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Peripheral Lymphadenopathy: A Descriptive Study from a Tertiary Care Centre in Lubumbashi (D.R.C)  [PDF]
Christian Kakisingi, Olivier Mukuku, Michel Manika, Marc Kashal, Veronique Kyabu, Eric Kasamba, Beya Tshikuluila, Claude Mwamba
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102771
Introduction: The causes of superficial lymphadenopathy are diverse and their prognosis is often unknown. The diagnosis of superficial lymphadenopathy remains a challenge because, alone, its clinical picture doesn’t allow differentiating between an infectious disease and a non-transmissible disease. The aim of this study is to describe epidemiological, clinical and pathologic aspects of superficial lymphadenopathy observed in the internal medicine department at the University of Lubumbashi Clinics (DR Congo). Patients, Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive and transversal study on superficial lymphadenopathy observed over a period of 24 months from November 2013 to October 2015 at the University of Lubumbashi Clinics. Parameters studied were gender, age, clinical particular of superficial lymphadenopathy and associated patient clinical signs and pathology of these lymph nodes biopsy. Results: 36 patients’ data were identified with a sex ratio M/F = 1.76 and a mean age of 42.47 ± 15.64 years. 75% of patients had lymph nodes tumefaction as the main complaint during consultation and 61.1% had a poor general condition marked by fever. 27.8% were HIV positive and cervical lymphadenopathy was the most frequent. As for the pathologic diagnosis, non-Hodgkin lymphoma was the most frequent diagnosis (47.2%) followed by reactive hyperplasia (27.8%) and infectious lymphadenopathy (19.4%). Conclusion: The most frequent cause of lymphadenopathy in our study was non-Hodgkin lymphoma (47.2%) followed by lymph nodes reactive hyperplasia (27.8%) and infectious lymphadenitis. Lymph nodes biopsy plays an important role in confirming superficial lymphadenopathy diagnosis. It should be the basic procedure to diagnose extra pulmonary tuberculosis in the DRC National Program against TB.
Immunological, Virological, Parasitic and Biological Profile of Malaria/HIV Co-Infection in 18 Years Old and Above Patients in Lubumbashi (DR Congo)  [PDF]
Christian Kakisingi, Olivier Mukuku, Michel Manika, Augustin Mutombo, Eric Kasamba, Beya Tshikuluila, Paul Mawaw, Claude Mwamba, Oscar Luboya
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102647
Abstract: Introduction: Malaria infection and HIV infection are major public health issues in several parts of the world. Together they have caused more than a million deaths per year. Africa, and Sub-Saharan in particular are the most affected. Our study objective is to determine the prevalence of Malaria/HIV co-infection and describe its immunological, virological, parasitic and biological characteristics. Methodology: This is a descriptive, transversal and multi centric study done on 18 years old and above HIV positive patients, for a period extending from December 2008 to October 2009 in 5 different HIV treatment centres. Parameters studied were gender, age, CD4 count, viral load, parasite density and haemoglobin level. The HIV diagnosis was made according to the AIDS National Program and malaria according to the Malaria National Program. Statistic analyses were done using Epi Info 7 software and the Yates corrected Chi Square test or the Fischer Exact test (when recommended) was used to check any link between different parameters studied. Statistical significance was fixed at <0.05. Results: 405 HIV seropositive patients were compiled. The malaria prevalence in these patients was 6.9%. Majority of co-infected patients were aged between 26 and 49 years (67.9%), and had a CD4 count <200 μl (67.9%), a parasitic density <10,000 trophozoites/μl (75%) and an Hb level <11 g/dl. With regards to correlations between co-infected patients parasitic density and the CD4 count, viral load and Hb level, none of the studied parameters showed any statistic significance difference. Conclusion: A prevalence of 6.9% among HIV/malaria co-infected patients and 67.7% of these patients had a CD4 count less than 200 cells/μl. Thus, both national programs must promote an early testing for HIV infected patients and reinforce preventive measures in the management of malaria.
Clinical and Biological Approach to Peripheral Lymphadenopathy in Adults from a Tertiary Care Centre in Lubumbashi (D. R Congo)  [PDF]
Christian Kakisingi, Olivier Mukuku, Michel Manika, Placide Kakoma, Marc Kashal, Véronique Kyabu, Eric Kasamba, Beya Tshikuluila, Emmanuel Muyumba, Claude Mwamba
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102852
Introduction: Superficial lymphadenopathy is a frequent reason for consultation in Internal Medicine. The diagnosis approach even done by a meticulous clinical examination has to be completed with investigations such as medical imagery and pathologic study. In low-income countries like Democratic Republic of Congo, means for proper diagnosis remain hardly accessible for some classes of the society. Thus, our study aims to describe socio-economic, clinical and biologic parameter that can give diagnosis orientation in patients with superficial lymphadenopathy as observed in the department of internal medicine at the University of Lubumbashi Clinics (DR Congo). Patients, Material and Method: This is a descriptive, transversal study on superficial lymphadenopathy observed for a period of 24 months from November 2013 to October 2015 at the University of Lubumbashi Clinics. Parameters studied included gender, age, localization and clinical characteristics of superficial lymphadenopathy; biologic parameters and pathologic diagnosis were determined by lymph nodes biopsy. Results: 36 patients data were captured and non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the most frequent pathologic diagnosis (47.20%) followed by reactive hyperplasia (27.80%) and infectious lymphadenitis (19.40%). Some of the variables studied presented a significant statistical association and included age ≥ 50 years old (p = 0.0247), inguinal location (p = 0.0053), multifocal location (p = 0.0063), sensible character (p = 0.0391) and leukocytosis (p = 0.0022) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma and variables like age below 50 years (p = 0.0345), inguinal location (p = 0.0299) and sensible character (p = 0.394) for reactive hyperplasia. Conclusion: The most frequent aetiology seen in this very is non-Hodgkin lymphoma (47.2%) followed by lymph node reactive hyperplasia (27.8%) and infectious lymphadenitis. The emergence of non-communicable diseases in both developed countries as low income is growing and special emphasis should be given to this growing scourge. Cancer is one of the most frequent pathologies and non-Hodgkin lymphoma is one of the deadliest cancer types. And having epidemioclinic and biological parameters in the absence of appropriate diagnosis means could contribute to improving the prognosis of lymphadenopathy patients in low-income countries like the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Natural Convection of Water-Based Nanofluids in a Square Enclosure with Non-Uniform Heating of the Bottom Wall  [PDF]
Nader Ben-Cheikh, Ali J. Chamkha, Brahim Ben-Beya, Taieb Lili
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.42021

In this paper, a numerical study of natural convection in a square enclosure with non-uniform temperature distribution maintained at the bottom wall and filled with nanofluids is carried out using different types of nanoparticles. The remaining walls of the enclosure are kept at a lower temperature. Calculations are performed for Rayleigh numbers in the range 5 × 103Ra ≤ 106 and different solid volume fraction of nanoparticles 0 ≤ χ 0.2. An enhancement in heat transfer rate is observed with the increase of nanoparticles volume fraction for the whole range of Rayleigh numbers. It is also observed that the heat transfer enhancement strongly depends on the type of nanofluids. For Ra = 106, the pure water flow becomes unsteady. It is observed that the increase of the volume fraction of nanoparticles makes the flow return to steady state.

The Relationship between Global Solar Radiation and Sunshine Durations in Cameroon  [PDF]
R. Mbiaké, A. Beya Wakata, E. Mfoumou, E. Ndjeuna, L. Fotso, E. Tiekwe, J. R. Kaze Djamen, C. Bobda
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2018.72006
Abstract: Based on the well-known modified Angstrom formula on the relationship between the sunshine duration and the global solar radiation, this paper aimed to estimate the value of the constant a and b in Cameroon. Only five cities (Maroua, Garoua, NGaoundéré, Yaoundé and Douala) had the both available in-situ data recorded during the period of eleven years (1996-2006) beside which four others cities (Dschang, Koundja, Yoko and Manfé) had only the in-situ sunshine duration available data recorded during the period of twenty years (1986-2006). The 9 cities were grouped in 3 different climate regions. Based on the data of the 5 first cities belonging the 3 regions, the follow constant values a1 = -0.05, a2 = -0.02, a3 = -0.14 and b1 = 0.94, b2 = 0.74, b3 = 1.12 were obtained. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) Mean Bias Error (MBE) and correlation coefficient (r) were also determined. Then we used these values to estimate the global solar radiation for the other four remain cities. The constants a and b obtained values are in accordance with those of the West Africa region which Cameroon belongs to. So they can be employed in estimating global solar radiation of location in Cameroon paying attention only to the geographical location information.
Poroid hidradenoma: a case report
Mona Mlika,Beya Chelly,Sadok Boudaya,Aida Ayadi-Kaddour
Our Dermatology Online , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: Poroid hidradenoma is a variant of the eccrine poroma that belongs to the group of poroid neoplasm. It presents architectural features of hidradenoma and cytologic features of poroid neoplasm. To date, very few cases of this entity have been reported in the literature.Case presentation: An eighty-one-year-old man whose past medical history was consistent for a Parkinson’s disease presented with a presternal nodular mass. Physical examination revealed a 6 cm, painless, and pedunculated presternal tumefaction. Chest Ultrasound examination revealed a heterogeneous tumor with anechoic areas and cystic component. CT-scan showed a presternal subcutaneous mass presenting a dual component sloid and cystic with stigmates of recent bleeding. A total surgical excision was performed and histologic examination concluded to a poroid hidredenoma.Conclusion: Poroid hidradenoma is the newest variant added to poroid neoplasm. Histologic characteristics may be challenging necessitating a thorough sampling. Treatment is based on surgical resection in order to to prevent from a possible recurrence or malignant transformation.
Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling of the Emissions from the Logbaba Thermal Power Plant, Douala-Cameroon  [PDF]
R. Mbiaké, E. Mfoumou, A. Beya Wakata, E. Ndjeuna, J. R. Kaze Djamen, R. Leduc, C. Bobda
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2017.64010
Abstract: Air quality in the vicinity of the thermal power plant of Logbaba in the town of Douala was investigated in this study using data collected in a 5-year period (2008-2012). The distribution of pollutants such as SO2, NOx, CO and the particle matter PM2.5 was analyzed using numerical modeling, based on physical and thermal characteristics, as well as the operating periods of the power plant. The American Environmental Regulator Model (AERMOD) that is an atmospheric dispersion model was used for simulation. The wind rose and others National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in-situ data were used for the validation of the model. The pollutants distribution was evaluated at two locations: the exit of the power plant, considered as reference point, and at 330 m away from the exit where the first houses appeared. The results show that the relative concentration for each contaminant at the exit of the power plant is 7.2% for the PM2.5 during 24 hours of emission, 46.0% for CO over 8 hours of emission, and 17.5% for SO2 over one hour. The NOx is the highest pollutant with 259.1% over an hour of emission and 51.0% over one year. Beyond 330 m of the power plant, only NOx keeps a polluting character with a relative rate of 100%. These results show that the pollution level of the power plant is over the threshold for air quality set by the World Health Organization. Moreover, among all pollutants investigated, NOx appears to be the most critical for the population in the vicinity of the Logbaba thermal power plant. This information is therefore important for policy and decision makers in preventing the vulnerability of the population to air pollutants from such industrial settings.
Salivary Antigen SP32 Is the Immunodominant Target of the Antibody Response to Phlebotomus papatasi Bites in Humans
Soumaya Marzouki,Maha Abdeladhim,Chaouki Ben Abdessalem,Fabiano Oliveira,Beya Ferjani,Dana Gilmore,Hechmi Louzir,Jesus G. Valenzuela,Mélika Ben Ahmed
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001911
Abstract: Background Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) due to Leishmania major is highly prevalent in Tunisia and is transmitted by a hematophagous vector Phlebotomus papatasi (P. papatasi). While probing for a blood meal, the sand fly injects saliva into the host's skin, which contains a variety of compounds that are highly immunogenic. We recently showed that the presence of anti-saliva antibodies was associated with an enhanced risk for leishmaniasis and identified the immunodominant salivary protein of Phlebotomus papatasi as a protein of approximately 30 kDa. Methodology/Principal Findings We cloned and expressed in mammalian cells two salivary proteins PpSP30 and PpSP32 with predicted molecular weights close to 30 kDa from the Tunisian strain of P. papatasi. The two recombinant salivary proteins were purified by two-step HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) and tested if these proteins correspond to the immunodominant antigen of 30 kDa previously shown to be recognized by human sera from endemic areas for ZCL and exposed naturally to P. papatasi bites. While recombinant PpSP30 (rPpSP30) was poorly recognized by human sera from endemic areas for ZCL, rPpSP32 was strongly recognized by the tested sera. The binding of human IgG antibodies to native PpSP32 was inhibited by the addition of rPpSP32. Consistently, experiments in mice showed that PpSP32 induced the highest levels of antibodies compared to other P. papatasi salivary molecules while PpSP30 did not induce any detectable levels of antibodies. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that PpSP32 is the immunodominant target of the antibody response to P. papatasi saliva. They also indicate that the recombinant form of PpSP32 is similar to the native one and represents a good candidate for large scale testing of human exposure to P. papatasi bites and perhaps for assessing the risk of contracting the disease.
Seric Calcium and Magnesium in Normal and Pre Eclamptic Pregnant Women: A Case-Control Study in Kinshasa, D R Congo  [PDF]
Pascal Ngoy Wakumilua, Donatien Kayembe Nzongola-Nkasu, Jean Pierre Elongi Moyene, Dophie Tshibuela Beya, Mamy Ngole Zita, Jeremie Muwonga Masidi, Mireille Nganga Nkanga, Guelord Mukiapini Luzolo, Daddy Kabamba Numbi
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2018.84046
Abstract: Goal: The present study aimed to determine the profile of seric calcium and magnesium in pre-eclamptic and eclamptic pregnant women of Kinshasa province in the Democratic Republic of Congo where preeclampsia is characterized not only by a high incidence, but also by a seasonal variation probably related to nutritional intake. Study Design: This is a case-control study that took place during the period from September 2014 to March 2015 in four quaternary and tertiary maternity hospitals in Kinshasa. A total of 113 healthy pregnant women (controls) and 112 pre-eclamptic and eclamptic pregnant women (cases) were included in this study. Seric calcium and magnesium were measured in all these gravidas by the principle of spectrophotometry with a HUMALYSER Primus semi-automaton. Results: The mean age of those gravidas was 26.8 ± 6.3 years (26.7 vs 26.9, p = 0.11). The majority of these gravidas were primiparous. The mean gestational age in both groups was 31.35 ± 0.9 weeks (32.1
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