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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7499 matches for " Benjamin Crookston "
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Technology for health: A qualitative study on barriers to using the iPad for diet change  [PDF]
Cameron Lister, Joshua H. West, Rickelle Richards, Benjamin Crookston, Parley Cougar Hall, Alisha H. Redelfs
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.54101

Emergence of tablet computers has led to interest in their use to impact health-related behaviors of users. However, little is known regarding which devices are most effective for changing these behaviors, and whether or not these devices or accompanying applications (apps) are feasible or desired vehicles for behavior change. Four focus groups were conducted with students from a Western university who were given iPads to download diet-related apps. Participants were asked questions about preferences regarding iPad functionality, app functionality, and the likelihood of using apps and iPads for facilitating diet-related behavior change in the future. Two key themes emerged from focus group discussions on diet-related apps for iPads and their usefulness to facilitate behavior change. The first theme, lack of iPad practicality, contained three subthemes: inconvenient mid-way technology, internet access barriers, and smart-phone preference. The second theme that emerged was attitudes towards apps in general. Three subthemes were identified under the second theme: too intensive; positive functions not specific to iPads; and lack of reliable/trustworthy information. This paper is the first, to this author’s knowledge, to report the use of qualitative methods to study the practicality of using apps and iPads in changing dietrelated behaviors. Early generations of iPads may not be effective devices for facilitating behavior change among college students; and diet-related apps seem to have poor functionality that lead to cessation of use.

Using Teacher Goal Boards to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among Elementary Students  [PDF]
P. Cougar Hall, Josh H. West, Benjamin T. Crookston, Yvonne Allsop
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.711159
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and understand the potential impact on elementary students’ perceptions of, and intentions related to, healthy eating and physical activity when their classroom teacher sets and shares goals related to these health behaviors. Methods: Participants in this study included 16 teachers and 229 students of grades 3 - 6 at a large elementary school in the Western United States. Participating students were surveyed before and after a six-week intervention conducted by classroom teachers that consisted of a weekly displaying of Teacher Goal Boards in a prominent classroom location and sharing of goals set for the week. Teacher reports of the previous week’s goals occurred each Monday prior to sharing and posting of new goals for the new week. Results: Respondents reported significantly higher post-test values for over half of pre-post comparisons. Respondents were more likely to intend to be physically active (post = 52.6% vs. pre = 39.0%, p = 0.003), to eat nutritious foods (52.0% vs. 36.4%, p = 0.001), and to maintain a healthy body weight (62.8% vs. 52.2%, p = 0.022). Similar results were found for summary measures. Intention to be physically active, to eat healthy, to maintain a healthy weight, as well as descriptive norms for physical activity and perception and value of personal health behaviors were all significantly higher at post-test. Discussion: This study and its findings are significant because teacher participants were able to significantly and positively impact on students’ behavioral intent, subjective norms, and perception and value of personal health behaviors amongst students without spending additional time on formal health promotion and education instruction. Conclusion: Schools should incentivize and encourage faculty and staff to engage in a variety of health behaviors to improve both personal health outcomes and role model health behaviors for students.
Factors Associated with Accessing ICDS Services among Women in Rural Rajasthan, India  [PDF]
Siena F. Davis, Hannah E. Payne, Cassidy A. Hine, Bobbi L. Gray, Benjamin T. Crookston
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.1010098
Abstract: Background: The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme, launched in 1975 by the Government of India, provides various health services to children and their mothers at ICDS centres. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to understand 1) the extent to which women living in Rajasthan, India utilize services provided by ICDS centres and 2) the factors that are associated with their use. Methods: Freedom from Hunger and Freedom from Hunger India Trust, in collaboration with two local partners in Rajasthan, India, conducted a baseline assessment with 403 pregnant women and women with young children belonging to self-help groups to compare use of ICDS centres with key demographic variables and measures of poverty, food security and nutrition, curative care related to diarrhea, coping strategies, and household decision-making. Results: The results revealed that households that accessed ICDS services were more likely to report receiving nutrition information from ICDS centres, to purchase ORS in the last year, and to give oral rehydration solution (ORS) to children who had diarrhea. Women who decide how much food to serve each family member or spend money without discussing it first with someone else were more likely to receive benefits from ICDS centres. Those who spoke with their spouse about household nutrition needs were less likely to report accessing ICDS services. Conclusion: Interventions aimed at increasing utilization of ICDS centres in this region may find it beneficial to increase female participation in health care decisions, likely through spousal communication and gender relations.
Stunting-Related Knowledge: Exploring Sources of and Factors Associated with Accessing Stunting-Related Knowledge among Mothers in Rural Indonesia  [PDF]
Joshua West, Ahmad Syafiq, Benjamin Crookston, Cudjoe Bennett, Muhamad R. Hasan, Kirk Dearden, Mary Linehan, Cougar Hall, Scott Torres
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.109096
Abstract: Background: Stunting in young children continues to be a major concern in developing country settings, including middle income countries like Indonesia. Early intervention is critical to prevent increased morbidity and mortality, lower cognitive functioning, and diminished productivity in adulthood. Mothers may benefit from knowledge and information related to stunting causes and effects. Indonesia has readily adopted a variety of platforms, which are now being used to disseminate health information. The purpose of this study was to address two related research questions: 1) What are the primary sources of Indonesian mothers’ stunting-related knowledge? 2) What factors are associated with using these various platforms to access stunting-related information? Method: Mothers (n = 745) responded to questions about demographics and the source of stunting knowledge, which included hospitals, the Internet, midwives, posyandu (community health posts), and puskesmas (public health centers). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mothers’ reported use of the three most common sources to acquire information about stunting, including posyandu, puskesmas and the Internet. Results: Eighty percent of mothers in this study sample used posyandu, 31.7% puskesmas, and 16.9% used the Internet as a source for stunting-related knowledge. For the three most common sources, factors associated with each included not accessing the other sources. Conclusions: Indonesian mothers are using a variety of platforms and services to acquire information about stunting. These sources are different one from another and each may be an important resource for disseminating health information, especially outside of urban centers. Results from this study may help to identify characteristics of Indonesian mothers who could benefit from acquiring stunting-related information in these formats. Each of these sources of information appears to be utilized by different groups of mothers. This is an important finding as it suggests that each may continue to be a resource for mothers that might not otherwise access stunting information. The Indonesian health system in rural settings has a history of support for posyandu and puskesmas. Moving forward, the Internet may also be used to improve outcomes for children of mothers that do not access information through these more traditional means.
Addressing Communications Campaign Development Challenges to Reduce Stunting in Indonesia  [PDF]
Cougar Hall, Ahmad Syafiq, Benjamin Crookston, Cudjoe Bennett, Muhamad R. Hasan, Mary Linehan, Joshua West, Scott Torres, Kirk Dearden
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.1012133
Abstract: One in four children under 5 years of age in the developing world are stunted (chronically malnourished). Reducing stunting can be a challenge, especially in populous countries where families are dispersed, as is the case in Indonesia. This paper describes how one government project (Indonesia’s National Nutrition Communication Campaign [NNCC]) delivered effective behavior change communications interventions that reached 40 million people. This paper focuses on four challenges that nutrition campaigns often face and provides useful lessons for similar campaigns, based on the experience of NNCC, which include the following: 1) Fully engaging stakeholders at all levels in campaign design and implementation ensured broad-based support for stunting reduction efforts; 2) Pro-actively involving journalists in nutrition campaigns improved public opinion about stunting and positively influenced decision-making in policy formulation; 3) Use of humorous public service announcements with limited technical information was effective in engaging priority populations; and 4) Social media (YouTube ads, web advertorials, Facebook pages, Twitter, Instagram) extended the campaign’s reach and reinforced messaging from other sources. Based on NNCC’s experience, specific recommendations are provided.
Who sleeps under bednets in Ghana? A doer/non-doer analysis of malaria prevention behaviours
Natalie De La Cruz, Benjamin Crookston, Kirk Dearden, Bobbi Gray, Natasha Ivins, Stephen Alder, Robb Davis
Malaria Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-61
Abstract: Data come from the baseline component of an evaluation of Freedom from Hunger's malaria curriculum. A quasi-experimental design was used to select clients (n = 516) of Credit with Education (an integrated package of microfinance and health education) and non-clients (n = 535). Chi-squares, Fisher's Exact tests and logistic regression were used to compare the characteristics of mothers whose children use bednets (doers) with those whose children do not (non-doers) and to identify factors associated with bednet use among children less than five years of age.The following factors were most closely associated with bednet use: region of residence; greater food security; and caregivers' beliefs about symptoms, causation and groups most vulnerable to malaria. Most respondents knew mosquitoes caused malaria; however, 20.6% of doers and 12.3% of non-doers (p = .0228) thought overworking oneself caused malaria. Ninety percent of doers and 77.0% of non-doers felt that sleeping under a net was protective against malaria (p = .0040). In addition, 16.5% of doers and 7.5% of non-doers (p = .0025) identified adult males as most vulnerable to malaria.Greater knowledge about malaria does not always translate into improved bednet use. Though culturally-based ideas about malaria may vary between communities, integrating them into traditional health education messages may enhance the effectiveness of public health efforts.Malaria threatens the lives of 3.2 billion people globally and leads to over one million deaths annually [1]. Malaria is hyper-endemic in Ghana, accounting for 44% of outpatient attendance, 13% of all hospital deaths, and 22% of mortality among children less than five years of age [1,2]. Though malaria is responsible for 9% of overall mortality in Ghana, at least 40% of malaria deaths occur among infants and children under the age of five [3].The Roll Back Malaria campaign emphasizes the use of insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) which are effective in reducing human co
Perceptions of Body Mass Index as a Valid Indicator of Weight Status among Adults in the United States  [PDF]
Brenden E. Garrett, Joshua H. West, Benjamin T. Crookston, P. Cougar Hall
Health (Health) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/health.2019.115049
Abstract: Background: Being overweight or obese increases risk for heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, joint disease, and certain cancers. The Body Mass Index (BMI) is commonly used to determine weight status. As rates of overweight and obesity have risen sharply in the United States over the past 30 years, perceptions of a “normal” or healthy weight are subject to change. The purpose of this study was to analyze perceptions of BMI as an indicator of weight status. Methods: An online survey was administered to 376 US adults. The survey collected demographic information including height, weight, and perceived weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight and obese). The survey software calculated and presented participants with their personal BMI values. Participants then answered questions about their perception of the BMI as a valid indicator of weight status. Results: More participants reported a healthy weight status (51.6%) than were classified as such according to their computed BMI (43.6%). The majority of the sample (85.1%) considered BMI to be a valid indicator of weight status, although perceptions of validity varied by weight status. Participants that perceived BMI to be invalid most commonly cited incongruence with one’s perception of their own body weight, no accounting for unique body shapes, and no accounting for additional muscle mass. Conclusion: BMI is generally perceived to be a valid indicator of weight status. These perceptions of validity can vary depending on the individuals’ actual weight status. In instances where perceptions are not favorable toward BMI, it is largely attributable to opinions of incongruence with BMI and body shape, type, or composition. Continued use of BMI as a preliminary tool for determining weight status appears to be accepted. Efforts to increase BMI-related awareness and education may be necessary for individuals that currently see it as invalid.
Teens in trouble: cigarette use and risky behaviors among private, high school students in La Paz, Bolivia
Dearden,Kirk A.; Crookston,Benjamin T.; De La Cruz,Natalie G.; Lindsay,Gordon B.; Bowden,Ali; Carlston,Liz; Gardner,Paul;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892007000800002
Abstract: objective: to describe the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to identify risky behaviors associated with smoking among adolescents attending high schools in a district of la paz, bolivia. methods: the youth risk behavior survey was administered to a sample of 394 males and 182 females, from 13-18 years of age, at six, randomly-selected schools in district ii of la paz. frequencies, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were employed to identify factors associated with cigarette use during the 30 days prior to the survey. results: approximately 40% of the sample (39.4% of males and 33.7% of females) had smoked cigarettes in the 30 days prior to interview. for both males and females, consumption of alcohol was the single greatest risk factor associated with cigarette use. the males and females who reported consuming at least one alcoholic beverage on three or more occasions in the previous 30 days were 22.3 and 58.5 times (95% cis: 6.7, 74.1 and 6.8, 502.6, respectively) more likely to smoke tobacco than those who reported no alcohol consumption. additional risk factors included having participated in a physical fight, having carried a weapon, having had sexual intercourse, and having used illicit drugs during the previous 30 days. conclusions: because teenagers who smoke are also likely to engage in a variety of other risky behaviors, parents, school administrators, and health educators may wish to use smoking to identify at-risk individuals. among bolivian teenagers, interventions should focus on preventing cigarette use and associated risk behaviors.
Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Factors Associated with Child Illness in Tanzania  [PDF]
Marco Verdeja, Kendra Thomas, Gina Dorsan, Megan Hawks, Kirk Dearden, Nancy Stroupe, Taylor Hoj, Josh West, Benjamin Crookston, Mangi Ezekial, Cougar Hall
Health (Health) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/health.2019.116066
Abstract: Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are critical to ensuring health and preventing disease in Tanzania where approximately one-third of childhood deaths are related to poor hygiene. This study explored associations between WASH practices and childhood illness. Data came from a cross-sectional survey of 5000 female caregivers living in the Lake Zone region of Tanzania. Measures included self-reported presence of fever, diarrhea, cough and various WASH factors. Multiple logistic regressions were used. Thirty-seven percent of children experienced fever, 26% diarrhea, and 11% cough in the previous two weeks. Unimproved toilets were positively associated with fever (OR 1.25, CI 1.03 - 1.53, p < 0.05) and animal enclosures were negatively associated with diarrhea (OR 0.76, CI 0.61 - 0.96, p < 0.05). Unsafe disposal of a child’s stool was associated with both fever (OR 0.77, CI 0.67 - 0.89, p < 0.05) and diarrhea (OR 1.18, CI 1.0 - 1.38, p < 0.05). Eating soil was associated with both fever (OR 2.02, CI 1.79 - 2.29, p < 0.05) and diarrhea (OR 2.23, CI 1.95 - 2.57, p < 0.05). Eating chicken feces was associated with both fever (OR 2.07, CI 1.66 - 2.58, p < 0.05) and diarrhea (OR 2.38, CI 1.9 - 2.98, p < 0.05). Water shortages were associated with fever (OR 1.21, CI 1.07 - 1.36, p < 0.05) and cough (OR 1.48, CI 1.22 - 1.81, p < 0.05). Policy makers and program designers should consider increasing access to water and sanitation to improve children’s health.
Plasma Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein-2 Concentrations Are Associated with Malaria Severity and Mortality in Tanzanian Children
Matthew P. Rubach, Jackson Mukemba, Salvatore Florence, Bernard John, Benjamin Crookston, Bert K. Lopansri, Tsin W. Yeo, Kim A. Piera, Stephen C. Alder, J. Brice Weinberg, Nicholas M. Anstey, Donald L. Granger, Esther D. Mwaikambo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035985
Abstract: Plasma Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) concentrations, a measure of parasite biomass, have been correlated with malaria severity in adults, but not yet in children. We measured plasma PfHRP-2 in Tanzanian children with uncomplicated (n = 61) and cerebral malaria (n = 45; 7 deaths). Median plasma PfHRP-2 concentrations were higher in cerebral malaria (1008 [IQR 342–2572] ng/mL) than in uncomplicated malaria (465 [IQR 36–1426] ng/mL; p = 0.017). In cerebral malaria, natural log plasma PfHRP-2 was associated with coma depth (r = ?0.42; p = 0.006) and mortality (OR: 3.0 [95% CI 1.03–8.76]; p = 0.04). In this relatively small cohort study in a mesoendemic transmission area of Africa, plasma PfHRP-2 was associated with pediatric malaria severity and mortality. Further studies among children in areas of Africa with higher malaria transmission and among children with different clinical manifestations of severe malaria will help determine the wider utility of quantitative PfHRP-2 as a measure of parasite biomass and prognosis in sub-Saharan Africa.
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