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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 817 matches for " Bengt Hansson "
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Effectiveness of Mental Health First Aid Training in Sweden. A Randomized Controlled Trial with a Six-Month and Two-Year Follow-Up
Bengt Svensson, Lars Hansson
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100911
Abstract: Background According to a recent report from the European Brain Council and the European Colleague of Neuropsychopharmacology the one year prevalence of some kind of mental disorder is around 27% among the adult population in Europe. Research has shown a lack of mental health literacy in the population in general and it is thus important to find ways to improve the public's knowledge and skills to provide first hand support to people with mental disorders. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is a training program that has shown positive changes in knowledge and helping behavior. This study investigates if MHFA training in a Swedish context provides a sustained improvement in knowledge about mental disorders, a better ability to be helpful in contacts with people who are ill and if it changes attitudes in a positive direction. Methods and Findings The introduction of the training program was made in accordance with the constructor's instructions. Participants were mainly public sector employees from a county in the west of Sweden. The study was a randomized controlled trial with an experiment group (n = 199) and a control group (n = 207) placed on a waiting list during a 6-month follow-up. A two-year follow-up was conducted for participants (n = 155) from both the intervention and waiting list group who had completed the training and during the follow-up been in contact with persons with mental disorders. The intervention group improved in knowledge as well as in confidence in providing help for someone in need. The two-year follow-up showed that the improvements were to a great extent maintained. Conclusions Mental Health First Aid might raise the level of awareness of mental disorders and have an influence on the number of people who can receive professional treatment for their problems.
Experiences of rejection by mental health patients— A qualitative study  [PDF]
Bertil Lundberg, Pia Lundqvist, Lars Hansson, Elisabet Wentz, Bengt Sivberg
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.510211
Abstract:

Background and aim: People suffering from mental illness and their experiences of attitudes towards them are rarely investigated from the perspective of the individual. The aim was to gain an understanding of how a group of mental health patients experienced social relationships in personal settings as well as in society. Method: Open interviews with twenty-five mental health patients were conducted and analysed with a qualitative content analysis. Result: The essence of the result was that mental health patients’ experiences are still not taken enough into account, neither by mental health professionals nor by their social networks. This was underpinned by four core categories: Patients’ experience of deteriorated and reduced social contacts due to various degrees of acceptance and knowledge of people in general; service users reported on difficulties with social contacts in general, with family relationships, relationships with friends and workmates and with employers; reduced life opportunities were expressed, including violated self-image and poor coping competence and, ambivalent experiences of contact with the mental health services were reported. Conclusion and clinical implication: The present study contributes to the understanding of mental health patients’ experiences of professional services and of their social networks. This knowledge may strengthen the implications of patient-centred care essential for the outcome of the care.

Sex-Biased Gene Expression on the Avian Z Chromosome: Highly Expressed Genes Show Higher Male-Biased Expression
Sara Naurin, Dennis Hasselquist, Staffan Bensch, Bengt Hansson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046854
Abstract: Dosage compensation, the process whereby expression of sex-linked genes remains similar between sexes (despite heterogamety) and balanced with autosomal expression, was long believed to be essential. However, recent research has shown that several lineages, including birds, butterflies, monotremes and sticklebacks, lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation mechanisms and do not completely balance the expression of sex-linked and autosomal genes. To obtain further understanding of avian sex-biased gene expression, we studied Z-linked gene expression in the brain of two songbirds of different genera (zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, and common whitethroat, Sylvia communis) using microarray technology. In both species, the male-bias in gene expression was significantly higher for Z than for autosomes, although the ratio of Z-linked to autosomal expression (Z:A) was relatively close to one in both sexes (range: 0.89–1.01). Interestingly, the Z-linked male-bias in gene expression increased with expression level, and genes with low expression showed the lowest degree of sex-bias. These results support the view that the heterogametic females have up-regulated their single Z-linked homologues to a high extent when the W-chromosome degraded and thereby managed to largely balance their Z:A expression with the exception of highly expressed genes. The male-bias in highly expressed genes points towards male-driven selection on Z-linked loci, and this and other possible hypotheses are discussed.
Postglacial Colonisation Patterns and the Role of Isolation and Expansion in Driving Diversification in a Passerine Bird
Bengt Hansson, Dennis Hasselquist, Maja Tarka, Pavel Zehtindjiev, Staffan Bensch
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002794
Abstract: Pleistocene glacial cycles play a major role in diversification and speciation, although the relative importance of isolation and expansion in driving diversification remains debated. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequence data from 15 great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) populations distributed over the vast Eurasian breeding range of the species, and revealed unexpected postglacial expansion patterns from two glacial refugia. There were 58 different haplotypes forming two major clades, A and B. Clade A dominated in Western Europe with declining frequencies towards Eastern Europe and the Middle East, but showed a surprising increase in frequency in Western and Central Asia. Clade B dominated in the Middle East, with declining frequencies towards north in Central and Eastern Europe and was absent from Western Europe and Central Asia. A parsimonious explanation for these patterns is independent postglacial expansions from two isolated refugia, and mismatch distribution analyses confirmed this suggestion. Gene flow analyses showed that clade A colonised both Europe and Asia from a refugium in Europe, and that clade B expanded much later and colonised parts of Europe from a refugium in the Middle East. Great reed warblers in the eastern parts of the range have slightly paler plumage than western birds (sometimes treated as separate subspecies; A. a. zarudnyi and A. a. arundinaceus, respectively) and our results suggest that the plumage diversification took place during the easterly expansion of clade A. This supports the postglacial expansion hypothesis proposing that postglacial expansions drive diversification in comparatively short time periods. However, there is no indication of any (strong) reproductive isolation between clades and our data show that the refugia populations became separated during the last glaciation. This is in line with the Pleistocene speciation hypothesis invoking that much longer periods of time in isolation are needed for speciation to occur.
Estimating Heritabilities and Genetic Correlations: Comparing the ‘Animal Model’ with Parent-Offspring Regression Using Data from a Natural Population
Mikael ?kesson, Staffan Bensch, Dennis Hasselquist, Maja Tarka, Bengt Hansson
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001739
Abstract: Quantitative genetic parameters are nowadays more frequently estimated with restricted maximum likelihood using the ‘animal model’ than with traditional methods such as parent-offspring regressions. These methods have however rarely been evaluated using equivalent data sets. We compare heritabilities and genetic correlations from animal model and parent-offspring analyses, respectively, using data on eight morphological traits in the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus). Animal models were run using either mean trait values or individual repeated measurements to be able to separate between effects of including more extended pedigree information and effects of replicated sampling from the same individuals. We show that the inclusion of more pedigree information by the use of mean traits animal models had limited effect on the standard error and magnitude of heritabilities. In contrast, the use of repeated measures animal model generally had a positive effect on the sampling accuracy and resulted in lower heritabilities; the latter due to lower additive variance and higher phenotypic variance. For most trait combinations, both animal model methods gave genetic correlations that were lower than the parent-offspring estimates, whereas the standard errors were lower only for the mean traits animal model. We conclude that differences in heritabilities between the animal model and parent-offspring regressions were mostly due to the inclusion of individual replicates to the animal model rather than the inclusion of more extended pedigree information. Genetic correlations were, on the other hand, primarily affected by the inclusion of more pedigree information. This study is to our knowledge the most comprehensive empirical evaluation of the performance of the animal model in relation to parent-offspring regressions in a wild population. Our conclusions should be valuable for reconciliation of data obtained in earlier studies as well as for future meta-analyses utilizing estimates from both traditional methods and the animal model.
Hybridization but No Evidence for Backcrossing and Introgression in a Sympatric Population of Great Reed Warblers and Clamorous Reed Warblers
Bengt Hansson, Maja Tarka, Deborah A. Dawson, Gavin J. Horsburgh
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031667
Abstract: Hybridization is observed frequently in birds, but often it is not known whether the hybrids are fertile and if backcrossing occurs. The breeding ranges of the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) and the clamorous reed warbler (A. stentoreus) overlap in southern Kazakhstan and a previous study has documented hybridization in a sympatric population. In the present study, we first present a large set of novel microsatellite loci isolated and characterised in great reed warblers. Secondly, we evaluate whether hybridization in the sympatric breeding population has been followed by backcrossing and introgression. We isolated 181 unique microsatellite loci in great reed warblers. Of 41 loci evaluated, 40 amplified and 30 were polymorphic. Bayesian clustering analyses based on genotype data from 23 autosomal loci recognised two well-defined genetic clusters corresponding to the two species. Individuals clustered to a very high extent to either of these clusters (admixture proportions ≥0.984) with the exception of four previously suggested arundinaceus–stentoreus hybrid birds that showed mixed ancestry (admixture proportions 0.495–0.619). Analyses of simulated hybrids and backcrossed individuals showed that the sampled birds do not correspond to first–fourth-generation backcrosses, and that fifth or higher generation backcrosses to a high extent resemble ‘pure’ birds at this set of markers. We conclude that these novel microsatellite loci provide a useful molecular resource for Acrocephalus warblers. The time to reach reproductive isolation is believed to be very long in birds, approximately 5 Myrs, and with an estimated divergence time of 2 Myrs between these warblers, some backcrossing and introgression could have been expected. However, there was no evidence for backcrossing and introgression suggesting that hybrids are either infertile or their progeny inviable. Very low levels of introgression cannot be excluded, which still may be an important factor as a source of new genetic variation.
Innovation Barriers and Enablers that Affect Productivity in Uganda Building Industry
Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe, , and,Kristian Widén,Jackson Mwakali,Bengt Hansson
Journal of Construction in Developing Countries , 2007,
Abstract: The construction industry has of recent been blamed for lack of innovation. Lack of innovation in the industry is believed to be responsible for the decreasing or stagnant levels of productivity in comparison with other industries. This paper reviews the major barriers and enablers to innovation in general. Propositions were made about the factors that affect innovation in the construction industry which were then formulated into a questionnaire. A survey was made on building contractors in Uganda, a developing country, targeting those with financial strength, large in size, and with high capacity to carry out big projects. The identified factors were then ranked and correlated. The level of training in science, engineering and technical education, and the level of research and development at the industry level are looked at as the greatest innovation enablers in building that will drive forward labour productivity. The size of the domestic market and the level of security are the worst innovation barriers that lead to low productivity in the building industry in Uganda. Contractors, policy makers and the government should address the identified factors in order to improve productivity.
Ancestral polymorphism at the major histocompatibility complex (MHCII ) in the Nesospiza bunting species complex and its sister species (Rowettia goughensis)
van Rensburg Alexandra,Bloomer Paulette,Ryan Peter G,Hansson Bengt
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-12-143
Abstract: Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is an important component of the vertebrate immune system and is frequently used to characterise adaptive variation in wild populations due to its co-evolution with pathogens. Passerine birds have an exceptionally diverse MHC with multiple gene copies and large numbers of alleles compared to other avian taxa. The Nesospiza bunting species complex (two species on Nightingale Island; one species with three sub-species on Inaccessible Island) represents a rapid adaptive radiation at a small, isolated archipelago, and is thus an excellent model for the study of adaptation and speciation. In this first study of MHC in Nesospiza buntings, we aim to characterize MHCII variation, determine the strength of selection acting at this gene region and assess the level of shared polymorphism between the Nesospiza species complex and its putative sister taxon, Rowettia goughensis, from Gough Island. Results In total, 23 unique alleles were found in 14 Nesospiza and 2 R. goughensis individuals encoding at least four presumably functional loci and two pseudogenes. There was no evidence of ongoing selection on the peptide binding region (PBR). Of the 23 alleles, 15 were found on both the islands inhabited by Nesospiza species, and seven in both Nesospiza and Rowettia; indications of shared, ancestral polymorphism. A gene tree of Nesospiza MHCII alleles with several other passerine birds shows three highly supported Nesospiza-specific groups. All R. goughensis alleles were shared with Nesospiza, and these alleles were found in all three Nesospiza sequence groups in the gene tree, suggesting that most of the observed variation predates their phylogenetic split. Conclusions Lack of evidence of selection on the PBR, together with shared polymorphism across the gene tree, suggests that population variation of MHCII among Nesospiza and Rowettia is due to ancestral polymorphism rather than local selective forces. Weak or no selection pressure could be attributed to low parasite load at these isolated Atlantic islands. The deep divergence between the highly supported Nesospiza-specific sequence Groups 2 and 3, and the clustering of Group 3 close to the distantly related passerines, provide strong support for preserved ancestral polymorphism, and present evidence of one of the rare cases of extensive ancestral polymorphism in birds.
Risk-factors for stress-related absence among health care employees: a bio-psychosocial perspective. Associations between self-rated health, working conditions and biological stress hormones
Ann-Sophie Hansson,Bengt B. Arnetz,Ingrid Anderzn
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.2427/5918
Abstract: Background: Stress is a major cause of sickness absence and the health care sector appears to be especially at risk. This cross sectional study aimed to identify the risk factors for absence due to self-reported stress among health care employees. Methods: 225 health care employees were categorized into two groups based on presence or not of self-rated sickness absence for stress. Questionnaire data and stress sensitive hormones measurements were used. Results: Employees with stress related sick leave experienced worse health, poorer work satisfaction as well as worse social and home situations than those employees without stress-related sick leave. No-significant differences were identified regarding stress-sensitive hormones. The risk for employees, not satisfied at work, of becoming absent due to stress was approximately three fold compared to those who reported being satisfied (OR 2.8, 95% confidence interval; (CI) 1.3 - 5.9). For those not satisfied with their social situation, the risk for sickness absence appeared to be somewhat higher (OR 3.2; CI 1.2 - 8.6). Individual factors such as recovery potential and meaning of life as well as work related factors such as skill development and work tempo predicted employee’ s work satisfaction. Conclusions: Based on cross sectional data, work-site and individual factors as well as social situations appear to increase the risk for absence due to stress among health care employees. Lower recovery potential, higher work tempo and poor leadership appeared to be related to the high degree of work related exhaustion experienced by employees.
Individual Identification and Genetic Variation of Lions (Panthera leo) from Two Protected Areas in Nigeria
Talatu Tende, Bengt Hansson, Ulf Ottosson, Mikael ?kesson, Staffan Bensch
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084288
Abstract: This survey was conducted in two protected areas in Nigeria to genetically identify individual lions and to determine the genetic variation within and between the populations. We used faecal sample DNA, a non-invasive alternative to the risky and laborious task of taking samples directly from the animals, often preceded by catching and immobilization. Data collection in Yankari Game Reserve (YGR) spanned through a period of five years (2008 –2012), whereas data in Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP) was gathered for a period of three years (2009, 2010 and 2012). We identified a minimum of eight individuals (2 males, 3 females, 3 unknown) from YGR and a minimum of ten individuals (7 males, 3 females) from KLNP. The two populations were found to be genetically distinct as shown by the relatively high fixation index (FST = 0.17) with each population exhibiting signs of inbreeding (YGR FIS = 0.49, KLNP FIS = 0.38). The genetic differentiation between the Yankari and Kainji lions is assumed to result from large spatial geographic distance and physical barriers reducing gene flow between these two remaining wild lion populations in Nigeria. To mitigate the probable inbreeding depression in the lion populations within Nigeria it might be important to transfer lions between parks or reserves or to reintroduce lions from the zoos back to the wild.
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