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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 193737 matches for " Beth D Mitchell "
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Breast cancer biomarkers predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery
Edward R Sauter, James E Mitchell, Beth Kliethermes, Ross D Crosby
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-82
Abstract: There was a significant increase after surgery in pre- but not postmenopausal women at all time points in s-adiponectin and at 3 and 6 months in n-adiponectin. Low n-PSA and high s-adiponectin values were highly correlated with decrease in BMI from baseline.Adiponectin increases locally in the breast and systemically in premenopausal women after gastric bypass. s-adiponectin in pre- and nPSA in postmenopausal women correlated with greater weight loss. This study provides preliminary evidence for biologic markers to predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery.Thirty to 50% of postmenopausal breast cancer deaths in the U.S. have been attributed to being overweight [1]. Greater hip circumference has been linked to increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer [2]. It has been suggested that a reduction in obesity could significantly decrease breast cancer incidence [3]. In postmenopausal women without [4] and with breast cancer [5], high body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased concentrations of circulating estradiol, estrone, and testosterone. Nonetheless, BMI serves as a breast cancer risk factor independent of serum estrogen levels [6], suggesting that mechanisms other than estrogen stimulation of the breast influence breast cancer risk.Adiponectin is an inflammatory cytokine found in and secreted by adipose cells [7]. Adiponectin has potential anticancer properties, including anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects [8]. Serum (s) adiponectin levels have variously been associated inversely with both pre- and postmenopausal [9], or only postmenopausal [10] breast cancer risk. It has been postulated that local production of adipokines within the breast stroma surrounding epithelial cells may be directly linked to the development and growth of breast cancer and be more relevant to cancer risk than serum levels [11]. We are not aware of a published report measuring adiponectin in nipple aspirate fluid (n).PSA, also known as kallikrein-related pe
Factors associated with treatment of women with osteoporosis or osteopenia from a national survey
Eric S Meadows, Beth D Mitchell, Susan C Bolge, Joseph A Johnston, Nananda F Col
BMC Women's Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-12-1
Abstract: This retrospective analysis of the United States 2007 National Health and Wellness Survey included women age ≥ 40 years who reported having a diagnosis of osteoporosis (69% of 3276) or osteopenia (31% of 3276). Patients were stratified by whether they were or were not taking prescription treatment for osteoporosis/osteopenia. Using 34 patient characteristics as covariates, logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with treatment.Current prescription treatment was reported by 1800 of 3276 (54.9%) women with osteoporosis/osteopenia. The following factors were associated with receiving prescription treatment: patient-reported diagnosis of osteoporosis (versus osteopenia); previous bone mineral density test; ≥ 2 fractures since age 50; older age; lower body mass index; better physical functioning; postmenopausal status; family history of osteoporosis; fewer comorbidities; prescription insurance coverage; higher total prescription count; higher ratio of prescription costs to monthly income; higher income; single status; previous visit to a rheumatologist or gynecologist; and 1 or 2 outpatient visits to healthcare provider (vs. none) in the prior 6 months. Glucocorticoid, tobacco, and daily alcohol use were risk factors for fracture that were not associated with treatment.There is a mismatch between those women who could benefit from treatment for osteoporosis and those who are actually treated. For example, self-reported use of glucocorticoids, tobacco, and alcohol were not associated with prescription treatment of osteoporosis. Other clinical and socioeconomic factors were associated with treatment (e.g. prescription drug coverage and higher income) or not (e.g. comorbid osteoarthritis and anxiety) and could be opportunities to improve care.Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass, structural deterioration of bone tissue, and an increased vulnerability to low-trauma fractures [1,2]. In the United States (US), an esti
Simplifying Consent for HIV Testing Is Associated with an Increase in HIV Testing and Case Detection in Highest Risk Groups, San Francisco January 2003–June 2007
Nicola M. Zetola, Carlos G. Grijalva, Sarah Gertler, C. Bradley Hare, Beth Kaplan, Teri Dowling, Grant Colfax, Mitchell H. Katz, Jeffrey D. Klausner
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002591
Abstract: Background Populations at highest risk for HIV infection face multiple barriers to HIV testing. To facilitate HIV testing procedures, the San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center eliminated required written patient consent for HIV testing in its medical settings in May 2006. To describe the change in HIV testing rates in different hospital settings and populations after the change in HIV testing policy in the SFDH medical center, we performed an observational study using interrupted time series analysis. Methods Data from all patients aged 18 years and older seen from January 2003 through June 2007 at the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH) medical care system were included in the analysis. The monthly HIV testing rate per 1000 hadpatient-visits was calculated for the overall population and stratified by hospital setting, age, sex, race/ethnicity, homelessness status, insurance status and primary language. Results By June 2007, the average monthly rate of HIV tests per 1000 patient-visits increased 4.38 (CI, 2.17–6.60, p<0.001) over the number predicted if the policy change had not occurred (representing a 44% increase). The monthly average number of new positive HIV tests increased from 8.9 (CI, 6.3–11.5) to 14.9 (CI, 10.6–19.2, p<0.001), representing a 67% increase. Although increases in HIV testing were seen in all populations, populations at highest risk for HIV infection, particularly men, the homeless, and the uninsured experienced the highest increases in monthly HIV testing rates after the policy change. Conclusions The elimination of the requirement for written consent in May 2006 was associated with a significant and sustained increase in HIV testing rates and HIV case detection in the SFDPH medical center. Populations facing the higher barriers to HIV testing had the highest increases in HIV testing rates and case detection in response to the policy change.
Ancient papillomavirus-host co-speciation in Felidae
Annabel Rector, Philippe Lemey, Ruth Tachezy, Sara Mostmans, Shin-Je Ghim, Koenraad Van Doorslaer, Melody Roelke, Mitchell Bush, Richard J Montali, Janis Joslin, Robert D Burk, Alfred B Jenson, John P Sundberg, Beth Shapiro, Marc Van Ranst
Genome Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-4-r57
Abstract: The feline PVs all belong to the Lambdapapillomavirus genus, and contain an unusual second noncoding region between the early and late protein region, which is only present in members of this genus. Our maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the evolutionary relationships between feline PVs perfectly mirror those of their feline hosts, despite a complex and dynamic phylogeographic history. By applying host species divergence times, we provide the first precise estimates for the rate of evolution for each PV gene, with an overall evolutionary rate of 1.95 × 10-8 (95% confidence interval 1.32 × 10-8 to 2.47 × 10-8) nucleotide substitutions per site per year for the viral coding genome.Our work provides evidence for long-term virus-host co-speciation of feline PVs, indicating that viral diversity in slowly evolving viruses can be used to investigate host species evolution. These findings, however, should not be extrapolated to other viral lineages without prior confirmation of virus-host co-divergence.Understanding demographic processes in populations has been a fundamental challenge in evolutionary biology and population genetics. Inference is often limited by the slow nature of the accumulation of genetic diversity, particularly in vertebrate populations, often resulting in a lack of statistical power [1]. One way to circumvent this problem is to use changes accumulating in rapidly evolving genetic markers, such as associated pathogens, to infer the evolutionary history of the host. This approach was recently used to investigate demographic and phylogeographic patterns in cougar populations (Puma concolor), for which host microsatellite data revealed only low genetic differentiation [2]. In the same way, it may be possible to use more slowly evolving viruses to reconstruct evolutionary relationships between host species.In fast evolving pathogens, genetic sequences usually accumulate sufficient substitutions over relatively limited per
Urban and Rural Safety Net Health Care System Clinics: No Disparity in HPV4 Vaccine Completion Rates
Kelly Jo Sandri, Inge Verdenius, Mitchell J. Bartley, Britney M. Else, Christopher A. Paynter, Beth E. Rosemergey, George D. Harris, Gerard J. Malnar, Sean M. Harper, R. Stephen Griffith, Aaron J. Bonham, Diane M. Harper
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096277
Abstract: Objective Safety net health care centers in the US serve vulnerable and underinsured females. The primary aim of this work was to determine if HPV4 dosing compliance differs between females who receive doses at rural vs. urban core safety net health care locations. Methods Females exclusively receiving health care in the Truman Medical Center (TMC) safety net system at the urban core and rural locations were identified by their HPV4 vaccine records. Dates and number of HPV4 doses as well as age, gravidity, parity and race/ethnicity were recorded from the electronic medical record (EMR). Appropriate HPV4 dosing intervals were referenced from the literature. Results 1259 females, 10–26 years of age, received HPV4 vaccination at either the rural (23%) or urban core location (77%). At the rural location, 23% received three doses on time, equal to the 24% at the urban core. Females seen in the urban core were more likely to receive on-time doublet dosing than on-time triplet dosing (82% vs. 67%, p<0.001). Mistimed doses occurred equally often among females receiving only two doses, as well as those receiving three doses. Conclusions Compliance with on-time HPV4 triplet dose completion was low at rural and urban core safety net health clinics, but did not differ by location.
Comparison of Multimodality Image-Based Volumes in Preclinical Tumor Models Using In-Air Micro-CT Image Volume as Reference Tumor Volume  [PDF]
Yongsook C. Lee, Gary D. Fullerton, Beth A. Goins
Open Journal of Medical Imaging (OJMI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmi.2015.53016
Abstract: Purpose: Changes in tumor volume are used for therapy response monitoring in preclinical studies. Unlike prior studies, this article introduces in-air micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) image volume as reference tumor volume in rodent tumor models. Tumor volumes determined using imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), micro-CT and ultrasound (US), and with an external caliper are compared with the reference tumor volume. Materials and Methods: In vivo MR, US and micro-CT imaging was performed 4, 6, 9, 11 and 13 days after tumor cell inoculation into nude rats. On the day of the imaging study, in vivo caliper measurements were also made. After in vivo imaging, tumors were excised followed by in-air micro-CT imaging and ex vivo caliper measurements of excised tumors. The in-air micro-CT image volume of excised tumors was determined as reference tumor volume. Then tumor volumes were calculated using formula V = (π/6) × a × b × c, where a, b and c are maximum diameters in three perpendicular dimensions determined by the three image modalities and caliper, and compared with reference tumor volume by linear regression analysis as well as Bland-Altman plots. Results: The correlation coefficients (R2) of the regression lines for in vivo tumor volumes measured by the three imaging modalities were 0.9939, 0.9669 and 0.9806 for MRI, US and micro-CT respectively. For caliper measurements, the coefficients were 0.9274 and 0.9819 for caliperin vivo and caliperex vivo respectively. In Bland-Altman plots, the average of tumor volume difference from reference tumor volume (bias) was significant for caliper and micro-CT, but not for MRI and US. Conclusion: Using the in-air micro-CT image volume as reference tumor volume, tumor volume measured by MRI was the most accurate among the three imaging modalities. In vivo caliper volume measurements showed unreliability while ex vivo caliper measurements reduced errors.
Topological Dependence of Universal Correlations in Multi-Parameter Hamiltonians
D. Mitchell,D. Kusnezov
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.54.6207
Abstract: Universality of correlation functions obtained in parametric random matrix theory is explored in a multi-parameter formalism, through the introduction of a diffusion matrix $D_{ij}(R)$, and compared to results from a multi-parameter chaotic model. We show that certain universal correlation functions in 1-d are no longer well defined by the metric distance between the points in parameter space, due to a global topological dependence on the path taken. By computing the density of diabolical points, which is found to increases quadratically with the dimension of the space, we find a universal measure of the density of diabolical points in chaotic systems.
Breast imaging technology: Application of magnetic resonance imaging to early detection of breast cancer
Mitchell D Schnall
Breast Cancer Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/bcr265
Abstract: It is estimated that approximately one in nine women will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. For example, in the USA it is estimated that 180 000 women develop breast cancer, and approximately 45 000 women die of the disease each year [1]. It has been demonstrated [2] that the smaller the lesion is at the time of detection, the better the prognosis. The ability of mammography screening to reduce breast cancer mortality rates was demonstrated by several studies performed in the US and Europe [3,4,5]. As much as a 23% reduction in breast cancer mortality for the screened population has been demonstrated. Additional studies, such as the Breast Cancer Demonstration Project sponsored by the US National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society in the 1970s [6], also demonstrated reduction in breast cancer mortality in a screened population. It is now generally accepted that careful screening with mammography will reduce the breast cancer mortality rate in a given population.Despite the success of mammography screening, mammography does have limitations. Perhaps its most significant limitation is the difficulty in detecting masses within radiographically dense breast [7]. In addition, cancers can be missed by mammography. Retrospective studies of breast cancer in which prior mammograms where read as negative [8,9,10] showed that the cancer was visible in retrospect in approximately one-third of the cases. In addition, the relatively low specificity of mammography leads to many breast biopsies that reveal benign tissue [11].Over the past 10 years there has been great progress in our understanding of risk factors for breast cancer. The use of genetic testing or risk modeling allows women to be stratified according to risk [12**,13**]. In addition, it has been suggested that the radiographic density of a woman's mammogram may influence her risk for breast cancer [14**]. High-risk patients develop breast cancer when they are young and when the sensitivity of mammog
Health Systems’ Accountability for Patient Safety
Keepnews, D., Mitchell, P
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2003,
Abstract: Patient safety experts, including the Institute of Medicine Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, have emphasized the need to focus on systems failure as the source of most error in health care. This requires an emphasis on prevention and on health systems’ accountability for error. This article discusses traditional and evolving approaches to systems’ accountability for error. While there are some significant recent developments, such as the JCAHO new Patient Safety Goals, many issues remain about how to determine and enforce systems’ accountability for error. These include identifying what systems will be held accountable for and how accountability will be enforced. While reporting of errors is one route toward accountability, many questions remain regarding the most effective approach toward error reporting. Research on and evaluation of reporting systems and other approaches toward systems’ accountability will be important in moving forward in this area.
A Case of DIPNECH and Review of the Current Literature  [PDF]
Patrick D. Mitchell, Marcus P. Kennedy, Michael T. Henry
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2013.32011
Abstract: Diffuse Idiopathic Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare pulmonary disease. It was first described by Aguayo et al. in 1992, and recognised by the World Health Organisation in 2004 as a precursor lesion to the development of pulmonary carcinoid tumour. DIPNECH has been described in several isolated case reports and series. This article describes a case of DIPNECH and summaries the recent literature in an attempt to raise awareness of this disease and management options.
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