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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8895 matches for " Ben Willing "
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Lactobacillus reuteri Maintains a Functional Mucosal Barrier during DSS Treatment Despite Mucus Layer Dysfunction
Johan Dicksved, Olof Schreiber, Ben Willing, Joel Petersson, Sara Rang, Mia Phillipson, Lena Holm, Stefan Roos
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046399
Abstract: Treatment with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri has been shown to prevent dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. This is partly due to reduced P-selectin-dependent leukocyte- and platelet-endothelial cell interactions, however, the mechanism behind this protective effect is still unknown. In the present study a combination of culture dependent and molecular based T-RFLP profiling was used to investigate the influence of L. reuteri on the colonic mucosal barrier of DSS treated rats. It was first demonstrated that the two colonic mucus layers of control animals had different bacterial community composition and that fewer bacteria resided in the firmly adherent layer. During DSS induced colitis, the number of bacteria in the inner firmly adherent mucus layer increased and bacterial composition of the two layers no longer differed. In addition, induction of colitis dramatically altered the microbial composition in both firmly and loosely adherent mucus layers. Despite protecting against colitis, treatment with L. reuteri did not improve the integrity of the mucus layer or prevent distortion of the mucus microbiota caused by DSS. However, L. reuteri decreased the bacterial translocation from the intestine to mesenteric lymph nodes during DSS treatment, which might be an important part of the mechanisms by which L. reuteri ameliorates DSS induced colitis.
Metabolomics Reveals Metabolic Biomarkers of Crohn's Disease
Janet Jansson, Ben Willing, Marianna Lucio, Ages Fekete, Johan Dicksved, Jonas Halfvarson, Curt Tysk, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006386
Abstract: The causes and etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) are currently unknown although both host genetics and environmental factors play a role. Here we used non-targeted metabolic profiling to determine the contribution of metabolites produced by the gut microbiota towards disease status of the host. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (ICR-FT/MS) was used to discern the masses of thousands of metabolites in fecal samples collected from 17 identical twin pairs, including healthy individuals and those with CD. Pathways with differentiating metabolites included those involved in the metabolism and or synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, bile acids and arachidonic acid. Several metabolites were positively or negatively correlated to the disease phenotype and to specific microbes previously characterized in the same samples. Our data reveal novel differentiating metabolites for CD that may provide diagnostic biomarkers and/or monitoring tools as well as insight into potential targets for disease therapy and prevention.
A new Method to determine the Anaerobic Degradability of surfactants: the AnBUSDiC test
Thomas Bendt, Andreas Willing
Environmental Sciences Europe , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2190-4715-24-38
Estimates of Genetic Differentiation Measured by FST Do Not Necessarily Require Large Sample Sizes When Using Many SNP Markers
Eva-Maria Willing, Christine Dreyer, Cock van Oosterhout
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042649
Abstract: Population genetic studies provide insights into the evolutionary processes that influence the distribution of sequence variants within and among wild populations. FST is among the most widely used measures for genetic differentiation and plays a central role in ecological and evolutionary genetic studies. It is commonly thought that large sample sizes are required in order to precisely infer FST and that small sample sizes lead to overestimation of genetic differentiation. Until recently, studies in ecological model organisms incorporated a limited number of genetic markers, but since the emergence of next generation sequencing, the panel size of genetic markers available even in non-reference organisms has rapidly increased. In this study we examine whether a large number of genetic markers can substitute for small sample sizes when estimating FST. We tested the behavior of three different estimators that infer FST and that are commonly used in population genetic studies. By simulating populations, we assessed the effects of sample size and the number of markers on the various estimates of genetic differentiation. Furthermore, we tested the effect of ascertainment bias on these estimates. We show that the population sample size can be significantly reduced (as small as n = 4–6) when using an appropriate estimator and a large number of bi-allelic genetic markers (k>1,000). Therefore, conservation genetic studies can now obtain almost the same statistical power as studies performed on model organisms using markers developed with next-generation sequencing.
Genetic variability and differentiation in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L) of Central Europe
GB Hartl, F Reimoser, R Willing, J K?ller
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1991, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-23-4-281
Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Wheat-based Diets Supplemented with Combinations of Non-extruded or Extruded Canola, Flax and Peas
P.A. Thacker,B. P. Willing,V. J. Racz
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the potential of various combinations of flax, canola and peas to replace soybean meal in diets fed to broiler chicks and to determine whether the extrusion process is beneficial in improving the nutritive value of these protein sources. A total of 210-day old, male broiler chicks (Ross-308 line) weighing an average of 45.3?0.6 g were randomly assigned to one of seven dietary treatments for a 21-day experiment. There were five birds per pen and six pens per treatment. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal while the six experimental diets contained 25% extruded or non-extruded combinations of flax and peas (50:50; Linpro?), canola and peas (50:50; Extrapro?) or canola, flax and peas (25:25:50; Flexipro?), added at the expense of wheat and soybean meal. Chromic oxide (0.35%) was added to all diets as a digestibility marker. Digestibility coefficients for dry matter were significantly (p<0.05) lower for the diets containing either extruded or non-extruded Linpro, Extrapro and Flexipro in comparison with the soybean meal diet. Digestibility coefficients for energy and protein followed a similar trend although they were only significantly (p<0.05) lower for the non-extruded Linpro and Extrapro diets as well as both extruded and non-extruded Flexipro. These reductions in digestibility are likely a reflection of the higher neutral detergent fibre content of the diets containing Linpro, Extrapro and Flexipro. With the exception of the digestibility coefficient for crude protein for the Flexipro diet, extrusion significantly (p<0.05) increased the digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein and gross energy for Linpro, Extrapro and Flexipro. This indicates that in addition to the higher fiber content, there are additional anti-nutritional factors contained in these ingredients reducing digestibility and that these factors appear to be heat labile. With the exception of birds fed raw Linpro, the weight gain of birds fed any of the experimental diets did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from that of birds fed soybean meal. Feed intake was also unaffected by dietary treatment. All three products when fed in raw form significantly depressed feed conversion but the depression was overcome by extrusion. In conclusion, extrusion of blends of full-fat flax, canola and peas significantly increased digestibility coefficients for dry matter and energy and resulted in significant improvements in feed conversion compared with non-extruded blends. Use of these products may provide poultry producers with a mechanism to increase the omega-3 fatty acid content of poultry meat thereby catering to the needs of the health conscious consumer.
Pre-conditioning induces the precocious differentiation of neonatal astrocytes to enhance their neuroprotective properties
Ellora Sen,Anirban Basu,Lisa B Willing,Tracy F Uliasz
ASN Neuro , 2011, DOI: 10.1042/an20100029
Abstract: Hypoxic preconditioning reprogrammes the brain's response to subsequent H/I (hypoxia–ischaemia) injury by enhancing neuroprotective mechanisms. Given that astrocytes normally support neuronal survival and function, the purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a hypoxic preconditioning stimulus would activate an adaptive astrocytic response. We analysed several functional parameters 24 h after exposing rat pups to 3 h of systemic hypoxia (8% O2). Hypoxia increased neocortical astrocyte maturation as evidenced by the loss of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein)-positive cells with radial morphologies and the acquisition of multipolar GFAP-positive cells. Interestingly, many of these astrocytes had nuclear S100B. Accompanying their differentiation, there was increased expression of GFAP, GS (glutamine synthetase), EAAT-1 (excitatory amino acid transporter-1; also known as GLAST), MCT-1 (monocarboxylate transporter-1) and ceruloplasmin. A subsequent H/I insult did not result in any further astrocyte activation. Some responses were cell autonomous, as levels of GS and MCT-1 increased subsequent to hypoxia in cultured forebrain astrocytes. In contrast, the expression of GFAP, GLAST and ceruloplasmin remained unaltered. Additional experiments utilized astrocytes exposed to exogenous dbcAMP (dibutyryl-cAMP), which mimicked several aspects of the preconditioning response, to determine whether activated astrocytes could protect neurons from subsequent excitotoxic injury. dbcAMP treatment increased GS and glutamate transporter expression and function, and as hypothesized, protected neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity. Taken altogether, these results indicate that a preconditioning stimulus causes the precocious differentiation of astrocytes and increases the acquisition of multiple astrocytic functions that will contribute to the neuroprotection conferred by a sublethal preconditioning stress.
Metal domain size dependent electrical transport in Pt-CdSe hybrid nanoparticle monolayers
Michaela Meyns,Svenja Willing,Hauke Lehmann,Christian Klinke
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b01221
Abstract: Thin films prepared of semiconductor nanoparticles are promising for low-cost electronic applications such as transistors and solar cells. One hurdle for their breakthrough is their notoriously low conductivity. To address this, we precisely decorate CdSe nanoparticles with platinum domains of one to three nanometers in diameter by a facile and robust seeded growth method. We demonstrate the transition from semiconductor to metal dominated conduction in monolayered films. By adjusting the platinum content in such solution-processable hybrid, oligomeric nanoparticles the dark currents through deposited arrays become tunable while maintaining electronic confinement and photoconductivity. Comprehensive electrical measurements allow determining the reigning charge transport mechanisms.
R2: Information or Noise? Textual Analysis Based on SSE E-Interaction  [PDF]
Ben Wang
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.72054
Abstract: The question whether R2 represents information or noise is still a fundamental question in the study of stock price synchronicity. There are two main difficulties. Firstly, the trait information of a company is hard to measure; Secondly, the investors’ sophistication is ignored when we discuss the effectiveness of market. Through the study of Chinese SSE E-interaction platform and the measurement by textual analysis method, this article argues that the improvement of investors’ sophistication has negative association with stock price synchronicity. This result is more salient in companies with lower opacity or with higher corporate governance. This paper contributes to the deepen understanding of stock price synchronicity and new method of measuring trait information of companies.
Altering Host Resistance to Infections through Microbial Transplantation
Benjamin P. Willing, Anjalee Vacharaksa, Matthew Croxen, Teerawat Thanachayanont, B. Brett Finlay
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026988
Abstract: Host resistance to bacterial infections is thought to be dictated by host genetic factors. Infections by the natural murine enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (used as a model of human enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli infections) vary between mice strains, from mild self-resolving colonization in NIH Swiss mice to lethality in C3H/HeJ mice. However, no clear genetic component had been shown to be responsible for the differences observed with C. rodentium infections. Because the intestinal microbiota is important in regulating resistance to infection, and microbial composition is dependent on host genotype, it was tested whether variations in microbial composition between mouse strains contributed to differences in “host” susceptibility by transferring the microbiota of resistant mice to lethally susceptible mice prior to infection. Successful transfer of the microbiota from resistant to susceptible mice resulted in delayed pathogen colonization and mortality. Delayed mortality was associated with increased IL-22 mediated innate defense including antimicrobial peptides Reg3γ and Reg3β, and immunono-neutralization of IL-22 abrogated the beneficial effect of microbiota transfer. Conversely, depletion of the native microbiota in resistant mice by antibiotics and transfer of the susceptible mouse microbiota resulted in reduced innate defenses and greater pathology upon infection. This work demonstrates the importance of the microbiota and how it regulates mucosal immunity, providing an important factor in susceptibility to enteric infection. Transfer of resistance through microbial transplantation (bacteriotherapy) provides additional mechanisms to alter “host” resistance, and a novel means to alter enteric infection and to study host-pathogen interactions.
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