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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1263 matches for " Berhan Solomon "
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Glaucoma awareness among people attending ophthalmic outreach services in Southwestern Ethiopia
Addis Tenkir, Berhan Solomon, Amare Deribew
BMC Ophthalmology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-10-17
Abstract: The main aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness of glaucoma among people attending outreach ophthalmic services.We conducted a cross-sectional survey in April 2009 of all people 40 years of age or older who presented during a two-week outreach service period in Agaro town, southwestern Ethiopia. Data on demographics and awareness of glaucoma were collected through face to face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire.340 people participated in the study. Their mean age was 54.5 (SD 10.6) years. About 43% were illiterates and 37.6% were farmers. Only eight people (2.4%) were aware of glaucoma. The association between awareness and attaining high school or better education was statistically significant (p < 0.0001).Awareness of glaucoma in this population is very low. An efficient information, education and communication (IEC) strategy needs to be designed to increase knowledge of the community about glaucoma so that early diagnosis and treatment of individuals with this condition may be possible.Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide [1]. Up to 50% of glaucoma patients are already blind in one eye at presentation in Africa including Ethiopia [2]. Eye health education that influences people to participate in regular ophthalmologic care may be an important step to detect glaucoma early, thereby preventing needless blindness. Not only can education and preventive eye care save needless suffering, it can also reduce the economic burden of the disease [3]. Subgroups of the population who are at highest risk both for developing the disease and having insufficient knowledge about it need to be identified and targeted in order to most effectively use resources for public education.The Department of Ophthalmology of Jimma University provides outreach ophthalmic activities in addition to regular services at its tertiary eye unit. The outreach activities include general eye health evaluation, refraction, trichiasis surgery and ca
Characterization of Friction Material Formulations for Brake Pads
Darius G. Solomon,Mohamad N. Berhan
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2007,
Abstract:
A Meta-Analysis on Higher-Risk Sexual Behavior of Women in 28 Third World Countries  [PDF]
Asres Berhan, Yifru Berhan
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.22011
Abstract: Background: Previous reports on sexual behaviours and risks of HIV infection in relation to socioeconomic status of women were contradictory. The purpose of this study was to determine the consistency of risky sexual behaviour among women with regard to their age, residence, educational level and wealth index. Methods: Subgroup and pooled meta-analysis was done on risky sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence of women aged 15 - 49 years using the recent Demographic and Health Surveys data (DHS 2003-2009) from 28 countries in and outside Africa. Pooled and individual countries odds ratios were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) statistical method. Random effect analytic model was applied since there was significant heterogeneity among surveys (I2 > 50%). Sensitivity analysis was also done to examine the effect of outliers. Results: Out of 207,776 women reported to have sex within 12 months prior to the respective surveys, 36,530 (17.6%) were practicing higher-risk sex. Risky sexual behavior was found to have statistically significant association with women living in urban areas, attained secondary and above education and owned middle to highest wealth index. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated the stability of the pooled odds ratios for outliers. Better education attainment, high wealth index and being employed were also associated with high HIV prevalence. Conclusion: This analysis has shown the high prevalence of higher-risk sexual behaviour and high HIV infection among wealthier and better educated women regardless of geographic location of the selected low to middle income countries. Further study is required to establish how and why being good in socioeconomic status associated with risky sexual behaviour.
Retinal Detachment in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital Based Prospective Study
Tsedeke Asaminew, Yeshigeta Gelaw, Sisay Bekele, Berhan Solomon
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075693
Abstract: Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5%) had retinal detachment (RD) and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5). Fourteen patients (17.5%) had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9%) were blind from RD and 11 (13.8%) patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5%) and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%). The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%), myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%), posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%). Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1%) were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%). Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9%) and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes) had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011), and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040). Conclusions A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma.
Is the Sexual Behaviour of HIV Patients on Antiretroviral therapy safe or risky in Sub-Saharan Africa? Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression
Asres Berhan, Yifru Berhan
AIDS Research and Therapy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-6405-9-14
Abstract: We included both cross-sectional studies that compared different ART-na?ve and ART-experienced participants and longitudinal studies examining the behavior of the same individuals pre- and post-ART start. Meta-analyses were performed both stratified by type of study and combined. Outcome variables assessed for association with ART experience were any sexual activity, unprotected sex and having multiple sexual partners. Random-effect models were applied to determine the overall odds ratios. Sub-group analyses and meta-regression analyses were performed to examine sources of heterogeneity among the studies. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted to evaluate the stability of the overall odds ratio in the presence of outliers.The meta-analysis failed to show a statistically significant association of any sexual activity with ART experience. It did, however, show an overall statistically significant reduction of any unprotected sex, having multiple sexual partners and unprotected sex with HIV negative or unknown HIV status with ART experience. Meta-regression showed no interaction between duration of ART use or recall period of sexual behavior with the sexual activity variables. However, there was an association between the percentage of married or cohabiting participants included in a study and reductions in the practice of unprotected sex with ART.In general, this meta-analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in risky sexual behavior among people on ART in sub-Saharan Africa. Future studies should investigate the reproducibility and continuity of the observed positive behavioural changes as the duration of ART lasts a decade or more.
Virologic Response to Tipranavir-Ritonavir or Darunavir-Ritonavir Based Regimens in Antiretroviral Therapy Experienced HIV-1 Patients: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials
Asres Berhan, Yifru Berhan
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060814
Abstract: Background The development of tipranavir and darunavir, second generation non-peptidic HIV protease inhibitors, with marked improved resistance profiles, has opened a new perspective on the treatment of antiretroviral therapy (ART) experienced HIV patients with poor viral load control. The aim of this study was to determine the virologic response in ART experienced patients to tipranavir-ritonavir and darunavir-ritonavir based regimens. Methods and Findings A computer based literature search was conducted in the databases of HINARI (Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative), Medline and Cochrane library. Meta-analysis was performed by including randomized controlled studies that were conducted in ART experienced patients with plasma viral load above 1,000 copies HIV RNA/ml. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for viral loads of <50 copies and <400 copies HIV RNA/ml at the end of the intervention were determined by the random effects model. Meta-regression, sensitivity analysis and funnel plots were done. The number of HIV-1 patients who were on either a tipranavir-ritonavir or darunavir-ritonavir based regimen and achieved viral load less than 50 copies HIV RNA/ml was significantly higher (overall OR = 3.4; 95% CI, 2.61– 4.52) than the number of HIV-1 patients who were on investigator selected boosted comparator HIV-1 protease inhibitors (CPIs-ritonavir). Similarly, the number of patients with viral load less than 400 copies HIV RNA/ml was significantly higher in either the tipranavir-ritonavir or darunavir-ritonavir based regimen treated group (overall OR = 3.0; 95% CI, 2.15 – 4.11). Meta-regression showed that the viral load reduction was independent of baseline viral load, baseline CD4 count and duration of tipranavir-ritonavir or darunavir-ritonavir based regimen. Conclusions Tipranavir and darunavir based regimens were more effective in patients who were ART experienced and had poor viral load control. Further studies are required to determine their consistent viral load suppression effect as the duration of treatment is more prolonged.
Predictors of Perinatal Mortality Associated with Placenta Previa and Placental Abruption: An Experience from a Low Income Country
Yifru Berhan
Journal of Pregnancy , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/307043
Abstract: A retrospective cohort study design was used to assess predictors of perinatal mortality in women with placenta previa and abruption between January 2006 and December 2011. Four hundred thirty-two women (253 with placenta previa and 179 with placental abruption) were eligible for analysis. Binary logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier survival curve, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used. On admission, 77% of the women were anaemic (<12?gm/dL) with mean haemoglobin level of 9.0?±?3.0?gm/dL. The proportion of overall severe anaemia increased from about 28% on admission to 41% at discharge. There were 50% perinatal deaths (neonatal deaths of less than seven days of age and fetal deaths after 28 weeks of gestation). In the adjusted odds ratios, lengthy delay in accessing hospital care, prematurity, anaemia in the mothers, and male foetuses were independent predictors of perinatal mortality. The haemoglobin level at admission was more sensitive and more specific than prematurity in the prediction of perinatal mortality. The proportion of severe anaemia and perinatal mortality was probably one of the highest in the world. 1. Introduction Placenta previa (placenta implanted over the internal cervical os) and placental abruption (premature separation of normally implanted placenta) are the major causes of antepartum haemorrhage in the third trimester of pregnancies and major contributors of obstetric haemorrhage in general [1]. Each of these conditions has a prevalence rate of 0.5% to 2% in most parts of the world [2–4]. Because of the changes in the lower uterine segment length and placental migration as the pregnancy advances, the prevalence of placenta previa has an inverse relation to the gestational age [5]. In other words, it is suggested that reporting of placenta previa in early gestation is likely to overestimate its actual prevalence at term. Placenta previa and placental abruption have long been recognized as major obstetric complications that result in maternal and fetal mortality as well as morbidity. The effect of these two bloody obstetric complications on perinatal health is multifactorial: blood loss, premature delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, the risk of perinatal asphyxia, the risk of sepsis, and hyperbilirubinemia [2, 6–8]. A Danish national cohort study was associated with an increased risk of neonatal mortality, prematurity, low Apgar scores, low birthweight, and transfer to a neonatal intensive care unit [9]. Several other studies from developing countries have also shown that pregnant women complicated by
In Vitro Screening of Cactus [Opuntia ficus-indicia (L.) Mill] Genotypes for Drought Tolerance  [PDF]
Berhan Mengesha, Firew Mekbib, Eyasu Abraha
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.713163
Abstract: Drought is one of the complex environmental factors affecting growth and yield of crops in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. In this context, this investigation was carried out to select drought tolerance cactus genotypes under in vitro condition. An experiment was carried out at Laboratory of Mekelle Agricultural Research Center, Northern Ethiopia. Six cactus pear genotypes namely, Gerao, Keyih Beles, Shenkor, Limo, Lemats Beles and Suluhna were used. Areoles were used as explants in tissue culture. The non-ionic water soluble polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 6000 was used as osmoticum to simulate water stress. In the first culture, the MS medium was supplemented with (2, 4-D (4 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l) for callus induction. In all cultures MS medium was supplemented with 0, 10, 20 and 40 g/l polyethylene glycol (PEG) and was solidified with 0.8% agar and 30 g of sucrose. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes, PEG levels. In the first culture highest number of explants initiated callus on medium supplemented with no PEG but had not shown significant difference with 10 g/l PEG. At 10 g/l PEG, the callus induction frequency, callus fresh weight and plantlet regeneration were recorded highest for Suluhna (83.3%, 5.5 g and 63.3%), respectively. At 40 g/l PEG, callus induction frequency, callus fresh weight and plantlet regeneration were produced highest for Suluhna (41.7%, 2.75 g and 45%), respectively but no significant difference with Gerao, Limo and
Perinatal mortality and associated risk factors: a case control study
Getachew Bayou, Yifru Berhan
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality is reported to be five times higher in developing than in developed nations. Little is known about the commonly associated risk factors for perinatal mortality in Southern Nations National Regional State of Ethiopia. METHODS: A case control study for perinatal mortality was conducted in University hospital between 2008 and 2010. Cases were stillbirths and early neonatal deaths. Controls were those live newborns till discharged from the hospital. Subgroup binary logistic regression analyses were done to identify associated risk factors for perinatal mortality, stillbirths and early neonatal deaths. RESULTS: A total of 1356 newborns (452 cases and 904 controls) were included in this analysis. The adjusted perinatal mortality rate was 85/1000 total delivery. Stillbirths accounted for 87% of total perinatal mortality. The proportion of hospital perinatal deaths was 26%. Obstructed labor was responsible for more than one third of perinatal deaths. Adjusted odds ratios revealed that obstructed labor, malpresentation, preterm birth, antepartum hemmorrhage and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were independent predictors for high perinatal mortality. In the subgroup analysis, among others, obstructed labor and antepartum hemorrhage found to have independent association with both stillbirths and early neonatal deaths. CONCLUSION: The perinatal mortality rate was more than two fold higher than the estimated national perinatal mortality;and obstructed labor, malpresentation, preterm birth, antepartum hemmorrhage and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were independent predictors. The reason for the poor progress of labor and developing obstructed labor is an area of further investigation.
Extracranial hemorrhage in babies admitted to neonatal units over a 10-year period
Yifru Berhan, Assaye Kassie
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2004,
Abstract:
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