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Community Based Health Insurance in India: Prospects and Challenges  [PDF]
Bhaskar Purohit
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.611152
Abstract: The health inequities remain high in India with government and private health expenditures clearly favoring the rich, urban population and organized sector workers and the Out Of Pocket (OOP) spending as high as 80%, afflicting the poor in the worst manner. The focus of the paper is to examine the potential Community Based Health Insurance (CBHI) offers to improve the healthcare access to rural, low-income population and the people in unorganized sector. This is done by drawing empirical evidence from various countries on their experiences of implementing CBHI schemes and its potential for applications to India, problems and challenges faced and the policy and management lessons that may be applicable to India. It can be concluded that CBHI schemes have proved to be effective in reducing the Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) of people. But success of such schemes depends on its design, benefit package it offers, its management, economic and non-economic benefits perceived by enrollees and solidarity among community members. Collaboration of government, NGO’s and donor agencies is very crucial in extending coverage; similarly overcoming the mistrust that people have from such schemes and subsidizing the insurance for the many who cannot pay the premiums are important factors for success of CBHI in India. One of the biggest challenges for the health system is to address the piecemeal approach of CBHI schemes in extending health insurance and inability of such schemes to cover a large number of poor and the unorganized sector workers. Also, there is a need for a stronger policy research to demonstrate: 1) how such schemes can create a larger risk pool, 2) how such schemes can enroll a large number of people in the unorganized sector, 3) the interaction of CBHI schemes with other financing schemes and its link to the health system.
Nutritional Aspects of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Clusters Afflicted with SOUR Shrivel Is Related to Functionality of Its Vascular Tissues  [PDF]
Bhaskar Bondada
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.71020
Abstract: Mineral nutrition is essential to growth and development of various plant organs including fruits; consequently deficiency of any element leads to a myriad of physiological disorders, which in fruits are manifested as ripening anomalies. In this study, nutritional composition in tandem with vascular structure of healthy grape clusters and clusters afflicted with SOUR shrivel, a ripening disorder has been examined to unravel its mechanistic basis. The healthy berries without any affliction accumulated the highest amounts of all nutrients, which paralleled with functional xylem and phloem tissues in their cluster framework. Among the macro nutrients, K occurred as the dominant element followed by P, Ca, Mg and S whereas B was the predominant micro nutrient followed by Fe, Cu, and Zn. Although, the SOUR shrivel berries and the healthy appearing berries of afflicted clusters followed similar accumulation patterns, their amounts were significantly lower than the perfectly healthy berries without any SOUR shrivel. The low nutrient levels of SOUR shrivel berries corresponded to necrosis of phloem tissues and a red discoloration of xylem tissues in their cluster framework indicating that a lack of functional vascular tissues provoked the induction of SOUR shrivel by reducing influx of xylem and phloem mobile nutrients into the afflicted berries. Hence, periodic nutritional checks starting before veraison may aid in curbing the incidence of SOUR shriveling.
Organisational climate from view point of motivation in district hospital, India  [PDF]
Bhaskar Purohit, Ashok Wadhwa
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.47063
Abstract: Organisational Climate (OC) has been an important topic of research in Organisational Development. There are several frameworks and approaches to study OC. One such framework focuses on the effect of OC on motivation. Although studying OC from viewpoint of motivetion is an important one, there is very limited research in Indian public health system on assessing OC from the view point of motivation. The present study uses a comprehensive framework that focuses on assessing OC from the view point of motivation in a government district hospital. The overall objective of the study was to assess the OC of a District Hospital (DH) from the view point of motivation. A total of 66 staff (all from the same district hospital) participated in the study that included 12 Class I doctor specialists; 14 Class II doctors and 40 Class III staff The data was collected using a validated instrument called Motivational Analysis of Climate (MAO-C). The instrument included six needs or motives and twelve dimensions of organisational climate that were ranked by individuals according to their perception. Based on the ranks, final scores were calculated that reflected the dominant climate (highest score for a particular motive) and backup climates (second highest score for a particular motive). Also a combination of the two motives, dominant and back up motives or climates indicated a particular OC. According to the study, the dominant climate in the organisation was that for Dependency motive while the backup climate for the organisation was for Control motive. According to the literature, both Dependency and Control motives are dysfunctional climates. A high dependency motive indicates that the overall organisational climate is characterized by no initiatives by the people and the employees always look for approval from their seniors; assistance of others in developing oneself; a need to check with others who are more knowledgeable. Similarly high score for control motive indicates that order is maintained in organisation; indicates display of personal power; a desire to stay informed and an urge to monitor events and to take corrective action when needed. When the two motives are combined, the study indicates a dependency-control climate profile which means that the organisational practices are similar to government offices, where subordinates have no say in decision making and they have to follow the established rules of the organisation. Such organisations have clearly laid communication channels controlled from higher authority indicating typical characteristics of a
Understanding Differential Responses of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Leaf and Fruit to Water Stress and Recovery Following Re-Watering  [PDF]
Bhaskar Bondada, Janani Shutthanandan
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.39149
Abstract: Among all fruit crops of horticultural importance, grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) stand out as the most drought tolerant crop species whose tolerance is credited to their proficiency to recover from water stress in both the natural and vineyard growing conditions. However, information on the recovery responses is relatively scant. Studies were conducted to address this issue using potted vines of the grapevine cultivar, Cabernet Sauvignon, which was subjected to water stress and along with anatomical and ultrastructural characterizations, physiological status was assessed in healthy and water stressed vines, and following recovery via rewatering from the water stressed vines. Water stress induced wilting of leaves, drooping of tendrils, and desiccation followed by abscission of shoot tip leaving behind a brown scar at the shoot apex. The wilted leaves accumulated ABA, which correspondingly reduced stomatal conductance and leaf water potential. Upon re-watering, both these parameters made a recovery with values similar to healthy leaves. Likewise, leaf anatomical features following rewatering resembled to that of healthy leaves. In clusters, water stress caused shriveling of preveraison (unripened) berries, which regained full turgor following water resupply, whereas the postveraison (ripening) berries in the same cluster remained unaffected as evidenced by the presence of viable mesocarp cells and epicuticular wax in the form of platelets. The study revealed that shoot tip with leaf primordia was most sensitive to water stress followed by fully expanded leaves and preveraison berries, whereas the postveraison berries remained unaffected. This information could be valuable to implementing irrigation strategies towards sustaining grape production in existing vineyards experiencing episodic droughts and targeted areas prone to drought.
Incidence of Sickle Cell Anaemia and Thalassaemia in Central India  [PDF]
Bhaskar P. Urade
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2012.24014
Abstract: Haemoglobinopathies are group of diseases characterized by abnormalities both quantitative and qualitative in the synthesis of haemoglobin. Haemoglobinopathies consist of sickle cell anaemia (SCA), thalassaemia (βT) and variant haemoglobins. In India, they are responsible for the largest number of genetic disorders and hence are of great public health hazardous. In India major concerned haemoglobinopathic disorders are sickle cell anaemia and β-thalassaemia. Of the several abnormal haemoglobin molecules, four which are widely prevalent in India include: HbS, HbβT, HbE and HbD. Examination of 6463 individuals showed high incidences for haemoglobin variants, HbS and HbβT in different ethnic groups, the frequency being varies from 0% - 20% and 0% - 9% respectively. The frequency of HbS in Brahmins is 4.17%, in Kalar 5.41%, in Rajput 2.04%, in Muslims 3.73% in Maratha 2.08% in Bania 9.09% while in Teli it is 3.65%. Among the Scheduled castes and Nomadic tribal groups HbS ranges from 1% - 12%; in backward caste categories it varies from 3% - 16%; while in Scheduled tribes it ranges from 0% - 20%. The high magnitude of sickle cell trait has been noticed in the Pardhan (20.31%) followed by the Marar (16.10%), the Dhiwar (11.90%), the Gond (11.89%), the Mahar (11.81%) and the Bania (9.90%). A considerable high frequency (9.27%) of β-thalassaemia has been observed among the Sindhi population. Sporadic occurrence of HbβT and HbD among other communities suggested the gradual spread of the genes into the region. The present findings in 11 communities with the thalassaemia syndrome suggest that the β-thalassaemia is accompanied by raised level of HbA2. Unusual greater mean RBC and WBC suggest the high concentration of hypochromic microcytosis in anaemia. The mean MCV and MCH in HbβT and HbD are much lower than the normal ranges compared to HbS. The mean MCHC is much lower in HbβT, HbDD and HbS than the normal range. The cumulative gene frequency of haemoglobinopathies in India is 4.2%. With a population of over 1 billion and a birth rate of 28 per 1000, there are over 42 million carriers and over 12,000 infants are born each year with a major and clinical significant haemoglobinopathy. Out of these, clinically significant sickle cell anaemia and β-thalassaemic disorders account for almost equal numbers.
Performance Comparison of a QoS Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Bhaskar Bhuyan, Nityananda Sarma
Communications and Network (CN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2016.81006
Abstract: Quality of Service (QoS) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a challenging area of research because of the limited availability of resources in WSNs. The resources in WSNs are processing power, memory, bandwidth, energy, communication capacity, etc. Delay is an important QoS parameter for delivery of delay sensitive data in a time constraint sensor network environment. In this paper, an extended version of a delay aware routing protocol for WSNs is presented along with its performance comparison with different deployment scenarios of sensor nodes, taking IEEE802.15.4 as the underlying MAC protocol. The performance evaluation of the protocol is done by simulation using ns-2 simulator.
Prediction of CO2 and H2S Emissions from Wastewater Wet Wells  [PDF]
Bhaskar Kura, Bhaskar Kura, Amrita Iyer, Elena Ajdari
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2014.22019
Abstract: The transportation of wastewater through sewer networks can cause potential problems due to the formation of lethal gases such as ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and methane. As a result, they can cause irritating, toxic, and microbial induced corrosion. The true depth of these problems can be measured by measuring the emission of such lethal gasses in the sewer atmosphere. The amount of gases released from such sewer networks has to be controlled. In this paper, we present a simple experimental methodology used to determine the emissions of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) using Landtec GEM-2000 plus multi-gas analyser from wastewater wet wells.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Characterization of Kaolinite from Assam and Meghalaya, Northeastern India  [PDF]
Bhaskar J. Saikia, Gopalakrishnarao Parthasarathy
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2010.14031
Abstract: This study demonstrates the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic characterization of natural kaolinite from north-eastern India. The compositional and structural studies were carried out at room temperature by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron microprobe (EPMA) analyses and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. The main peaks in the infrared spectra reflected Al-OH, Al-O and Si-O functional groups in the high frequency stretching and low frequency bending modes. Few peaks of infrared spectra inferred to the interference peaks for quartz as associated minerals. The present study demonstrates usefulness of the spectroscopic techniques in determining quality and crystalline nature of kaolinite from the Assam and Meghalaya, northeastern India.
Analytical Estimation of Elastic Properties of Polypropylene Fiber Matrix Composite by Finite Element Analysis  [PDF]
Bhaskar Pal, Mohamed Riyazuddin Haseebuddin
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2012.21004
Abstract: A structural composite is a material system consisting of two or more phases on a macroscopic scale, whose mechanical performance and properties are designed to be superior to those of constituent materials acting independently. Fiber reinforced composites (FRP) are slowly emerging from the realm of advanced materials and are replacing conventional materials in a variety of applications. However, the mechanics of FRPs are complex owing to their anisotropic and heterogeneous characteristics. In this paper a representative volume model has been considered and a finite element model incorporating the necessary boundary conditions is developed using available FEA package ANSYS to predict the elastic property of the composite. For verification, the numerical results of elastic properties are compared with the analytical solution and it is found that there is a good agreement between these results.
Not All Shrivels Are Created Equal—Morpho-Anatomical and Compositional Characteristics Differ among Different Shrivel Types That Develop during Ripening of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Berries  [PDF]
Bhaskar Rao Bondada, Markus Keller
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.37105
Abstract: An understanding of physiological disorders associated with ripening of fruits triggered by abiotic stress relies on anatomical and physico-chemical analyses, as it provide insights into their origin and probable causes. The objective of this study was to analyze different ripening disorders of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries by dissecting their morpho-anatomy, shriveling nature, and composition. Four well-defined disorders—sunburn, prolonged dehydration (PD), late-season bunch stem necrosis (LBSN), and berry shrivel (BS) were analyzed in field-grown grapevines of the cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon. Early bunch stem necrosis (EBSN) that occurred before ripening was also included in the study. Unlike healthy spherical berries, the pericarp of disordered berries except for sunburn shriveled causing concomitant reductions in fresh weight and volume. The exocarp of PD berries developed well-ordered indentations as distinct from the wrinkles in LBSN berries, whereas BS berries were flaccid with numerous skin folds. The epicuticular wax occurred as upright platelets in all shrivel forms excluding the sun-exposed hemisphere of sunburned berries. A chlorophyllous inflorescence framework persisted in all shrivel forms but in LBSN, wherein the necrotic regions developed tylosis. Unlike the translucent mesocarp of healthy, sunburned, and PD berries, the mesocarp was collapsed in BS and LBSN berries, nevertheless all had well-developed seeds. The composition of healthy berries was optimal, whereas the disordered berries were compositionally distinct from each other, which as a whole differed from the healthy berries. The BS berries had the lowest sugar content, and although sugar concentration was higher in LBSN, sunburned and PD berries, sugar amount per berry was highest in the healthy berries, the same was true for hexoses. Healthy and BS berries exhibited highest amounts of tartaric acid followed by sunburn and PD berries, whereas the LBSN berries had the lowest values. Conversely, healthy and PD berries had the highest amounts of malic acid followed by LBSN, sunburn and BS berries, which collectively displayed similar amounts. The PD berries exhibited the highest calcium content followed by LBSN, healthy, and finally BS and sunburned berries. A linear relationship existed between potassium (K) and pH of the berries. The PD berries had the highest amounts of K followed by healthy, sunburn, LBSN, and BS berries. Overall, the results reported here provided combined morpho-anatomical and compositional analyses of different shrivel types that occurred during
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