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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 337 matches for " Berit Carlsen "
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Increased Levels of IgG Antibodies against Human HSP60 in Patients with Spondyloarthritis
Astrid Hjelholt, Thomas Carlsen, Bent Deleuran, Anne Grethe Jurik, Berit Schi?ttz-Christensen, Gunna Christiansen, Svend Birkelund
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056210
Abstract: Spondyloarthritis (SpA) comprises a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases, with strong association to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27. A triggering bacterial infection has been considered as the cause of SpA, and bacterial heat shock protein (HSP) seems to be a strong T cell antigen. Since bacterial and human HSP60, also named HSPD1, are highly homologous, cross-reactivity has been suggested in disease initiation. In this study, levels of antibodies against bacterial and human HSP60 were analysed in SpA patients and healthy controls, and the association between such antibodies and disease severity in relation to HLA-B27 was evaluated. Serum samples from 82 patients and 50 controls were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 antibodies against human HSP60 and HSP60 from Chlamydia trachomatis, Salmonella enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni. Disease severity was assessed by the clinical scorings Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI). Levels of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies against human HSP60, but not antibodies against bacterial HSP60, were elevated in the SpA group compared with the control group. Association between IgG3 antibodies against human HSP60 and BASMI was shown in HLA-B27+ patients. Only weak correlation between antibodies against bacterial and human HSP60 was seen, and there was no indication of cross-reaction. These results suggest that antibodies against human HSP60 is associated with SpA, however, the theory that antibodies against human HSP60 is a specific part of the aetiology, through cross-reaction to bacterial HSP60, cannot be supported by results from this study. We suggest that the association between elevated levels of antibodies against human HSP60 and disease may reflect a general activation of the immune system and an increased expression of human HSP60 in the synovium of patients with SpA.
Evaluation of a Disc Tube Methodology for Nano- and Ultrafiltration of Natural Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM)  [PDF]
Berit Brockmeyer, Alejandro Spitzy
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2013.31A002

The performance of a disc tube (DT) methodology, originally designed for reverse osmosis (RO) in desalination, and applied here for ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a set of fresh (0 ppt), brackish (10 ppt) and saline (30 ppt) waters at low (1 - 2 mg/L), medium (5 - 6 mg/L) and high (10 - 12 mg/L) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content is presented. The DT module allows for time efficient processing of large volumes of sample and can be operated with RO, NF and UF membranes. We examined the performance of a NF membrane with nominal molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 500 Da and UF membranes with MWCO of 1 kDa and 10 kDa. Throughout the experiments we monitored DOM in terms of DOC, UV-absorption coefficient ratios (E2/E3) and the specific UV-absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254). Detailed protocols for operating the disc tube modules are proposed. The membranes can be efficiently cleaned to provide low carbon blanks (<0.2 mg/L). Calibration confirmed separation of high and low molecular weight standards into the retentate and permeate fractions, respectively. DOC mass balance of fractionated DOM samples showed good recoveries (123% ± 32%

The Interplay between QSAR/QSPR Studiesand Partial Order Ranking and Formal Concept Analyses
Lars Carlsen
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijms10041628
Abstract: The often observed scarcity of physical-chemical and well as toxicological data hampers the assessment of potentially hazardous chemicals released to the environment. In such cases Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships/Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSAR/QSPR) constitute an obvious alternative for rapidly, effectively and inexpensively generatng missing experimental values. However, typically further treatment of the data appears necessary, e.g., to elucidate the possible relations between the single compounds as well as implications and associations between the various parameters used for the combined characterization of the compounds under investigation. In the present paper the application of QSAR/QSPR in combination with Partial Order Ranking (POR) methodologies will be reviewed and new aspects using Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) will be introduced. Where POR constitutes an attractive method for, e.g., prioritizing a series of chemical substances based on a simultaneous inclusion of a range of parameters, FCA gives important information on the implications associations between the parameters. The combined approach thus constitutes an attractive method to a preliminary assessment of the impact on environmental and human health by primary pollutants or possibly by a primary pollutant well as a possible suite of transformation subsequent products that may be both persistent in and bioaccumulating and toxic.The present review focus on the environmental – and human health impact by residuals of the rocket fuel 1,1-dimethyl- hydrazine (heptyl) and its transformation products as an illustrative example.
Giving Molecules an Identity. On the Interplay Between QSARs and Partial Order Ranking
Lars Carlsen
Molecules , 2004, DOI: 10.3390/91201010
Abstract: The interplay between ‘noise-deficient’ QSAR and Partial Order Ranking, including analysis of average linear ranks, constitutes an effective tool in giving substances which have not been investigated experimentally an identity by comparison with experimentally well-characterized, structurally similar compounds. It is disclosed that experimentally well-characterized compounds may serve as substitutes for highly toxic compounds in experimental studies without exhibiting the same extreme toxicity, while from an overall viewpoint they exhibit analogous environmental characteristics.
Fakta eller sandhed?
John Carlsen
MedieKultur : Journal of Media and Communication Research , 1993,
Estimation in adults of the glomerular filtration rate in [99mTc]-DTPA renography - the rate constant method.
Carlsen, Ove
Alasbimn Journal , 2004,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to design an alternative and robust method for estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in [99mTc]-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ([99mTc] -DTPA renography with a reliability not significantly lower than that of the conventional Gates' method.Methods: The method is based on renographies lasting 40 min in which regions of interest (ROIs) are manually created over selected parts of certain blood pools (e.g. heart, lungs, spleen, and liver). For each ROI the corresponding time-activity curve (TAC) was generated, decay corrected and exposed to a monoexponential fit in the time interval 10 to 40 min postinjection. The rate constant in min-1 of the monoexponential fit was denoted BETA. Following an iterative procedure comprising usually 5-10 manually created ROIs, the monoexponential fit with the maximum rate constant (BETAmax) was used for estimation of GFR.Results: In a patient material of 54 adult subjects in whom GFR was determined with multiple or one sample techniques with [51Cr]-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ([51Cr]-EDTA) the regression curve of standard GFR (GFRstd) (i.e. GFR adjusted to 1.73 m2 body surface area) showed a close, non-linear relationship with BETAmax with a correlation coefficient of 95%. The standard errors of estimate (SEE) were 6.6, 10.6 and 16.8 for GFRstd equal to 30, 60, and 120 ml/(min·1.73 m2), respectively. The corresponding SEE values for almost the same patient material using Gates' method were 8.4, 11.9, and 16.8 ml/(min·1.73 m2).Conclusions: The alternative rate constant method yields estimates of GFRstd with SEE values equal to or slightly smaller than in Gates' method. The two methods provide statistically uncorrelated estimates of GFRstd. Therefore, pooled estimates of GFRstd can be calculated with SEE values approximately 1.41 times smaller than those mentioned above. The reliabilities of the pooled estimate of GFRstd separately and of the multiple samples method are of the same magnitude. Therefore, [99mTc]-DTPA renography could replace the multiple samples method for GFR determination. In addition, the renography requires fewer resources from patient and staff and offers more clinical results as regards renal uptake function and renal outflow.
Alternative Processing of Renographic Data for Use in Children and Agitated Adult Patients.
Carlsen, Ove
Alasbimn Journal , 2002,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to describe an alternative method for processing [99mTc]-diethylene-triamine pentaacetate ([99mTc]-DTPA) renographic data which is unaffected by patient movement and which only requires the patient to be on the imaging table during the early and late examination phases.Methods: The analysis is based on early image series (0-2 min postinjection) and late image series (the last 5 min). Regions of interest (ROIs) over the kidneys, renal parenchyma and renal backgrounds were created in both sets of images. A robust method for determination without deconvolution of mean transit time indices for the whole kidney and renal parenchyma was established. Estimation of renal volume was possible using a geometrical method.Results: Simulation studies and studies in patients showed a close relationship between the mean transit times using deconvolution and the corresponding mean transit time indices.Conclusions: The alternative method is recommended to be applied in those agitated patients, children in particular, where sedation is either contraindicated or not relevant and in cases where the effective acquisition time should be kept at a minimum.
Harmonic oscillator model for the helium atom
Martin Carlsen
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: A harmonic oscillator model in four dimensions is presented for the helium atom to estimate the distance to the inner and outer electron from the nucleus, the angle between electrons and the energy levels. The method is algebraic and is not based on the choice of correct trial wave function. Three harmonic oscillators and thus three quantum numbers are sufficient to describe the two-electron system. We derive a simple formula for the energy in the general case and in the special case of the Wannier Ridge. For a set of quantum numbers the distance to the electrons and the angle between the electrons are uniquely determined as the intersection between three surfaces. We show that the excited states converge either towards ionization thresholds or towards extreme parallel or antiparallel states and provide an estimate of the ground state energy.
Facts or Ideology: What Determines the Results of Econometric Estimates of the Deterrent Effect of the Death Penalty? A Meta-Analysis  [PDF]
Berit Gerritzen, Gebhard Kirchg?ssner
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.46020
Abstract: Given that as a whole the literature on the deterrent effect of capital punishment is inconclusive, the fact that individual authors persistently claim to have found solid evidence in one or the other direction raises two questions. Firstly, what are the causes of these different results? Do different data samples, estimation methods or time periods lead to different results or do the outcomes merely reflect prior convictions on the part of the authors? Secondly, to what extent is it possible to derive such divergent results by slightly changing the specification of the test equations without violating scientific standards? After conducting a survey of the more than forty available reviews of this literature, we present a meta-analysis of 102 deterrence studies published between 1975 and 2011. The only statistically significant explanatory variable in these studies turned out to be the profession of the author: Economists claimed significantly more often than members of legal or other social science departments to have found a significant deterrent effect. Furthermore, using a panel data set of U.S. states, we show how easy it is to derive contradictory results by employing alternative specifications. Thus, our results reinforce the claim that the empirical evidence presented to date is far too fragile to provide a basis for political decisions.
Positive attitudes towards priority setting in clinical guidelines among Danish general practitioners: A web based survey  [PDF]
Ann Nielsen, Benedicte Carlsen, Pia K. Kjellberg
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.52026

Aims: Increasing focus on improvement and optimisation of the treatment in primary care and reduction of healthcare costs emphasize the need to understand which factors determines adherence and non-adherence to clinical guidelines. In the present study, we examined attitudes towards clinical guidelines in Danish general practitioners (GPs). Methods: We conducted a survey among Danish GPs from all five regions of Denmark. In total, 443 GPs answered the web-based questionnaire that contained questions about attitudes and barriers to clinical guidelines. Results: More than 90% of the GPs reported that they have good knowledge of the guidelines and in general follows the guidelines. A majority of the GPs (81%) found it acceptable that economic considerations are part of the guidelines. The most important factors for non- adherence to guidelines were “need of adjustment to clinical practice” and “lack of confidence in guidelines”. The attitudes to clinical guidelines were not significantly associated with practice characteristics such as gender, years of experience, practice organisation and localisation. Conclusions: Our findings show that clinical guidelines are an integrated or internalised part of everyday practice among GPs in Denmark. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Danish GPs are positive towards applying priority setting in their practice. This is decisive in the light of rising healthcare costs due to development of new expensive technologies and ageing populations that puts pressure on the healthcare system in general and primary healthcare in particular.

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