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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 44 matches for " Berndett Illes "
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Impact of Simulated Airborne Soot on Maize Growth and Development  [PDF]
Angela Anda, Berndett Illes
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.38092
Abstract: Various effects of the dry deposition of soot on maize were investigated in Keszthely (Hungary) in two consecutive years. In order to be able to study a wider range of weather conditions, some of the plants were placed in a Thornthwaite-Matter type evapotranspirometer and given ad libitum water supplies. Pollution with airborne black carbon was simulated throughout the season by distributing rates of 3 g?m–2 a week using a motorised dust sprayer. Among the plant growth parameters, the leaf area index was increased by 3% - 14%, depending on the year, suggesting that the plants were able to absorb the carbon settling on the leaves. The black carbon reduced the albedo of the canopy by 17.5% - 21.8%, depending on the year, forcing the polluted maize to absorb more energy. Part of this surplus energy was utilised for increased evapotranspiration (3.9% and 11% in the two years) and to raise the surface temperature of the canopy by 1℃ - 2℃ during the mid-day hours. The effect of the contamination on maize was more intense in the hot, dry year. The unfavourable effect of soot on maize fertilisation could be observed as a significant increase in the number of deformed ears, leading to a reduction in grain dry matter. The reduction in dry matter yield for polluted maize grown with irrigation in the evapotranspirometer was far less severe than that on non-irrigated plots, suggesting that irrigation was the most obvious solution for mitigating the negative effects of contamination with airborne soot.
Antibunching correlations in a strongly coupled exciton - photonic crystal cavity system: Role of off-resonant coupling to multiple excitons
E. Illes,S. Hughes
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.121310
Abstract: We employ a master equation approach to study the second-order quantum autocorrelation functions for up to two independent quantum dot excitons, coupled to an off-resonant cavity in a photonic crystal - single quantum dot system. For a single coupled off-resonant exciton, we observe novel oscillatory behaviour in the early-time dynamics of the cavity autocorrelation function, which leads to decreased antibunching relative to the exciton mode. With a second coupled exciton in the system, we find that the magnitude and the lifetime of these oscillations greatly increases, since the cavity is then able to exchange photons with multiple excitonic resonances. We unambiguously show that this spoils the antibunching characteristics of the cavity quasi-mode, while the autocorrelation of the first exciton is unaffected. We also examine the effects of detector time resolution and make a direct connection to a series of recent experiments.
Initiating a Mexican wave: An instantaneous collective decision with both short and long range interactions
Illes J. Farkas,Tamas Vicsek
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1016/j.physa.2006.01.075
Abstract: An interesting example for collective decision making is the so-called Mexican wave during which the spectators in a stadium leap to their feet with their arms up and then sit down again following those to their left (right) with a small delay. Here we use a simple, but realistic model to explain how the combination of the local and global interactions of the spectators produces a breaking of the symmetry resulting in the replacement of the symmetric solution -- containing two propagating waves -- by a single wave moving in one of the two possible directions. Our model is based on and compared to the extensive observations of volunteers filling out the related questionnaire we have posted on the Internet. We find that, as a function of the parameter controlling the strength of the global interactions, the transition to the single wave solution has features reminiscent of discontinuous transitions. After the spontaneous symmetry breaking the two directions of propagation are still statistically equivalent. We investigate also how this remaining symmetry is broken in real stadia by a small asymmetrical term in the perception of spectators.
Reviews of Functional MRI: The Ethical Dimensions of Methodological Critique
James Anderson, Ania Mizgalewicz, Judy Illes
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042836
Abstract: Neuroimaging studies involving human subjects raise a range of ethics issues. Many of these issues are heightened in the context of neuroimaging research involving persons with mental health disorders. There has been growing interest in these issues among legal scholars, philosophers, social scientists, and as well as neuroimagers over the last decade. Less clear, however, is the extent to which members of the neuroimaging community are engaged with these issues when they undertake their research and report results. In this study, we analyze the peer-reviewed review literature involving fMRI as applied to the study of mental health disorders. Our hypothesis is that, due to the critical orientation of reviews, and the vulnerability of mental health population, the penetrance of neuroethics will be higher in the review literature in this area than it is in the primary fMRI research literature more generally. We find that while authors of reviews do focus a great deal of attention on the methodological limitations of the studies they discussed, contrary to our hypothesis, they do not frame concerns in ethical terms despite their ethical significance. We argue that an ethics lens on such discussion would increase the knowledge-value of this scholarly work.
Publication trends in neuroimaging of minimally conscious states
Alex Garnett,Grace Lee,Judy Illes
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.155
Abstract: We used existing and customized bibliometric and scientometric methods to analyze publication trends in neuroimaging research of minimally conscious states and describe the domain in terms of its geographic, contributor, and content features. We considered publication rates for the years 2002–2011, author interconnections, the rate at which new authors are added, and the domains that inform the work of author contributors. We also provided a content analysis of clinical and ethical themes within the relevant literature. We found a 27% growth in the number of papers over the period of study, professional diversity among a wide range of peripheral author contributors but only few authors who dominate the field, and few new technical paradigms and clinical themes that would fundamentally expand the landscape. The results inform both the science of consciousness as well as parallel ethics and policy studies of the potential for translational challenges of neuroimaging in research and health care of people with disordered states of consciousness.
Freezing by Heating in a Driven Mesoscopic System
Dirk Helbing,Illes Farkas,Tamas Vicsek
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.1240
Abstract: We investigate a simple model corresponding to particles driven in opposite directions and interacting via a repulsive potential. The particles move off-lattice on a periodic strip and are subject to random forces as well. We show that this model - which can be considered as a continuum version of some driven diffusive systems - exhibits a paradoxial, new kind of transition called here ``freezing by heating''. One interesting feature of this transition is that a crystallized state with a higher total energy is obtained from a fluid state by increasing the amount of fluctuations.
Simulation software for 'Simulating Dynamical Features of Escape Panic'
Dirk Helbing,Illes Farkas,Tamas Vicsek
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: Simulation software used to produce results in cond-mat/0009448 -- published as Helbing et.al, Simulating Dynamical Features of Escape Panic, Nature 407, 487-490 (2000) -- has been made available via the website of the publication at http://angel.elte.hu/panic
Simulating Dynamical Features of Escape Panic
Dirk Helbing,Illes Farkas,Tamas Vicsek
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1038/35035023
Abstract: One of the most disastrous forms of collective human behaviour is the kind of crowd stampede induced by panic, often leading to fatalities as people are crushed or trampled. Sometimes this behaviour is triggered in life-threatening situations such as fires in crowded buildings; at other times, stampedes can arise from the rush for seats or seemingly without causes. Tragic examples within recent months include the panics in Harare, Zimbabwe, and at the Roskilde rock concert in Denmark. Although engineers are finding ways to alleviate the scale of such disasters, their frequency seems to be increasing with the number and size of mass events. Yet, systematic studies of panic behaviour, and quantitative theories capable of predicting such crowd dynamics, are rare. Here we show that simulations based on a model of pedestrian behaviour can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of and preconditions for panic and jamming by incoordination. Our results suggest practical ways of minimising the harmful consequences of such events and the existence of an optimal escape strategy, corresponding to a suitable mixture of individualistic and collective behaviour.
Crowd behaves as excitable media during Mexican wave
Illes Farkas,Dirk Helbing,Tamas Vicsek
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1038/419131a
Abstract: Mexican wave, or La Ola, first widely broadcasted during the 1986 World Cup held in Mexico, is a human wave moving along the stands of stadiums as one section of spectators stands up, arms lifting, then sits down as the next section does the same. Here we use variants of models originally developed for the description of excitable media to demonstrate that this collective human behaviour can be quantitatively interpreted by methods of statistical physics. Adequate modelling of reactions to triggering attempts provides a deeper insight into the mechanisms by which a crowd can be stimulated to execute a particular pattern of behaviour and represents a possible tool of control during events involving excited groups of people.
Diffusive limit for self-repelling Brownian polymers in three and more dimensions
Illes Horvath,Balint Toth,Balint Veto
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: The self-repelling Brownian polymer model (SRBP) initiated by Durrett and Rogers in [Durrett-Rogers (1992)] is the continuous space-time counterpart of the myopic (or 'true') self-avoiding walk model (MSAW) introduced in the physics literature by Amit, Parisi and Peliti in [Amit-Parisi-Peliti (1983)]. In both cases, a random motion in space is pushed towards domains less visited in the past by a kind of negative gradient of the occupation time measure. We investigate the asymptotic behaviour of SRBP in the non-recurrent dimensions. First, extending 1-dimensional results from [Tarres-Toth-Valko (2009)], we identify a natural stationary (in time) and ergodic distribution of the environment (essentially, smeared-out occupation time measure of the process), as seen from the moving particle. As main result we prove that in three and more dimensions, in this stationary (and ergodic) regime, the displacement of the moving particle scales diffusively and its finite dimensional distributions converge to those of a Wiener process. This result settles part of the conjectures (based on non-rigorous renormalization group arguments) in [Amit-Parisi-Peliti (1983)]. The main tool is the non-reversible version of the Kipnis--Varadhan-type CLT for additive functionals of ergodic Markov processes and the graded sector condition of [Sethuraman-Varadhan-Yau (2000)].
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