In this
article, we present the case of a 12-year-old girl with sickle cell disease (SCD), who presented with the severe headache.
She had bilateral 6th cranial nerve palsy and papilloedema. The common sickle
cell-related vascular causes of headache were ruled
out by neuro-imaging. She then had a lumbar puncture and was diagnosed with
idiopathic intracranial hypertension
(IIH). This case demonstrates that IIH can affect younger children with SCD and
should form a part of differential diagnosis when investigating causes of
headache in SCD.

Abstract:
The genome sequence of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, was released almost a decade ago. A majority of the Plasmodium genome, however, remains annotated to code for hypothetical proteins with unknown functions. The introduction of forward genetics has provided novel means to gain a better understanding of gene functions and their associated phenotypes in Plasmodium. Even with certain limitations, the technique has already shown significant promise to increase our understanding of parasite biology needed for rationalized drug and vaccine design. Further improvements to the mutagenesis technique and the design of novel genetic screens should lead us to some exciting discoveries about the critical weaknesses of Plasmodium, and greatly aid in the development of new disease intervention strategies. 1. Introduction Malaria is a serious global health problem causing clinical illness in hundreds of millions of people and killing around a million, each year [1]. Intervention strategies to control the disease have been largely ineffective due to increased parasite drug resistance, ineffective vector control measures, and inadequate knowledge about parasite biology to identify new drug and vaccine targets. The need to discover critical weaknesses in the parasite that could be exploited in designing novel antiparasitic strategies is greater than ever. Since the release of the Plasmodium genome sequence, several large-scale functional studies have advanced our overall knowledge tremendously about parasite biology [2–6]. However, in spite of such enormous efforts, almost 50% of the genome remains annotated to code for hypothetical proteins in all Plasmodium species [7]. It is imperative to understand the functions and essentiality of these hypothetical proteins to facilitate the identification of novel drug or vaccine targets. 2. Difficulties in Plasmodium Genetics The first and foremost obstacle in functional characterization of the Plasmodium genome is our limited ability to genetically manipulate the parasite [8]. Out of all the Plasmodium species that cause human malaria, only the blood stages of P. falciparum can be cultured in vitro effectively and is the only life cycle stage amenable to transfection with exogenous DNA. While electroporation is most effective in transfecting P. falciparum [9, 10], the transfection efficiency is very low, in the range of 10？6 [11]. The rodent malaria parasite, P. berghei, can be transfected with much higher efficiency and, therefore, has been used more extensively in targeted gene knockout studies [12].

Abstract:
Mathematical creativity ensures the growth of mathematics as a whole. However, the source of this growth, the creativity of the mathematician, is a relatively unexplored area in mathematics and mathematics education. In order to investigate how mathematicians create mathematics, a qualitative study involving five creative mathematicians was conducted. The mathematicians in this study verbally reflected on the thought processes involved in creating mathematics. Analytic induction was used to analyze the qualitative data in the interview transcripts and to verify the theory driven hypotheses. The results indicate that, in general, the mathematicians’ creative processes followed the four-stage Gestalt model of preparation-incubation-illumination-verification. It was found that social interaction, imagery, heuristics, intuition, and proof were the common characteristics of mathematical creativity. Additionally, contemporary models of creativity from psychology were reviewed and used to interpret the characteristics of mathematical creativity.

Abstract:
This article examines the fundamental reasons for educational research and practice in social justice from evolutionary, ideological and philosophical viewpoints. The tension between nihilistic and empathetic tendencies within humanity’s evolution is used to reflexively examine the origins and causes of inequity. The relevance of the works of Paolo Freire, Karl Marx, and Vivekananda for contemporary social justice research is examined

Abstract:
Summarizes the legacy of Zoltan Paul Dienes, one of the seminal figures in mathematics education and outlines the contents of the monograph that commemorates his work.

Abstract:
Let $C$ be a symmetrizable generalized Cartan Matrix, and $q$ an indeterminate. ${\fg}(C)$ is the Kac-Moody Lie algebra and $U=U_q({\fg}(C))$ the associated quantum enveloping algebra over $ k={\Bbb Q}(q)$. The quantum function algebra ${\Bbb C}_{q}[G]$ is defined as a suitable $U$-bisubalgebra of the dual space $\hom_{k}(U,k)$ which can be described using matrix elements of integrable $U$-modules. For $\fg$ affine, the highest weight modules of $C_q[G]$ are constructed and, assuming a minimality condition, their (unitarizable) irreducible quotients are shown to be in a 1-1 correspondence with the reduced elements of the Weyl group of ${\frak g}(C)$. Further, these simple module are described in terms of the $C_q[SL_2]$-modules obtained by restriction, and they satisfy a Tensor Product theorem, similar to the finite type case.

Abstract:
Two new realizations, denoted $U_{q,x}(\widehat{gl_2})$ and $U(R_{q,x}(\widehat{gl_2}))$ of the trigonometric dynamical quantum affine algebra $U_{q,\lambda}(\widehat{gl_2})$ are proposed, based on Drinfeld-currents and $RLL$ relations respectively, along with a Heisenberg algebra $\left\{P,Q\right\}$, with $x=q^{2P}$. Here $P$ plays the role of the dynamical variable $\lambda$ and $Q=\frac{\partial}{\partial P}$. An explicit isomorphism from $U_{q,x}(\widehat{gl_2})$ to $U(R_{q,x}(\widehat{gl_2}))$ is established, which is a dynamical extension of the Ding-Frenkel isomorphism of $U_{q}(\widehat{gl_2})$ with $U(R_{q}(\widehat{gl_2}))$ between the Drinfeld realization and the Reshetikhin-Tian-Shanksy construction of quantum affine algebras. Hopf algebroid structures and an affine dynamical determinant element are introduced and it is shown that $U_{q,x}(\widehat{sl_2})$ is isomorphic to $U(R_{q,x}(\widehat{sl_2}))$. The dynamical construction is based on the degeneration of the elliptic quantum algebra $U_{q,p}(\widehat{sl_2})$ of Jimbo, Konno et al. as the elliptic variable $p \to 0$.

Abstract:
The representation theory of the Hopf algebroid $U_{q,x}(\widehat{sl_2})=U_{q,\lambda}(\widehat{sl_2})$ is initiated and it is established that the intertwiner between the tensor products of dynamical evaluation modules is a well-poised balanced $_{10}W_9$ symbol, confirming a conjecture of Konno, that the degeneration of the elliptic $_{12}V_{11}$ series to $_{10}W_9$ can be proven based on the representation theory of $U_{q,x}(\widehat{sl_2})$, the degeneration of the elliptic algebra $U_{q,p}(\widehat{sl_2})$ as $p \to 0$.

Abstract:
A histogram estimate of the Radon-Nikodym derivative of a probability measure with respect to a dominating measure is developed for binary sequences in $\{0,1\}^{\mathbb{N}}$. A necessary and sufficient condition for the consistency of the estimate in the mean-square sense is given. It is noted that the product topology on $\{0,1\}^{\mathbb{N}}$ and the corresponding dominating product measure pose considerable restrictions on the rate of sampling required for the requisite convergence.

Abstract:
A univariate clustering criterion for stationary processes satisfying a $\beta$-mixing condition is proposed extending the work of \cite{KB2} to the dependent setup. The approach is characterized by an alternative sample criterion function based on truncated partial sums which renders the framework amenable to various interesting extensions for which limit results for partial sums are available. Techniques from empirical process theory for mixing sequences play a vital role in the arguments employed in the proofs of the limit theorems.