (p£0.05) was observed among p concentrations. colonized root length by g. etunicatum increased significantly (p£0.05) with p additions at low n levels. under low p level no significant differences was found between 10 and 50 mg/l of n. these results demonstrate that the interaction between p and n affect differently spore germination, root growth and colonized root lenght.
Factors affecting "in vitro" plant development and root colonization of sweet potato by Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd
Bressan, Wellington;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822002000100006
Abstract: nutrients media (murashige & skoog, hoagland & arnon and white's media) supplemented or not with sucrose and substrates (vermiculite, agar and natrosol) were tested for their effects on plant development and root colonization of micropropagated sweet potato, cv. white star, by glomus etunicatum becker & gerdemann (isolate invam fl s329). addition of sucrose (3%) did not affect plant development. however, hyphal growth and root colonization were depressed. contrasting responses to media nutrient concentration were observed for plant height, root colonization, and hyphal growth. the highest concentration of nutrients in murashige & skoog medium improved plant development, but this medium decreased hypha growth and inhibited root colonization. plants growing in vermiculite substrate had higher (p£0.05) development and mycorrhizal root colonization than those growing in agar or natrosol. the results indicate that colonization of micropropagated sweet potato by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is affected by media composition and type of substrate.
Doen?a enxerto versus hospedeiro aguda A- GVHD
Azevedo, Wellington;
Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-84842010005000060
Abstract: graft versus host disease (a-gvhd) is a systemic disease that affects bone marrow transplant patients receiving immunocompetent lymphocytes. the pathophysiology of this phenomenon is complex and involves a number of different effector immune responses to antigenic stimuli that are expressed due to tissue damage caused by disease or conditioning. this complication is frequent in bone marrow transplants and often determines the clinical outcome. in this chapter we discuss aspects of the biology of chronic graft versus host disease, its clinical evolution and the prophylactic and therapeutic management of this problem which can be devastating for patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
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