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This paper presents an approach for extending the constraint model defined for conformity testing of a given method of class to its overriding method in subclass using inheritance principle. The first objective of the proposed work is to find the relationship between the test model of an overriding method and its overridden method using the constraint propagation. In this context the approach shows that the test cases developed for testing an original method can be used for testing its overriding method in a subclass and then the number of test cases can be reduced considerably. The second objective is the use of invalid data which do not satisfy the precondition constraint and induce valid output values for introducing a new concept of test called secure testing. The implementation of this approach is based on a random generation of test data and analysis by formal proof.
In this paper we propose a new class of ternary Zero Correlation Zone (ZCZ) sequence sets based on binary ZCZ sequence sets construction. It is shown that the proposed ternary ZCZ sequence sets can reach the upper bound on the ZCZ sequences. The performance of the proposed sequences set in asynchronous Direct Sequence-Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) system is evaluated. In the simulation we used two types of channels: Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and frequency non-selective fading with AWGN noise. The proposed ternary ZCZ sequence sets show better results, in term of Bit Error Rate (BER), than Hayashi’s ternary ZCZ sequence sets.
This paper describes a novel energy-aware multi-hop cluster-based
fault-tolerant load balancing hierarchical routing protocol for a
self-organizing wireless sensor network (WSN), which takes into account the
broadcast nature of radio. The main idea is using hierarchical fuzzy soft
clusters enabling non-exclusive overlapping clusters, thus allowing
partial multiple membership of a node to more than one cluster, whereby for
each cluster the clusterhead (CH) takes in charge intra-cluster issues of
aggregating the information from nodes members, and then collaborate and
coordinate with its related overlapping area heads (OAHs), which are elected
heuristically to ensure inter-clusters communication. This communication is
implemented using an extended version of time-division multiple access (TDMA)
allowing the allocation of several slots for a given node, and alternating the
role of the clusterhead and its associated overlapping area heads. Each cluster
head relays information to overlapping area heads which in turn each relays it to
other associated cluster heads in related clusters, thus the information
propagates gradually until it reaches the sink in a multi-hop fashion.
Short Retraction Notice
The paper does not meet the standards of \"Journal of Water Resource and Protection\".
This article has been retracted to straighten the academic record. In making this decision the Editorial Board follows COPE's Retraction Guidelines. The aim is to promote the circulation of scientific research by offering an ideal research publication platform with due consideration of internationally accepted standards on publication ethics. The Editorial Board would like to extend its sincere apologies for any inconvenience this retraction may have caused.
Editor guiding this retraction: Prof. Dr. Jian Shen (EiC of JWARP).
The full retraction notice in PDF is preceding the original paper which is marked \"RETRACTED\".