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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7781 matches for " Benjamin Unger "
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Influences on the Marking of Examinations  [PDF]
Christina Bermeitinger, Benjamin Unger
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.52014
Abstract:

In the present work, we examined a phenomenon highly relevant in the educational field for assessing or judging performance, that is, the question how the second examiner’s marking is influenced by the evaluation of the first examiner. This phenomenon is known as anchoring in cognitive psychology. In general, in anchoring effects numeric information (i.e., the anchor) pulls estimations or judgments towards the anchor. One domain which is highly important in real life has been investigated only occasionally, that is, the marking of examinations. In three experiments, participants were asked to evaluate a written assignment. The mark (either good or bad) of a ficticious first examiner was used as the anchor. We found clear anchoring effects that were unaffected by feedback in a preceding task (positive, neutral, negative) or the expert status of the presumed first examiner. We discussed the problems related to this effect.

On the Size of the Resonant Set for the Products of 2x2 Matrices
Jeffrey Allen,Benjamin Seeger,Deborah Unger
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: For {\theta} \in [0, 2{\pi}), consider the rotation matrix R? and h = ({\lambda}, 0; 0, 0), {\lambda} > 1. Let W_n({\theta}) denote the product of m R?'s and n h's with the condition m \leq [\epsilon\astn], (0 < \epsilon < 1). We analyze the measure of the set of {\theta} for which ||W_n({\theta})|| \geq {\lambda}?^(n*{\delta}), (0 < {\delta} < 1). This can be regarded as a model problem for the so-called Bochi-Fayad conjecture.
A phase I radiation dose escalation of stereotactic body radiotherapy for malignant lung tumors  [PDF]
Randi J. Cohen, Navesh K. Sharma, Jian Q. (Michael) Yu, Lu Wang, Mark K. Buyyounouski, Michael Unger, Hossein Borghaei, Earl King, Walter Scott, Elaine Callahan, Benjamin J. Movsas, Steven J. Feigenberg
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.34048
Abstract: Objectives: This Phase I study determines the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods: Eli- gible patients had biopsy proven cancer with a maxi- mum tumor size ≤ 5 cm. Total doses were escalated from 40 to 48, then to 56 Gy, delivered in 4 equal fractions administered 2 to 3 times per week on an IRB approved protocol. SBRT was administered us- ing 5 to 9 fixed beam arrangements with CT loca- lization. Internal target volumes (ITV) were based on breath hold scans or 4D CT simulation. The planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the ITV with a uniform 5 mm expansion. Dose limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as any grade 3 or higher toxicity using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) common toxicity criteria (CTC). Results: Between April 2004 and February 2008, 18 patients received the prescribed treatment (40 Gy n = 6, 48 Gy n = 7, 56 Gy n = 5). Seventeen of 18 patients had non-small cell lung cancer (1 with rectal cancer), four of whom were treated for an oligometastasis. The median age of the patients was 68, while the median Karnofsky performance status was 90. The mean tumor size was 2.6 cm (range 0.9 to 4.5 cm). One grade 3 pulmonary event occurred (at 48 Gy dose level) immediately following treatment with the onset of fever and shortness of breath that responded to antibiotics. No other DLTs occurred. Conclusions: SBRT utilizing patient specific target volumes without gating appears safe. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached.
SESENTA A?OS DE LA LEY FUNDAMENTAL ALEMANA - DE UN PROVISORIO CON UNA LARGA VIDA
Unger,Mark;
Estudios constitucionales , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-52002009000200012
Abstract: intended as an interim solution the german constitution, the basic law, has been in force for sixty years. having gained reputation on a national and international level this article analyzes the emergence and development of the basic law, the reason for its success, the role of the federal constitutional court and its contemporary status.
Uncovering undetected hypoglycemic events
Unger J
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S29367
Abstract: covering undetected hypoglycemic events Review (4519) Total Article Views Authors: Unger J Published Date March 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 57 - 74 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S29367 Received: 21 December 2011 Accepted: 08 February 2012 Published: 08 March 2012 Jeff Unger Catalina Research Institute, Chino, CA, USA Abstract: Hypoglycemia is the rate-limiting factor that often prevents patients with diabetes from safely and effectively achieving their glycemic goals. Recent studies have reported that severe hypoglycemia is associated with a significant increase in the adjusted risks of major macrovascular events, major microvascular events, and mortality. Minor hypoglycemic episodes can also have serious implications for patient health, psychological well being, and adherence to treatment regimens. Hypoglycemic events can impact the health economics of the patient, their employer, and third-party payers. Insulin treatment is a key predictor of hypoglycemia, with one large population-based study reporting an overall prevalence of 7.1% (type 1 diabetes mellitus) and 7.3% (type 2 diabetes mellitus) in insulin-treated patients, compared with 0.8% in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with an oral sulfonylurea. Patients with type 1 diabetes typically experience symptomatic hypoglycemia on average twice weekly and severe hypoglycemia once annually. The progressive loss of islet cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes results in a higher risk of both symptomatic and unrecognized hypoglycemia over time. Patients with diabetes who become hypoglycemic are also more susceptible to developing defective counter-regulation, also known as hypoglycemia awareness autonomic failure, which is life-threatening and must be aggressively addressed. In patients unable to recognize hypoglycemia symptoms, frequent home monitoring or use of continuous glucose sensors are critical. Primary care physicians play a key role in the prevention and management of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes, particularly in those requiring intensive insulin therapy, yet physicians are often unaware of the multitude of consequences of hypoglycemia or how to deal with them. Careful monitoring, adherence to guidelines, and use of optimal treatment combinations are all important steps toward improving care in patients with diabetes. The most important goals are for primary care physicians to recognize that every patient treated with antihyperglycemic medications is at risk of iatrogenic hypoglycemia and to ask patients about hypoglycemia at every visit.
Insulin initiation and intensification in patients with T2DM for the primary care physician
Unger J
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S14653
Abstract: sulin initiation and intensification in patients with T2DM for the primary care physician Review (4857) Total Article Views Authors: Unger J Published Date June 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 253 - 261 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S14653 Jeff Unger Catalina Research Institute, Chino, CA, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by both insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion. All patients with the disease require treatment to achieve and maintain the target glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) level of 6.5%–7%. Pharmacological management of T2DM typically begins with the introduction of oral medications, and the majority of patients require exogenous insulin therapy at some point in time. Primary care physicians play an essential role in the management of T2DM since they often initiate insulin therapy and intensify regimens over time as needed. Although insulin therapy is prescribed on an individualized basis, treatment usually begins with basal insulin added to a background therapy of oral agents. Prandial insulin injections may be added if glycemic targets are not achieved. Treatments may be intensified over time using patient-friendly titration algorithms. The goal of insulin intensification within the primary care setting is to minimize patients' exposure to chronic hyperglycemia and weight gain, and reduce patients' risk of hypoglycemia, while achieving individualized fasting, postprandial, and A1C targets. Simplified treatment protocols and insulin delivery devices allow physicians to become efficient prescribers of insulin intensification within the primary care arena.
Was bedeutet Adoleszenz, und wie kann man sie erforschen? What does Adolescence Mean, and How to Best Study It?
Susanne Unger
querelles-net , 2003,
Abstract: Vera Kings Buch besch ftigt sich mit der Frage, wie die Adoleszenz in westlichen modernisierten Gesellschaften am besten theoretisch zu verstehen und zu untersuchen sei. In ihrer Analyse der Bedeutung und des Verlaufs der Adoleszenz berücksichtigt King stets die unterschiedlichen Bedingungen und Faktoren, welche auf die Adoleszenz einwirken, so u.a. die Generationszugeh rigkeit, Geschlecht und sozialer Hintergrund bzw. soziale Ungleichheit. W hrend sich der erste Teil des Buches mit wissenschaftsgeschichtlichen und methodologischen Fragen zur Adoleszenzforschung befasst, stellt King im zweiten Teil konkrete Analysen zu drei Schwerpunktthemen vor: Familie, K rperbedeutungen und Peer Group in der Adoleszenz. Vera King’s book investigates how adolescence in Western modernised societies can best be conceived of and investigated. In her analysis of the meaning of adolescence and the processes which constitute it, King consistently takes into consideration the varying conditions and factors which influence adolescence such as, cohort, gender, and social inequality. Part I of the book deals with the history of science and methodological questions in the research on adolescence. In Part II, King analyses the role of family, of the body, and of peer groups during adolescence.
Uncovering undetected hypoglycemic events
Unger J
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy , 2012,
Abstract: Jeff UngerCatalina Research Institute, Chino, CA, USAAbstract: Hypoglycemia is the rate-limiting factor that often prevents patients with diabetes from safely and effectively achieving their glycemic goals. Recent studies have reported that severe hypoglycemia is associated with a significant increase in the adjusted risks of major macrovascular events, major microvascular events, and mortality. Minor hypoglycemic episodes can also have serious implications for patient health, psychological well being, and adherence to treatment regimens. Hypoglycemic events can impact the health economics of the patient, their employer, and third-party payers. Insulin treatment is a key predictor of hypoglycemia, with one large population-based study reporting an overall prevalence of 7.1% (type 1 diabetes mellitus) and 7.3% (type 2 diabetes mellitus) in insulin-treated patients, compared with 0.8% in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with an oral sulfonylurea. Patients with type 1 diabetes typically experience symptomatic hypoglycemia on average twice weekly and severe hypoglycemia once annually. The progressive loss of islet cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes results in a higher risk of both symptomatic and unrecognized hypoglycemia over time. Patients with diabetes who become hypoglycemic are also more susceptible to developing defective counter-regulation, also known as hypoglycemia awareness autonomic failure, which is life-threatening and must be aggressively addressed. In patients unable to recognize hypoglycemia symptoms, frequent home monitoring or use of continuous glucose sensors are critical. Primary care physicians play a key role in the prevention and management of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes, particularly in those requiring intensive insulin therapy, yet physicians are often unaware of the multitude of consequences of hypoglycemia or how to deal with them. Careful monitoring, adherence to guidelines, and use of optimal treatment combinations are all important steps toward improving care in patients with diabetes. The most important goals are for primary care physicians to recognize that every patient treated with antihyperglycemic medications is at risk of iatrogenic hypoglycemia and to ask patients about hypoglycemia at every visit.Keywords: hypoglycemia, insulin analogs, type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus
Insulin initiation and intensification in patients with T2DM for the primary care physician
Unger J
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy , 2011,
Abstract: Jeff UngerCatalina Research Institute, Chino, CA, USAAbstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by both insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion. All patients with the disease require treatment to achieve and maintain the target glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) level of 6.5%–7%. Pharmacological management of T2DM typically begins with the introduction of oral medications, and the majority of patients require exogenous insulin therapy at some point in time. Primary care physicians play an essential role in the management of T2DM since they often initiate insulin therapy and intensify regimens over time as needed. Although insulin therapy is prescribed on an individualized basis, treatment usually begins with basal insulin added to a background therapy of oral agents. Prandial insulin injections may be added if glycemic targets are not achieved. Treatments may be intensified over time using patient-friendly titration algorithms. The goal of insulin intensification within the primary care setting is to minimize patients' exposure to chronic hyperglycemia and weight gain, and reduce patients' risk of hypoglycemia, while achieving individualized fasting, postprandial, and A1C targets. Simplified treatment protocols and insulin delivery devices allow physicians to become efficient prescribers of insulin intensification within the primary care arena.Keywords: diabetes, basal, bolus, regimens, insulin analogs, structured glucose testing
Preclinical and Clinical Effects of RAS Inhibition with a Focus on Telmisartan
Thomas Unger
ISRN Vascular Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/712047
Abstract:
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