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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20923 matches for " Bhavnesh Kumar "
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An in vitro infection model system to study proteins expressed during interaction of mycobacterium with murine macrophages  [PDF]
Neelja Singhal, Prashant Sharma, Bhavnesh Kumar, Utpal Sengupta, Krishnamurthy Venkatesan, Deepa Bisht
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2010.13025
Abstract: Resurgence of mycobacterial diseases particularly tuberculosis has caused a renewed interest to unravel the strategies employed by mycobacteria for intracellular survival. In spite of advancement in mycobacterial research, our knowledge about genes and their corresponding functional proteins involved during the interaction of mycobacterium with host’s macrophages is fragmentary. This study pertains to development of a suitable in vitro model using murine macrophages and Mycobacterium bovis BCG to study proteins expressed during macrophage-myco bacterium interactions. Peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice were infected with M. bovis BCG and intracellular replication was assessed by {3H} thymi- dine uptake assay which was maximal when macrophage to mycobacterium ratio was 1:10. SDS-PAGE was employed to study the proteins expressed and selected proteins were subjected to mass spectrometry. Seven proteins found to be upregulated during macrophage-mycobacterium interaction were identified by MALDI-TOF. The results indicate that the present in vitro infection model was able to support the growth of M. bovis BCG in murine macrophages and is an ideal model to determine the pattern of functions of gene expression during the interaction of mycobacterium with macrophages. The differentially expressed proteins will help in understanding the mycobacterial molecular basis of adaptation to intracellular macrophage environment.
Proteomic analysis of streptomycin resistant and sensitive clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Prashant Sharma, Bhavnesh Kumar, Yash Gupta, Neelja Singhal, Vishwa Katoch, Krishnamurthy Venkatesan, Deepa Bisht
Proteome Science , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-8-59
Abstract: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was employed for analyzing the protein profiles. Homology and in silico characterization for identified proteins was assessed using BLAST, InterProScan and KEGG database searches. Computational studies on the possible interactions between SM and identified proteins were carried out by a battery of online servers and softwares, namely, CLUSTALW (KEGG), I-TASSER, VMD, PatchDock and FireDock. On comparing 2DE patterns, nine proteins were found consistently overexpressed in SM resistant isolates and were identified as Rv0350, Rv0440, Rv1240, Rv3075c, Rv2971, Rv3028c, Rv2145c, Rv2031c and Rv0569. In silico docking analysis showed significant interactions of SM with essential (Rv0350, Rv0440 and Rv2971) and non essential (Rv1240, Rv3075c and Rv2031c) genes.The computational results suggest high protein binding affinity of SM and suggested many possible interactions between identified proteins and the drug. Bioinformatic analysis proves attributive for analysis of diversity of proteins identified by whole proteome analysis. In-depth study of the these proteins will give an insight into probable sites of drug action other than established primary sites and hence may help in search of novel chemotherapeutic agents at these new sites as inhibitors.Tuberculosis is one of the most challenging infectious diseases. Globally, 9.2 million new cases and 1.7 million deaths occur due to this disease [1]. Its impact on public health is further aggravated by co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus, emergence of multi-drug resistant strains and reactivation of the dormant bacteria. Attempt for primary prevention using Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) and other integral vaccines have generally been disappointing though some subunit vaccines are under trial [2]. The excessive emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis has stimulated interest in the under
The Use of Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm Based Approach to Create Ensemble of ANN for Intrusion Detection  [PDF]
Gulshan Kumar, Krishan Kumar
International Journal of Intelligence Science (IJIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2012.224016
Abstract: Due to our increased dependence on Internet and growing number of intrusion incidents, building effective intrusion detection systems are essential for protecting Internet resources and yet it is a great challenge. In literature, many researchers utilized Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in supervised learning based intrusion detection successfully. Here, ANN maps the network traffic into predefined classes i.e. normal or specific attack type based upon training from label dataset. However, for ANN-based IDS, detection rate (DR) and false positive rate (FPR) are still needed to be improved. In this study, we propose an ensemble approach, called MANNE, for ANN-based IDS that evolves ANNs by Multi Objective Genetic algorithm to solve the problem. It helps IDS to achieve high DR, less FPR and in turn high intrusion detection capability. The procedure of MANNE is as follows: firstly, a Pareto front consisting of a set of non-dominated ANN solutions is created using MOGA, which formulates the base classifiers. Subsequently, based upon this pool of non-dominated ANN solutions as base classifiers, another Pareto front consisting of a set of non-dominated ensembles is created which exhibits classification tradeoffs. Finally, prediction aggregation is done to get final ensemble prediction from predictions of base classifiers. Experimental results on the KDD CUP 1999 dataset show that our proposed ensemble approach, MANNE, outperforms ANN trained by Back Propagation and its ensembles using bagging & boosting methods in terms of defined performance metrics. We also compared our approach with other well-known methods such as decision tree and its ensembles using bagging & boosting methods.
Equilibrium Positions of a Cable-Connected Satellites System under Several Influences  [PDF]
Santosh Kumar, Sangam Kumar
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2016.63024
Abstract: The present paper deals with the study of equilibrium positions of the motion of a system of two artificial satellites connected by a light, flexible, inextensible and non-conducting cable under the influence of solar radiation pressure, earth’s oblateness, shadow of the earth and air resistance. Here, we study the case of circular orbit of the centre of mass of the system. We derive differential equations of motion of the system. General solutions of the differential equations are beyond the reach. On the other hand, the general solutions do not serve our purpose. Jacobian integral of the system has also been obtained. Thereafter equilibrium positions of the motion of the system have been obtained.
On the Design of Circular Fractal Antenna with U-Shape Slot in CPW-Feed  [PDF]
Raj Kumar
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2010.12012
Abstract: A new ultawideband circular fractal antenna with notched-band characteristics is presented. A notched-band characteristic is achieved by employing a U-shape slot in 50 Ω feed lines. The ultra-wideband impedance matching and compact size have been obtained by using CPW-feed technique and the fractal concept. The measured result of proposed fractal antenna exhibits the ultra wideband characteristics from 3.0 to 18.0 GHz at VSWR 2:1 except notched-band frequency. The proposed antenna has been analyzed theoretically and experimentally with respect to design parameters. The measured radiation pattern of fractal antenna is nearly omnidirectional in azimuth plane throughout the operating frequency. This antenna is useful for UBW communication system.
Object-Oriented Finite Element Analysis of Metal Working Processes  [PDF]
Surendra Kumar
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.36066
Abstract: Recently an object-oriented approach has been applied in the fields of finite element analysis with a view to treating the various complexities within these. It has been demonstrated that finite element software designed using an object-oriented approach can be significantly more robust than traditional codes. This paper describes a special kind of implementation of object-oriented programming which is rather hybrid in nature, in the development of a finite element code for engineering analysis of metal working problems using C++, and discusses the advantages of this approach.
Reactive Power and FACTS Cost Models’ Impact on Nodal Pricing in Hybrid Electricity Markets  [PDF]
Ashwani Kumar
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2011.23026
Abstract: In a competitive environment reactive power management is an essential service provided by independent system operator taking into account the voltage security and transmission losses. The system operator adopts a transparent and non-dis-criminatory procedure to procure the reactive power supply for optimal deployment in the system. Since generators’ are the main source of reactive power generation and the cost of the reactive power should be considered for their noticeable impact on both real and reactive power marginal prices. In this paper, a method based on marginal cost theory is presented for locational marginal prices calculation for real and reactive power considering different reactive power cost models of generators’ reactive support. With the presence of FACTS controllers in the system for more flexible operation, their impact on nodal prices can not be ignored for wheeling cost determination and has also to be considered taking their cost function into account. The results have been obtained for hybrid electricity market model and results have also been computed for pool model for comparison. Mixed Integer Non-linear programming (MINLP) approach has been formulated for solving the complex problem with MATLAB and GAMS interfacing. The proposed approach has been tested on IEEE 24-bus Reliability Test System (RTS).
Mental health services in rural India: challenges and prospects  [PDF]
Anant Kumar
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.312126
Abstract: Mental health services in India are neglected area which needs immediate attention from the government, policymakers, and civil society organizations. Despite, National Mental Health Programme since 1982 and National Rural Health Mission, there has been a very little effort so far to provide mental health services in rural areas. With increase in population, changing life-style, unemployment, lack of social support and increasing insecurity, it is predicted that there would be a substantial increase in the number of people suffering from mental illness in rural areas. Considering the mental health needs of the rural community and the treatment gap, the paper is an attempt to remind and advocate for rural mental health services and suggest a model to reduce the treatment gap.
Gold Nanorod, an Optical Probe to Track HIV Infection  [PDF]
Santosh Kumar
Journal of Sensor Technology (JST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jst.2012.21006
Abstract: Infectious diseases caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain the leading killers of human beings worldwide, and function to destabilize societies in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Driven by the need to detect the presence of HIV viral sequence, here we demonstrate that the second order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of gold nanorods can be used for screening HIV-1 viral DNA sequence without any modification, with good sensitivity (100 pico-molar) and selectivity (single base pair mismatch). The hyper Rayleigh Scattering (HRS) intensity increases 58 times when label-free 145-mer, ss-gag gene DNA, was hybridized with 100 pM target DNA. The mechanism of HRS intensity change has been discussed with experimental evidence for higher multipolar contribution to the NLO response of gold nanorods.
Challenges on Induction of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for Optimization of HIV Vaccines Development and Vectored Immunoprophylaxis  [PDF]
Pankaj Kumar
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials (JIBTVA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jibtva.2013.21002

Despite extensive research efforts, a preventive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine remains one of the major challenges in the field of AIDS research. Experimental strategies which have been proven successful for other viral vaccines are not enough to tackle HIV-1 and new approaches to design effective preventive AIDS vaccines are of utmost importance. Due to enormous diversity among global circulating HIV strains, an effective HIV vaccine must elicit broadly protective antibodies based responses; therefore discovering new broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV has become major focus in HIV vaccine research. However further understanding of the viral targets of such antibodies and mechanisms of action of bNAbs is required for advancement of HIV vaccine research. This technical note discusses our current knowledge on the bNAbs and immunoprophylaxis using viral vectors with their relevance in designing of new candidates to HIV-1 vaccines.

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