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Effect of Fillers on Mechanical Properties and Fracture Toughness of Glass Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Composites  [PDF]
Basappa Hulugappa, Mysuru V. Achutha, Bheemappa Suresha
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2016.41001
Abstract: Plain weave woven glass fabric reinforced epoxy (G-E) composite filled with two different types of fillers namely graphite, silicon carbide (each 5 and 10 wt%) was fabricated by hand lay-up method and compressed using hot press. These composites were investigated for their static mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural properties and impact strength as well as mode-I fracture toughness as per ASTM standards. Experimental results on mechanical properties indicate that the strength and the modulus in tensile and flexural mode for G-E composite increase with increasing filler loading. The unfilled G-E composite has the tensile strength of 305 MPa and increased to 404.2 MPa for 10 wt% silicon carbide. However, in three-point bend mode, addition of graphite in G-E showed the highest flexural strength as well as modulus. Mode-I fracture toughness test results indicated that the graphite filler loading improved the toughness of G-E composite. Selected failed samples under tensile, bending and mode-I fracture were examined using scanning electron microscope to identify the fracture features.
Effect of Nanofillers on Abrasion Resistance of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Phenolic Friction Composites  [PDF]
Bharath Basavaraj Pattanashetty, Suresha Bheemappa, Hemanth Rajashekaraiah, Somashekar Hirehally Mahadevappa
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2019.101007
Abstract: The present study focuses on the development of polymeric friction composites with short carbon fiber, micron and nano-sized fillers, additives with varying weight% in phenol formaldehyde (PF) matrix using hot compression moulding process. The composites prepared with fillers viz. Molybdenum disulfide or Molykote (MK) and multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in carbon fiber reinforced PF matrix is designated as Set-I composites. Inclusion of graphite and nano-clay in carbon fiber reinforced PF matrix is designated as Set-II composites. The prepared composites are tested in Dry sand rubber wheel abrasion wear test rig, following ASTM standards for evaluating the abrasive wear behaviour. From the routine experiments, it was observed that the presence of combined micro and nanofillers i.e. 11.5 wt% MK + 0.5 wt% MWCNTs of Set-I, has shown superior abrasion resistance among the study group. The test results of the Set-I and Set-II composites are analyzed using Taguchi experimental design followed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) to understand the contributions of wear control factors affecting the abrasive wear characteristics. Further, worn surface of selected samples is analyzed using scanning electron micrographs.
Influence of Water Ageing on Mechanical Properties of CaCO3 Filler Filled Epoxy Resin and Sansevieria/Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites  [PDF]
Naveed Anjum, Bheemappa Suresha, Somanahally Lingaiah Ajit Prasad
Open Journal of Composite Materials (OJCM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojcm.2019.91001
The present paper studies water absorption behavior and its consequence on mechanical properties of untreated and chemically treated Sansevieria /carbon fiber reinforced hybrid epoxy (Sria/CF-Ep) composite with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles. Sansevieria /carbon fiber (30/5 wt%) reinforced hybrid epoxy composite with 1.5, 3 and 4.5 wt% of CaCO3 have been developed by hand lay-up method followed by heat press. The water absorption characteristics of the Sria fibers were obtained by immersing the composite samples in sea water at room temperature, until reaching their water content saturation level. The dry and water-immersed hybrid composite samples were subjected to hardness, interlaminar shear, tensile, flexural, and impact tests. The water absorption development of hybrid composites was found to follow Fickian diffusion behavior. Diffusion coefficients and maximum water uptake results were evaluated; the outcome showed that both increased with an increase in filler loading to study the consequence of water penetration in the fiber/matrix interface. The study shows that the mechanical and water-resistant properties of the Sria were improved through chemical treatment and hybridization. Nevertheless, as a result of water penetrating the fiber/matrix interface, longer water-immersion times reduced the tensile and flexural strength of the composites.
Investigations on Mechanical and Tribological Behaviour of Particulate Filled Glass Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Composites  [PDF]
Bhadrabasol Revappa Raju, Bheemappa Suresha, Ragera Parameshwarappa Swamy, Bannangadi Swamy Gowda Kanthraju
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2013.14027
Abstract: The aim of the research article is to study the mechanical and two-body abrasive wear behaviour of alumina (Al2O3) filled glass fabric reinforced epoxy (G-E) composites. Alumina filled G-E composites containing 0, 5, 7.5 and 10 wt% were prepared using the hand lay-up technique followed by compression molding. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength, hardness and tensile modulus were investigated in accordance with ASTM standards. Two-body abrasive wear studies were carried out using a pin-on-disc wear tester under multi-pass condition against the water proof silicon carbide abrasive paper. From the experimental investigation, it was found that the presence of Al2O3 filler improved the tensile strength and tensile modulus of the G-E composite. Inclusion of Al2O3 filler reduced the specific wear rate of G-E composite. The results show that in abrasion mode, as the filler loading increases the wear volume decreases and increased with increasing abrading distance. The excellent wear resistance was obtained for Al2O3 filled G-E composites. Furthermore, 10 wt% filler loading gave a very less wear loss. Finally, the scanning electron microscopic observations on the wear mechanisms Al2O3 filled G-E composites was discussed.
Assessment of Cutting Parameters Influencing on Thrust Force and Torque during Drilling Particulate Filled Glass Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Composites  [PDF]
Bhadrabasol Revappa Raju, Bheemappa Suresha, Ragera Parameshwarappa Swamy, Bannangadi Swamy Gowda Kanthraju
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2013.13019
Abstract: Drilling is indispensable process and it cannot be avoided for joining composite structures used in various engineering applications. In this research article, the influence of drilling parameters on thrust force and torque of silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) filled into glass fabric reinforced epoxy (G-E) composites are analyzed. Drilling experiments are conducted on these composite materials using BATLIBOI make radial drilling machine. Two different drill bits (HSS and cemented carbide) are used for the experimentation. The influence of drilling parameters like cutting speed and feed on thrust force and torque on drilling of particulate filled G-E composites has been carried out. The experimental results indicated that the thrust force and torque were increased with increasing feed and cutting speed for all the composites tested. Further, it is observed that the carbide drill performed better than HSS drill during drilling of particulate filled G-E composites. The drilled surfaces are examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and damage mechanisms are discussed.
Effect of Environmental Conditions on Flexural Strength and Fracture Toughness of Particulate Filled Glass-Epoxy Hybrid Composites  [PDF]
Basappa Hulugappa, Mysuru Venkataramaiah Achutha, Bheemappa Suresha
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2016.711057
Abstract: Multifunctional hybrid polymer composites were projected as novel solutions to meet the demands in various industrial applications ranging from automotive to aerospace. This investigation focuses on processing, flexural strength and fracture toughness characterization of the glass fabric reinforced epoxy (G-E) composites and graphite/fly ash cenosphere (FAC) modified interface between the epoxy matrix and glass fabric. Hand lay-up followed by compression moulding method was used to fabricate the laminates. Flexural and fracture toughness tests at room temperature, elevated temperature and cryogenic temperature were conducted to assess the flexural strength (FS) and mode-I plane-strain fracture toughness (KIC). The experimental and characterization efforts suggest that both graphite and FAC fillers improve bonding at the interface. The study showed that the graphite is more favorable for enhancing FS and KIC of G-E composites. Graphite filled G-E hybrid composites with significant FS and KIC to that of unfilled and FA filled G-E were successfully achieved by incorporating 10 wt% graphite. The incorporation of fillers resulted in improvement of FS, which increased by 43% and 37.7% for 10Gr+G-E and 10FAC+G-E hybrid composites respectively. All composites show a 26% improvement in KIC at cryogenic temperature and a decrease of 12.5% at elevated temperature. According to the SEM observations, fiber debonding from the matrix is suppressed due to the presence and uniform distribution of graphite. In addition, micro-pores, matrix shearing, active toughening mechanisms induced by graphite, such as crack deflection, layer breakage and delamination of graphite layers contributed to the enhanced KIC of hybrid G-E composites.
Effect of TiO2 Filler Loading on Physico-Mechanical Properties and Abrasion of Jute Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Composites  [PDF]
Bheemappa Suresha, Suryakanth L. Guggare, Naraganahalli V. Raghavendra
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2016.79044
Abstract: Mechanical properties and abrasive wear behaviour of bi-directional jute fabric reinforced epoxy (J/Ep) with micron sized TiO2 particles at different wt% (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10) were investigated. The tribo-potential of combined effect of TiO2 and jute fiber in epoxy (J/Ep) for enhancing the abrasion resistance has not been studied so far. Hence, the present work aims to explore the possibility of using TiO2 filler and jute fiber to reinforce the epoxy and thus open a new way to implement inexpensive reinforcements and produce new candidate tribo-material for industrial applications. Silane treated TiO2 filled J/Ep composites were prepared by hand lay-up method. Selected mechanical properties and three-body abrasive wear tests were evaluated as per ASTM standards. Results indicate an enhancement in the J/Ep composite mechanical properties due to addition of TiO2 particles up to 7.5 wt% of loading. Highest tensile and flexural properties were found at 7.5 wt% TiO2 loading. Results of abrasion tests show resistance to abrasion at 5 wt% TiO2 filled J/Ep composite. Scanning electron micrographs evidenced that the fiber and filler have fairly good bonding with matrix. Finally, this investigation confirms the applicability of TiO2 as secondary reinforcement in J/Ep composite.
Evaluation of Nutrients and Trace Metals and Their Enrichment Factors in Soil and Sugarcane Crop Irrigated with Wastewater  [PDF]
Mohammed Abdullah Alghobar, Sidduraiah Suresha
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.38005
Abstract: The study was conducted to investigate enrichment factor of wastewater (WW) irrigation to agricultural soils and the bioconcentration factor of trace metals uptake by sugarcane and to determine the concentrations of nutrients in sugarcane by growing the same on a contaminated soil, during the growth period of crop in Vidyaranyapuram area in the South West of Mysore, Karnataka. The concentrations of macronutrients and trace metals in the soil sampled sugarcane crop were found highly significant in Ca, Mg, K, Na, N, Mn, Cu, Ni and Cr. The enrichment factor was maximum for N and Na, and the values of N and Na were in the significant enrichment category. Whereas the values of following elements (K, P, Ca, SO4, Cu, Cr, Mg, Mn, Ni, Cd, Fe, Pb, Cl, Co and Zn) in soil irrigated with WW were in moderate enrichment category. The mean concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn, and Pb in sugarcane leaves in wastewater treatment crops were significantly higher than those with ground water (GW) treated which showed the lowest concentrations. Calculation of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the accumulation of heavy metals in sugarcane crop was in the order Cd > Zn > Co > Pb > Mn > Ni > Cu > Cr > Fe. Pearson’s correlation coefficient indicated the relationship between different elements content in soil and plant. The results showed that the elements, Ca, Mg, Na, K, N, P, Mn, Zn and Cr, were significantly positively correlated, between the soil and the plant.
Role of Metallic Nanofillers on Mechanical and Tribological Behaviour of Carbon Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Composites  [PDF]
G. S. Divya, B. Suresha
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2018.99054
Abstract: In this study, hybrid composites based on carbon fabric and epoxy (C/Ep) were fabricated by hand lay-up method followed by compression moulding. The C/Ep with optimum carbon fiber (60 wt%) was chosen as a reference material, and to it, the metallic nanoparticles like aluminum (Al) and zinc (Zn) of different wt% (0.5 and 1.0) were included as secondary fillers. To understand the synergism effect of these hybrid reinforcements, mechanical properties and tribological behavior of composites were studied. From the test results, it was proved that hybridization improved the mechanical and tribological properties. The C/Ep consisting of 0.5 wt% Zn and Al showed higher tensile properties in comparison with all other fabricated composites. Increase in flexural strength and flexural modulus also observed as the filler content increased in C/Ep composite. Higher impact strength is noted at 1 wt% Zn filled C/Ep composite. Wear test data revealed that 0.5 wt% Zn in C/Ep has got superior wear resistance. Wear mechanisms were discussed using scanning electron micrographs of selected worn surfaces of the composites.
Classification of Vegetables based on Decision Tree for Multiclass Problem
Suresha M
International Journal of Image Processing and Visual Communication , 2012, DOI: ijipvcv1i207
Abstract: In this paper, we have proposed a method for classification of vegetables based on the extraction of texture properties. The work has been carried out using watershed for segmentation. The vegetable texture features like red component, green component, skewness, kurtosis, variance, and energy are extracted. The method has been employed to normalize vegetable images and hence eliminating the effects of orientation using image resize technique with proper scaling. Classification is done using Mean around features, Gray level Co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features and combined (Mean around-GLCM) features. Decision trees classifier is used for classification of vegetables in to eight classes. Splitting rules for growing a decision tree included in this work are Gini diversity index(gdi), Twoing rule, and Entropy. Results obtained from the proposed method are well accepted and solutions are good agreement with the experts. Proposed approach is experimented on vegetable data set using cross validation and found good success rate.
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